people began using experiments and mathematics to understand these mysteries. The study of nature became more organized.
an English philosopher and scientist of the 1200s.
drew conclusions about what they observed.
Ptolemy’s theory or “Earth-centered.
Polish scientist began to abandon Ptolemy’s geocentric theory. Instead, he argued that the sun was the center of the universe.
or “sun-centered,” Copernicus developed.
a German astronomer.
an Italian scientist, each helped to confirm Copernicus’s new understanding of the universe.
English scientist published a book building on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.
a Flemish scientist, heeded da Vinci’s words and pioneered the study of anatomy.
was a leader of the Scientific Revolution.
Bacon believed that scientific theories could be developed only through observation.
An English-Irish scientist helped to pioneer the modern science of chemistry.
European navigators had learned that they could magnetize an iron needle it pointed in the direction they were going.
Europeans changed basic economic practices. The changes were so great that many historians refer to the period between the late 1400s and the 1700s.
Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company.
stated that a country’s government should do all it could to increase the country’s wealth, which was measured by the amount of gold and silver the country possessed.
Favorable balance of trade
a country received more gold and silver from other nations than it paid to them. This situation both strengthened the country and weakened its foreign rivals.
or import taxes, on these goods.
or grants of money, to help businesspeople start new industries and build ships.
of the Portuguese royal family. Also known as “The Navigator”, Prince Henry’s first goal was to find gold for Portugal.
sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
Vasco da Gama
sailed eastward across the Indian Ocean.
Products, plants, animals, and even diseases traveled between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
Treaty of Tordesillas
between Spain and Portugal moved the line farther west.
First, merchants shipped cotton goods, weapons, and liquor to Africa in exchange for slaves or gold.
was the shipment of slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas. There, slaves were sold for goods produced on the plantations.
Ponce de León
invaded Mexico. Cortés captured and destroyed the great Aztec city of Tenochtitlán.
also known as Montezuma.
led 180 men and 37 horses on an expedition.
represented the monarchy in the colonies and reported to the Council of the Indies in Spain.
received Spain and its possessions. His branch of the family became known as the Spanish Habsburgs.
William of Orange
led a revolt against Philip.
small bands of soldiers on quick raids to keep the Spanish army confused.