The infant’s physical development in the first two years of early childhood is extensive and rapid following particular growth patterns such as cephalocaudal, which means from the head to the toes and proximal distal meaning from the centre out. During this period gross motor skills increase dramatically and children are more active than at any other period in their life span. During late childhood muscle mass and strength gradually increase, legs lengthen and the trunk slim down, growth is slow and consistent. Children become better coordinated, stronger and assume a more adult like shape (Santrock, J. W, 1997).
Puberty (eleven to 20 years) is a period of rapid development and sexual maturation that occurs in early adolescence. Adolescents usually experience a growth spurt and varies according to gender. Girls generally reach puberty before boys and oestrogen a female hormone secreted by the ovaries results in secondary sexual characteristics such as breasts, pubic hair, fat deposits over hips and abdomen and menstruation (Santrock, J. W, 1997). Growth accelerates during the teenage years resulting from increased secretion of growth hormones and an average, 20 centimetres gained in height. (Papalia,D. E. , Olds,S.
These children may also feel a sence of isolation and worhtlessnees lonliness and alination. This then constinues into adolescence Adolescents face issues in health related to poverty such as heart disease related to rheumatic fever or obesity related to poor nutrition. For teenagers poverty can mean dropping out of school and becoming unemployed and even for high ability students this can lead to isolation and low self esteem in development (Mayer,S. E, 2002). Adolecence living in poverty are more likely to hang out with people who are with out goals or are not movtivated .
Also adolecence with little money have to find fun some how and this can lead to alcoholism and drug use inseed of other means that can not be afforded such as movie or dates ect. Statistics show that many young adult living in poverty can become pregnat at a young age this is due to there not bein enough education or money to buy condoms or the contraceptive pill . (Child poverty action group, 2005) Adults in poverty have a durdeen on their shoulders as if they have a family they feel a sence of helplessness and isolation as they are putting their families in danger of health risks and poor education .
Parents that live in a poor family with an income under $15,000 can become depressed as every week they are faced with challenges of paying for food or paying rent some paretns are pushed to go to food banks that can set a shift in a adults slef esteemn (Kelly, G . ,1998). A lot of the time an adult will not be well enough educated to find a proper paying job to support ether them or their families. Statistics show that due to poor health adults have a lower mortality rate than those in higher payed families (Kelly, G . ,1998).
Also Being poor can result in anger and violence drug and alcohol abuse ,spousal abuse and depression and suicide. Anorexia nervosa which is an eating disorder is an important issue that affects many of our children adolecence and adults in New Zeland many people do not no what anorexia nerosa is and what affects it can have on a person development. At a young age children are bombarded with the media often showing a child how they could look and why they should look this way. These media related sources can set a shift in a childs self esteem and can cause a child to question their apprence and weight.
As A young child these images may not cause much harm but with this in mind children may take action to look like the people in the media later on in life, cases of anorexia have been reported in New Zealand at a low age of 9. (mental health foundation, 2007 ) Anorexia can cause Brain atrophy , impair cognition , Cardiac arrhythmias and Growth retardation, all of which have a detrimental effect on growth and development . Most commonly anorexia nurvosa effects adolecence this could be due to the media ,pressure to be thin, stress, and the pressusre to be accepted. Statistics show that Between 0. – 3. 7%of New Zealands adolescent and young adult women meet the criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (Tyler, J. B. ,& Burns, M. 2002). Anorexia nervosa in young adults can cause infertilty, osteopaenia leading to osteoposoris a distortion of body image and even death . Also anorexia nervosa can cause slowed cognation which can lead to a decline in education (mental health foundation,2007). Anorexia Nervosa in adults is not so common in New Zealand . This is due to many victums getting treatment or have been sucked in this disease so much that has a caused them to die.
In adult hood osteoprosis is very likely to be pressent this is due to the loss of menstration that lowers the density of bones (Eating disorder association, n. d). Heart attacks are very common among adults with anorexi nervosa due to a loss of minerals and important vitamns which are supplied through food . As stated by the ministry of health “Resources and services for anorexia nervosa in New Zealand are not enough to cope with New Zealand’s high toll for this disease the statistics for this sit at 15 new cases for ever 100,000 patients (Tyler, J. B. ,& Burns, M. 002). This results in many people in New Zealand suffering over the life span and not receiving the treatment that they need”. In conclusion to this essay two wider influence on life span developmnet in New zealand have been discussed and explored. The two wider influences that have been disscussed are poverty and anorexia nervosa . What this essay can teach is that these to influences have a huge affect on some ones development even if it is not visible the affects can be very harmful or detrimental to physical ,cognitive and psychosocial development .