The ground state is the normal electron configuration of atoms or ions in an element. When atoms or ions in ground state are heated to a higher temperature, some electrons absorb enough energy to move them to higher energy levels. This is known as the excited state. However, the excited configuration is unstable, and the electrons must return back to their positions in the lower energy level. As they return, the energy that was previously absorbed is now emitted in the form of electromagnetic energy. This energy can be displayed in the form of visible light.

The main purpose/objective of this lab was to observe the characteristic colors produced by certain metallic ions when they are vaporized in a flame. Another main objective of this lab was identifying the unknown metallic ions by means of flame tests. Materials: Please refer to pages 105-108 in the lab manual. Methods: To conduct this experiment please refer to pages 105-108 in the lab manual. Data: Please see the next page to look at the data table. Data Table Metallic IonColor in FlameIdentity of Ion Na+OrangeN/A K+OrangeN/A Li+Pink/redN/A Ca+2Neon orangeN/A Sr+2RedN/A Ba+2Yellow/orangeN/A Cu+2GreenN/A

Unknown ALight greenCu+2 Unknown BOrangeBa+2 Unknown CNeon orangeNa+/K+ Unknown DPink with a little shade of orangeSr+2 Unknown EReally vibrant orangeCa+2 Unknown FNeon orangeNa+/K+ Analysis: Conclusion Questions: 1. What inaccuracies may be involved in using flame tests for identification purposes? -A few possible inaccuracies that could have occurred in identifying metals during the flame test were accidentally contaminating one ion by mixing it with another. Another inaccuracy that could have occurred was contaminating the water by putting the wood splint back into the water after touching it to a substance.

The last inaccuracy that could have occurred was making sure that you test each substance multiple times to make sure that you have all of the ions properly identified, and not mixing up the colors of the flame and the names of the ions. 2. Which pairs of ions produce similar colors in the flame tests? How could two different ions produce similar colors? -Na, K, and Ca all produced a shade of orange that was similar. Li and Sr both produced a shade of red. Ba produced more of a yellow orange, so if that was to fit in with a group, it would fit in with the Na, K, and the Ca. . Specifically explain how the colors in the flame tests are produced. You must include the following terms in your answer: energy, energy levels, electrons. – The ground state is the normal electron configuration of atoms or ions in an element. When atoms or ions in ground state are heated to a higher temperature, some electrons absorb enough energy to move them to higher energy levels. This is known as the excited state. However, the excited configuration is unstable, and the electrons must return back to their positions in the lower energy level.

As they return, the energy that was previously absorbed is now emitted in the form of electromagnetic energy. This energy can be displayed in the form of visible light. Synthesis Questions: 1. How are fireworks and flame tests related? -They are related because they both produce different colors. Also, the compounds in the fireworks make the colors just like the colors are created in the flame. Lastly, the metal salts used in the flame tests are the same as the ones that are used to make fireworks. 2. What is the origin of fireworks? -The origin of fireworks is that they were created in China.

The earliest documentation of fireworks was in the 7th century. Fireworks were used in many festivities, and they were a part of the Chinese culture. Now, China is the largest manufacturer and exporter of fireworks. 3. In general, how are fireworks made? -Fireworks are made by rolling paper tightly to create a tube. Then clay gets packed inside of the tube. Next the black powder is inserted into the tube. Then the fuses are attached and the whole thing is covered with a small box to hold everything together. 4. What specific chemicals are used to produce various colors? give at least 4 examples) – Lithium Chloride – Burgundy/ red Strontium Chloride – Red Calcium Chloride – Orange Sodium Chloride – Yellow/orange Copper sulfate – Green Conclusion: The ground state is the normal electron configuration of atoms or ions in an element. When atoms or ions in ground state are heated to a higher temperature, some electrons absorb enough energy to move them to higher energy levels. This is known as the excited state. However, the excited configuration is unstable, and the electrons must return back to their positions in the lower energy level.

As they return, the energy that was previously absorbed is now emitted in the form of electromagnetic energy. This energy can be displayed in the form of visible light. The main purpose/objective of this lab was to observe the characteristic colors produced by certain metallic ions when they are vaporized in a flame. Another main objective of this lab was identifying the unknown metallic ions by means of flame tests. In this lab, this is what was supposed to be accomplished. The theory that was being tested in this lab was the theory about the ground state and the excited state of atoms or ions in a specific element.

When an atom or ion is in the ground state it is at the lowest possible energy level. When atoms or ions at this level are heated to a higher temperature then the electrons absorb enough energy to be able to “jump” to the next higher energy level which is known as the excited state. This state is unstable though, and the electrons “drop” back down to the ground state. As they are in the process of going back down to ground state the energy that they had was now emitted in the form of electromagnetic energy. This energy is displayed as a form of visible light.

This is why we saw the different colors in the flames from the elements that were tested. Also, these colors helped in the process of the identification of the different ions in the second half of the data table. The sources of error that occurred in this lab were when the ion was trying to be determined. The exact color of the flame needed to be written down. For a few of the ions we got the color orange, which is correct, but it is tough to determine which substance it gets matched up with because the specific details about the color were not evident.

This became a problem because two substances needed to be written down for “unknown c” and “unknown f”. If it could not be determined which ion was which, then this was a source of error. This was a source of error when trying to determine which ion went with which substance. Overall, this lab was not successful. Yes, the flame colors were determined for some of the substances, but for a few of them the color orange was the only detail we had. Using that little information, it was harder to try to match it up with which substance it went with. This was a problem, and because of this the lab was unsuccessful.