Anatomy is the study of the body’s stucture.

eg. the size and shape of bones, and the relationship towards other body parts

The first 6 levels of organisation
1. chemical level: atoms combine to form molecules

2. cell level: molecules form organelles such as, the mitochondria and nucleus, which make up cells

3. Tissue level: similar cell and surrounding material make up tissue

4. Organ level: Diffrent tissues combine to form organs, such as the urinary bladder and the heart.

5. Organ system level: organs such as the urinary bladder and kidneys, make up an organ system, i.e. the urinary system

6: Organism level: organ systems make up an organism

Developmental Anatomy
Developmental Anatomy consider the anatomical changes from conception to adulthood
Histology is the study that examines the tissues which are composed of cells and the material surrounding them
Cytology examines the structural features of cells
The 6 characteristics of life
1. organisation: specific relationships between the different parts of an organism and how those parts are able to work together

2. metabolism: metabolisms refers to all the chemical reactions taking place in an organism.

3. responsiveness: is an organisms ability to sense changes in its external or internal environment and adjust to those changes

4. Growth: growth refers to the increase in side or the numbers of cells. e.g.. muscle growth.

5. Development: includes the changes an organism undergo throughout time. e.g.. puberty.

Lying face down,
Lying face forward (able to hold soup)
The 4 different types of tissues
1: epithelial
2: muscle
3: nervous
4: connective
3 body cavities
1: Thoracic cavity
2: Abdominal cavity
3: Pelvic cavity
levels of Physiology
1. molecular
2. cellular
3. systemic
4. neurophysiology
5. renal
6. cardiovascular ect.
subdivisions of the abdomen: 9 regions
first row from right side:
1. right hypochondriac region
2. epigastric region
3. left hypochondriac region

second row:
4. right lumber region
5. umbilical region
6. left lumber region

bottom row:
7.right iliac region
8. hypogastric region
9. left iliac region

subdivisions of the abdomen: 4 Quadrants
first top left:
1. right-upper quadrant
2. left upper quadrant
3. right lower quadrant
4. left lower quadrant
serous membrane
serous membrane lines the cavities in the trunk of the body and covers the organs within these cavities.

2 layers: parietal- lines the trunk cavities where as, visceral- layers lines the organs.

serous fluid produced by the membrane fills the cavity between the two layers and acts as a lubricant between the organ and the body wall.

serous membrane names
pericardium = heart

lungs and thoracic cavity = pleura

Abdominopelvic cavity = peritoneum

what is an organ system?
A organ system is a group of organs that work to perform a common function
Variables of homeostasis
temperature, volume and chemical content of the fluid
the mediastinum (middle wall) separates the thoracic cavity in to left and right portions. the mediastinum contains the heart, thymus, the trachea and eophagus and other structure such as blood vessels and nerves.
pathology deals with all aspects of disease
subdivisions of the abdomen
these regions and quadrants are useful for locating internal organs or describing the location of a pain or a tumor.
serous membranes
serous membranes line the trunk cavities. The parietal portions of a serous membrane lines the wall of the cavity, and the visceral portions is in contact with the internal organs.

the serous membranes secrete fluid which fills the space between the visceral and the parietal membranes. the serous membranes protect the organs from friction.
the pericardial cavity surrounds the heart, while the pleural cavity surrounds the lungs, and the peritoneal cavity surrounds the certain abdominal and pelvic organs.

mesenteries are part of the peritoneum that hold the abdominal organs in placing provide a passageway for blood vessels and nerves to the organs.

retroperitoneal organs are located ‘behind’ the parietal peritoneum

The existence and maintainence of a relatively constant environment within the body
Set point
Homeostasis fluid surrounds each body cell, for cells to function normally the volume, temperature, Ph and chemical content of the fluid, variables must remain with in a narrow range : set point
The 12 organ systems
integumentary, skeletal, lymphatic, muscular, respiratory, digestive, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular, urinary, female/male reproductive systems
Gross Anatomy
gross anatomy is the study of structures that can be examined without the aid of a microscope
Surface Anatomy
Surface anatomy is the study of the external form of the body and its relationship to deeper structures.

eg. using the sternum and ribcage to identify the location of the hear.

Physiology is the study of the function or process of living things

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