butterfly effect
idea that a small effect or thing can have s large impact if it happens to tip the balance, causing other changes that create a major event.
a group of people who were born at about the same time and thus move through life together, experiencing the same historical events and cultural shifts.
Socio economic status– person’s position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence and other factors.
ethnic group
ancestral connection.
genetic distinction based on physical appearance.
social construction
an idea built more on shared perceptions than on objective reality. Many age related terms, such as childhood, adolescence, yuppies, and senior citizens are social constructions.
mirror neurons
brain cells that respond to actions preformed by someone else as if they were doing it themselves.
scientific method
a way to answer questions that require empirical research and data based conclusions.
scientific prediction stated in a way that it can be tested and either confirmed or refuted.
repetition of scientific study, using the same procedures on a similar (but not identical) group of participants, in order to verify, refine or dispute the original study’s conclusions.
scientific observation
method of testing a hypothesis by unobtrusively watching and recording participants behavior in a systemic and objective manner, either in a laboratory or in a natural setting.
a research method in which the researcher tries to determine the cause and effect relationship between 2 variable by manipulating independent variable and observing and recording results in dependent variable. …
Independent variable
variable introduced to see what effect it has on dependent variable
dependent variable
variable that may change as a result of whatever new condition or situation the experimenter adds. Dependent variable depends on independent variable.
experimental group
A group of participants in a research study who experience some special treatment or condition (the independent variable).
Comparison/control group
similar group that DO NOT experience the independent variable.
developmental theory
systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for studying and explaining development
grand theories
Psychoanalytic, Behaviorism (learning theory), Cognitive
-grand in that they are…
-Comprehensive — describe universal processes and development throughout the entire life span
mini theories
focus on a specific topic
emergent theories
Theories that bring together information from many disciplines in addition to psychology and that are becoming comprehensive and systematic in their interpretations of development but are not yet established and detailed enough to be considered grand theories.
psychoanalytic theory
A theory developed by Freud that attempts to explain personality, motivation, and mental disorders by focusing on unconscious determinants of behavior
learning theory
Proposes that all behaviour is learned rather than inborn. Learned either through classical or operant conditioning.
classical conditioning
conditioning that pairs a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that evokes a reflex
the cognitive domains of development include:
perception, thinking and language.
Changes in height weight and bone thickness are part of the ________ domain.
Pychosocial development focuses primarily on personality, emotions and:
relationships with others.
The ecological model of developmental psychology focuses on the:
overall environment of development.
Researchers who take a life span perspective on development focus on:
sources of continuity, sources of discontinuity and non linear character of human development.
During the 60’s american society tilted towards a youth culture. This is a vivid example of the effect of ______________ on society.
the baby boom cohort
define hypothesis:
prediction to be tested.
developmentalist who is interested in studying the influences of a person’s immediate environment on his or her behavior is focusing on which system?
determination of socio economic status is :
income, education and occupation.
disadvantage of experiments can be:
people may behave differently in the artificial environment than in the lab.
In an experiment testing the effects of group size on individual effort in a tug of war task, the number of people in each group is the:
independent variable.
which research method would be most appropriate for investigating the relationship between parents religious beliefs and their attitudes towards middle school sex education class:
the survey.
in which type of community are children generally valued most highly as economic assets:
developing agricultural communities.
developmentalist who carefully observe the behavior of school children during recess are using what research method?
naturalistic observation.
An individuals context of development refers to his or her:
micro-sytem, meso-system, exo-system, and macro system.
Important fact of the 3 domains
important at every age, interact in influencing developement.
People often mistakenly believe that most developmental changes
originate within each indiviudual.
According to the ecological model the macrosystem would include:
cultural values, political beliefs.
macro system
· It includes the ideologies, attitudes, mores , customs, and laws of a particular culture which influences the child
· It includes a core of educational , economic, religious, political and social values.
micro system
Immediate everyday environment where there is face to face relationships (parents or school environment.
meso system
in the ecological perspective on human development, the layer of he environment formed by two or more immediate settings, as in the home-school linkage.
exo system
in the ecological perspective on human development the layer of the environment that does not direclty contain the devleoping person but that affects the settings in which the person lives.
