Julius Caesar Act III/IV/V Test

rhetoric devices
a use of language that is intended to have an effect on its audience
repetition, figurative language, and even rhetorical questions are all ex.
Monologue
extended speech delivered by the character in the presence of others
ethos
ethical argument
– morals you have
– the system you use to determine right from wrong
-what makes the speaker good or trustworthy
– based on the character of author or speaker
– qualifications
– motivations
– trustworthiness
– provide a counter argument
– largely based on character of speaker
logos
logical appeal
– facts
– statistics
– quantifiable data
– experimental results
– figures
– quotes
– basically numbers
pathos
emotional appeal
– speaker plays on the emotional response out of the audience
+ high
– love
– happiness
– kindness
+ low
– anger
– jealousy
– greed
appeals to people’s humanity
anaphora
repetition of a word or phrase as the beginning of successive clauses (clauses may be sentences or separated by commas)
antithesis
the pairing of opposite or contrasting statements
epanalepsis
words repeated at the beginning and the end of a phrase, clause, and sentance
hyperbaton
an inversion or reordering of words that should be in sequence
metaphor
a comparison of unrelated subjects to find similarity; an equation of two unlike things to draw a comparison
metonymy
substitution for a word for a larger person, place, thing, or idea; use of a word that is associated with the original word
paralepsis
the mention of something to emphasize its lack of importance, all the while emphasizing it its importance; say your not gonna mention something but you actually do
personification
a comparison in which an object or inanimate item is given human qualities or abilities
rhetorical question
a question that assumes the answer is known, asked for dramatic effect in order to make a claim
synecdoche
a substitution of the whole for the part or the part of the whole
tapinosis
repeated language used to demean or disgrace someone or something – intentionally insulting repetition
falling action
all the events following the climax shows the characters consequences of his actions and goes towards resolution
tragedy
genre of drama; a series of unfortunate events that lead to the downfall of the protagonist
– popular with the greeks
– reemerged as a popular poem during the Reinassance
– revolves around the life & deeds of a tragic hero
– peace & balance only can be restored by the downfall of the tragic hero
-Imbalance: must be a sense of the punishment for exceeds the crime committed (if not sympathy cant have tragedy needs sympathy)
comic relief
when tension is eased a little bit during a serious time
tragic hero
protagonist in a tragedy
– high status noble blood
ex. king, nobleman, senator
* audiance have to like the hero (need series)
– generally a good person
Tragic Flaw
the trait or characteristic that causes the downfall of the hero (hamantia)
* quality that normally would be admirable but bc of the circumstances of the tragedy is considered a flaw
foil
a character that shows qualities that are in contrast with the qualities with the qualities of another character
anagnorisis
* greek term defined by aristotle which means recognition
* occurs when the protagonist makes a critical discovery and realizes how things stand & is illuminated or awakening to the world around them moment of discovery or recognition
denouement
the final part to a play, movie , or narrative in which the strands of the plot are drawn together and matter are explained or resolved
hamartia
meaning “error” or “failure” — the false step that leads the protagonist in a tragedy to him/her downfall (misjudgment/ignorance/same or other flaws) — same as tragic flaw basically
catharsis
“cleansing” — emotional densing – emotional release that characters/audience experience that can lead to a sense of forgiveness/renewal — protagonist’s guilt is purged by end — characters & audience experience catharsis — sadness replaced by calm & audience catharsis
protagonist
the leading character or one of the major characters in a drama, movie, novel, or other fictional text
antagonist
the force or character that opposes the protagonist ex. Antony
major character
characters are vital to the development and resolution of the conflict; the plot and resolution of conflict revolves around these characters
minor character
complement the major characters and help move the plot events forward
dynamic character
a literary or dramatic character who undergoes an important inner change, as a change in personality or attitude
static character
characters that do not change and stay the same throughout a literary worl
What makes a tragedy Tragic?
the sympathy for the tragic hero’s downfall most likely bc of his/her tragic flaw
What motifs recur throughout JC?
• Events of the storm
• The dreams they have
• Soothsayer
• Omens and signs (premonitions)
• Caesar is stubborn
• Antony is able to burn the city by the power of words
(Act III)
Classify Brutus
• Good guy that gets caught in a bad situation
• Thinks he will be just as good as Caesar in a position of power because of family lineage
• Doesn’t want Caesar to become King even though loves Caesar
• Devotion to the republic above all
• Close friend of Caesar
• Doesn’t want to kill Caesar but for the good for the republic he must die because there is a chance he will be a tyrant and destroy the republic so in the event that it might happen they going to kill him to be safe
• Ends up being the good guy and the protagonist to Antony
• Tragic hero
• Tragic flaw – to trusting and makes really bad decisions
– friend like bro of cassius
Classify Cassius
• Deliciously evil character master manipulator
• Jealous of Caesar
• Holding a grudge against Caesar
• Proud
• Thinks he’s better than Caesar
• Blames the people for letting Caesar get as powerful as he did
• Doesn’t think Caesar’s name is as great as people think
• Manipulation
• Calculated
• Don’t like Caesar
• Smart
• Observing people
• Know human nature
• Not fun
• Understands human behavior
• Hates everything happiness
• Never be happy until he reaches the upmost top
• Dangerous
• Motivated by opportunity
• Rather commit suicide to be free of Caesar and not be under Caesar’s rule
• Curious
• Friend of Brutus
Classify Julius Caesar
• Powerful ruler
• Def in one ear
• Oblivious
• Wants to become king badly
• Feeds off the people applause
• Morbid
• Childlike
• Emotional
• Self conscious
• NEEDS the people’s approval
• Roman senator
• General not driven by ambition
•Ignores his impending doom
Classify Mark Antony
• Frat boy party boy but very smart
• Caesar bro
• Greedy
• Ambitious
• Ruthless
• Brutal
• Killing many people
• Heartless
• Dark
• Evil
• Total contrast from character in acts I, II, III
– Antagonist
Who is the protagonist of the play? Antagonist? Justify your response.
Protagonist – Brutus
Antagonist – Antony
Brutus is trying to still fight for the good of the people and the republic while Antony is ripping apart the republic by killing off the senate and establishing a oligarchy. Antony is fighting for the opposite of what Brutus is fighting for.
What is the difference between a static and dynamic character?
A static character does not change through a literary work, and a dynamic character changes throughout a literary work mentally or in their personality.
How can you determine the climax of a work of literature?
The climax in a Shakespearean tragedy is in the III Act and is a turning point where there is no going back to the way things use to be – the point of no return and seals everyone’s fate
What is the difference between a tragic hero and the other types of heroes (epic, hero-knight, anti-hero, etc.) we have studied this year?
Tragic Hero – protagonist in a tragedy – high status noble blood ex. king, nobleman, senator * audience have to like the hero (need series) – generally a good person