The effects of a person’s family life on his or her development would be classified as part of the:
A cohort is defined as a group of people:
born within a few years of each other.
Lifespan view— 5 decades ago the poorest people were the ______. Today the poorest are the____________.
Old, young.
In differentiating ethnicity and culture we note that:
people of many ethnic groups can share one culture yet maintain their ethnic identities.
If developementalist discovered that poor people are happier than wealthy people are, this would indicate that wealth and happiness are:
negatively correlated
The plasticity of development refers to the fact that:
human characteristics can be molded into different forms and shapes.
In an experiment testing the effects of noise level on mood, mood is the:
The dependent variable.
Lifespan view—- An important factor in the impact of living in poverty on development is:
The presence of supportive relationships with in the family.
What can be considered true in regards to race and ethnicity:
ethnicity is determined genetically.
research study comparing people of different ages at the same time:
concerned with physical growth and development:
bio-social domain
collection of people who share certain attributes like national origin:
ethnic group
shared values attitudes and customs
concerned with thought process:
cognitive domain
manipulated variable in an experiment:
independent variable
concerned with emotions, personality traits and relationships:
psycho-social domain
variable measured in an experiment:
dependent variable.
retesting one group of people at several different times:
longitudinal study
Dr. Wong conducts research on the psycho-social domain of development. She is most likely to be interested in a child’s:
A psychologist who focuses on the connection between a child’s home and school environments is interested primarily in the child’s:
meso system
Jamal is writing a paper on the role of the social context in development. He would do well to consult the workings of
Urie Bronfenbrenner.
Dr. Ramirez looks at human development in terms of the individuals supporting ecosystems. Evidently Dr. Ramirez subscribes to the _______model.
For her class project, Shelly decides to write a paper on how neighborhood and community structures influence the family. She cleverly titles her paper:
“The exo-system in action”
When researchers find that the results of a study are statistically significant, this means that:
it is unlikely they could have occurred by chance.
When we say that the idea of old age as we know it is a “social construction” we are saying that:
the idea is built on the shared perceptions of members of society.
As compared with parents in developing countries, middle class american parents emphasize cognitive and social stimulation in their child rearing efforts because:
they do not have to be as concerned with infant mortality.
Karen’s mother is puzzled by the numerous discrepancies between the developmental psychology text book she used in 1976 and her daughters new text. The differences are a result of:
changing social conditions and cohort effects.
If height and body weight are positively correlated this means that?
knowing a person’s height can predict his or her weight
An example of longitudinal research would be when an investigator compare the performance of:
the same group of people, at different ages, on a test of memory.
For her developmental psychology research project Lakia decides she wants to focus primarily no qualitative data. You advise her to conduct what type of research:
case study.
What is not a major controversy in the study of development?
Individual vs. society
What would be a good description of the relationship between heredity and the environment in height determination?
Heredity directs the individuals potential and environment determines whether and to what extent the potential is realized.
Research studies of mono zygotic twins who were raised apart suggests that:
virtually every human trait id affected by both genes and environment.
Males with fragile x system are:
frequently retarded.
disorders that are______ are most likely to pass undetected from generation to generation.
recessive and multifactorial.
The effect of a gene on a particularly physical characteristic depends on whether the gene comes from the mother or the father this is called:
genetic imprinting.
Dizygotic twins result when:
two eggs are fertilized by different sperm.
Molecule in DNA that in humans are organized into 23 complementary pairs are called:
Shortly after the Zygote is formed, it begins the process of duplication and division. Each resulting new cell has:
the same number of chromosomes as was contained in the zygote.
If an ovum is fertilized by a sperm bearing a Y chromosome:
a male will development.
When the male cells in the testes and the female cells in the ovaries divide to produce gametes, the process differs from that in the production of all other cells. As a result of the different process, the gametes have
one rather than both members of each chromosome pair.
most human traits are:
polygenic and multifactorial.
The genes that influence height and skin color interact according to the _____________ pattern.
genotype is to phenotype as________ is to ___________.
genetic potential, physical expression.
X-linked recessive genes explain why some traits seem to be passed from:
mother to son
The international effort to map the complete human genetic code is complicated by the fact that:
some genes appear in several different versions.
Before their first child was born Jack and Diane decided that they should be karyotyped which means what:
their chromosomes were photographed.
Which of the following is an inherited abnormality that quite possibly could develop into a recognizable syndrome.
A person inherits an x- chromosome in which part of the chromosome is attached to the rest of it by a very slim string of molecules.
Some men are color blind because they inherit a particular recessive gene from their mother. That recessive gene is carried on the:
X chromosome
If your mother is taller than your father, it is most likely that your height will be:
between your mothers and fathers because of genetic imprinting.
If dizygotic twins develop schizophrenia the likelihood of the other twin experiencing mental illness is much lower than it is with monozygotic twins– this suggests:
schizophrenia is INFLUENCED by genes
A persons skin turns yellow orange as a result of a carrot juice diet, this is an example of:
environmental influence
The personality trait of inhibition shyness seems to be partly genetic. A child who inherits the genes for shyness will be shy:
if the environment does not encourage greater sociability.
If a man carries a recessive gene for cystic fibrosis and his wife does not, chance of having a child with this disease are:
One of the best ways to distinguish the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on behavior is to compare children who have:
same genes but different environments, i.e. monozygotic twins.
In the case of identical twins reared apart:
most psychological characteristics and personal traits are genetically AND environmentally influenced
Lifespan view- Laurie and Brad, who both have a history of alcoholism in their families are concerned that the child they hope to have will inherit the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Based on the text what info would you give them?
Social influences such as family and peer environment play a critical role in determining whether alcoholism is expressed.
16 year old Joey experiences some mental slowness and hearing and heart problems, yet he is able to care for himself and is unusually sweet tempered. Joey probably has:
down syndrome
Genetically Claude’s height is 6 ft. He did not receive a balanced diet however he grew to 5’9″. Claude’s actual height is an example of:
Winona inherited a gene from her mother that, regardless of her Father’s contribution to her genotype will be expressed in her phenotype. Evidently the gene Winona received from her mother is a____________ gene.
A total of all genes a person inherits his or her genetic potential.
expression of said genes after interaction with the environment.
cluster of distinct characteristics that tend to occur together in a given disorder.
affected by many genes
affected by many factors
The purpose of developmental theory is to:
provide abroad coherent view of development, guide parents teachers, therapists, generate testable hypothesis.
Which developmental theory emphasizes the influence of unconscious drives and motives on behavior?
Erikson’s psychosocial theory of human development describes:
eight crisis all people are thought to face.
Which theory does not belong
psychoanalytic sociocultural
learning cognitive
sociocultural the others are all grand theories.
explained complex human behavior in terms of ope rant conditioning:
B.F. Skinner
Pavlov’s dogs salivating at the sound of a bell
classical conditioning
Nature vs. nurture considers:
heredity vs. experience
Modeling is an integral part of learning theory because:
involves peoples patterning their behaviors after that of others.
Which developmental theory suggests that each person is born with genetic possibilities that must be nurtured for growth?
epigentic systems
Vygotsky’s theory has been criticized for neglecting:
the role of genes in guiding development.
Sequence of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development:
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
When an individual existing understanding no longer fits his or her present experiences the result is
in explaining the grand theories of of homosexuality what is emphasized:
nurture over nature
Developmental theorists criticized for suggesting all children in every culture in every nation pass through certain fixed stages:
Piaget, Freud and Erickson
Does not describe Freudian stage:
We are most likely to imitate the behavior of others if we particularly admire and identify with them. This belief finds expression in:
social learning theory
How do mini theories differ from grand theories?
mini theories ARE NOT comprehensive they only explain part of development
According to Erikson an adult that has difficulty establishing a secure, mutual relation ship with a life partner might have never resolved the crisis of:
trust vs. mistrust
Who would likely agree with the statement that “anything” can be learned?