Epic Hero – protagonist (main character) in an epic; represents the ideals of the culture created by him/her – supposed to triumph -courageous and brave

Hero Knight –
1. Birth is shrouded in history
2. raised away from the true him in ignorance of his real parents
3. true identity is unknown
4. after meeting on extraordinary challenge hero – knight claims his birthright
5. triumph benefits group or nation

Anti-Hero – ironic hero that lacks many qualities traditionally – opposite of what you think/associate with heroes – fails/rejects quest

What pairs of foils can you identify in Julius Caesar?
Examples:
– Brutus and Cassius
– Brutus and Antony
– Cassius and Julius Caesar
– Julius Caesar and Antony
What is the difference between a major and minor character?
A major character is a character vital o the development and resolution of the conflict, and a minor character is a character that compliments the major character and helps move the plot forward
What are some important themes in Julius Caesar?
• Friendship
• Loyalty
• Betrayal
• Listen to the signs
… ect.
What motivates the different character in Julius Caesar?
Brutus – wants to do what is right with the republic

Julius Caesar – wants to do what is best for the people

Cassius – motivated by greed and power and jealousy of Julius Caesar (ambition maybe)

Antony – greed, ambition, power, money, land, ect

Octavious – greed, ambition, power, money, land, ect

What is a rhetorical device and why do authors use them?
Def: figures of speech and compositional techniques that create a literary effect in order to effectively communicate an idea
Authors use to make the writing more interesting , and emphasize point the author wants to make.
What is a rhetorical analysis?
an essay that breaks a work of non-fiction into parts and then explains how the parts work together to create a certain effect—whether to persuade, entertain or inform
How do the three rhetorical appeals (ethos, logos, and pathos) feature into the funeral speeches of Antony and Brutus?
Ethos
He has the background of being Caesar’s friend and the knowing him personally giving him the reliability.

Pathos
He gives the emotional appeal to get people’s attention by offering money, showing how much Caesar loved the people, and how close Antony loved Caesar.

Logos
Antony has facts when Caesar is kind and gentle and gives evidence that Caesar is not ambitious. He actually gives facts unlike Brutus who just says that Caesar was ambitious.

What is catharsis?
“cleansing” — emotional densing – emotional release that characters/audience experience that can lead to a sense of forgiveness/renewal — protagonist’s guilt is purged by end — characters & audience experience catharsis — sadness replaced by calm & audience catharsis
Climax
* the turning point (shift of previous events) – the point of no return – there is no going back to the way things use to be
* protagonist makes a decision/takes an action to something that cannot be undone – seals their fate
Peripetia
* means sudden change in greek
* sudden reversal of fortune in a story, play, or any narrative in which there is an observable change in direction
* Coincides with climax
* tragedy (JC) change of stability and happiness toward the destruction and downfall of the protagonist
motif
a recurring image, idea, or element in a work of literature (differs from a theme but when analyzed it helps point towards a theme)
motivation
the reason why a character does what they do
theme
main idea; central insight the work gives us about society or observation human nature
rhetoric
the art of effective persuasive speaking or writing especially the use of figures of speech and other compositional techniques

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