John Watson
Classical conditioning is to _________ as operrant conditioning is to _______________.
Pavlov, Skinner
Learning theorists have found that they can often solve a person’s seemingly complex psychological problem by
altering the environment
According to Paiget, an infant 1st comes to know the world through:
sucking and grasping
According to Paiget, the stage of cognitive development that generally characterizes pre-school children 2-6 is the:
preoperational stage
Piagets theory cognitive equilibrium refers to:
a state of mental balance
A child who must modify an old idea in order to incorporate a new experience is using the process of:
Which of the following is a common critisism of socio cultural theory?
it negelcts developemental processes that are not primarily social
A major pioneer of sociocultural perspective was:
Lev Vygotsky
Many songbirds inherit a genetically programmed species song that enhances their ability to mate and establish territory. The evolution of such a trait is an example of:
selective adaptation
When a pigeon is rewarded for producing a particular response and so learns to produce that response to obtain rewards psychologist describe the chain of events as
operant conditioning
Research studies have shown that humans handling rat pups makes them smarter as adults. This is because handling:
increases mothers grooming, decreases stress hormones, leads to less brain degeneration
Dr. Ivey’s research focuses on the biological forces that shape each child’s characteristic way of reacting to environmental experiences. What perspective is Dr. Ivey working from?
An example of guided participation?
To help her son learn to pour liquids, Sandra engages him in bathtub games involving pouring water from cups of different sizes.
A child who calls all furry animals “doggie”will experience cognitive ________ when she encounters a hairless breed for the first time. This may cause her to revamp her concept of “dog” in order to _____ the new experience.
disequilibrium, accommodate
A confirmed neo-freudian, Dr. Thomas strongly endorses the views of Erik Erikson. She would be most likely to disagree with Freud regarding the importance of:
sexual urges in development
After watching several older children climbing around a new jungle gym, 5 year old Jennie decides to try it herself. Which of the following best accounts for her behavior?
I am 8 years old although I understand some logical principles, I have trouble thinking about hypothetical concepts. According to Paiget, I am in the _______ stage of development.
concrete operational
Two year old jamal has a simple understanding for “Dad” and so he each time he encounters a man with a child he calls him “dad”. When he learns that these men are not “dad” Jamal experiences:
Most adults become psychologically aroused at the sound a an infant’s laughter. These interactive reactions, in which caregivers and babies elicit responses in each other.
help ensure the survival of the next generation
The school psychologist believes that each child’s developmental needs can be understood only by taking into consideration the child’s broader social and cultural background. Evidently the school psychologist is working within the ___________perspective.
Dr. Cleaver’s developmental research draws upon insights from several theoretical perspectives. Evidently, Dr. Cleaver is working from and _________ perspective.
4 year old Bjorn takes great pride in successfully undertaking new activities. Erikson would probably say that Bjorn is capably meeting the psychosocial challenge of:
initiative vs. guilt
Dr. Bazzi believes that development is a lifelong process of gradual and continuous growth. Based on this information which theory ifs Dr. Bazzi most likely to agree with?
Learning theory
the study of behavior as it relates to the evolution and survival of a species.
Which fetus is most likely to have serious prenatal damage?
a male who was born to a 15 year old mother undergoing tremendous amount of stress.
An apgar score of _________________ might indicate structural and functional problems?
3 or less
An infant born 266 days after conception weighing 4 lbs would be categorized.
low birth weight and small for gestational age
germinal period
1st two weeks
period of embroyo
3rd -8th week
period of fetus
9th through birth
science of human development
seeks to understand how and why people— all kinds of people, everywhere– change or remain the same over time.
means that it is based on data, on may experiences, on demonstrations and on facts.
dynamic systems theory
a view of human development as always changing.
ecological systems approach
a vision of how human development should be studied, with the person considered in all the contexts and interactions that constitute a life.
every individual and every trait within each individual, can be altered at any point in the life span. People can be molded yet they remain durable.
5 characteristics of development
multi directional, multi contextual, multi cultural, multi disciplinary, plasticity

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