HOLT WORLD HISTORY THE HUMAN JOURNEY Chapter 16 Vocabulary

Scientific Revolution
people began using experiments and mathematics to understand these mysteries. The study of nature became more organized.
Roger Bacon
an English philosopher and scientist of the 1200s.
Scientific Method
drew conclusions about what they observed.
Geocentric
Ptolemy’s theory or “Earth-centered.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Polish scientist began to abandon Ptolemy’s geocentric theory. Instead, he argued that the sun was the center of the universe.
Heliocentric
or “sun-centered,” Copernicus developed.
Johannes Kepler
a German astronomer.
Galileo Galilei
an Italian scientist, each helped to confirm Copernicus’s new understanding of the universe.
Isaac Newton
English scientist published a book building on the work of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo.
Andreas Vesalius
a Flemish scientist, heeded da Vinci’s words and pioneered the study of anatomy.
René Descartes
was a leader of the Scientific Revolution.
Francis Bacon
Bacon believed that scientific theories could be developed only through observation.
Robert Boyle
An English-Irish scientist helped to pioneer the modern science of chemistry.
Compass
European navigators had learned that they could magnetize an iron needle it pointed in the direction they were going.
Commercial Revolution
Europeans changed basic economic practices. The changes were so great that many historians refer to the period between the late 1400s and the 1700s.
Joint-stock company
Owners raised money by selling shares, or stock, in the company.
Mercantilism
stated that a country’s government should do all it could to increase the country’s wealth, which was measured by the amount of gold and silver the country possessed.
Favorable balance of trade
a country received more gold and silver from other nations than it paid to them. This situation both strengthened the country and weakened its foreign rivals.
Tariffs
or import taxes, on these goods.
Subsidies
or grants of money, to help businesspeople start new industries and build ships.
Prince Henry
of the Portuguese royal family. Also known as “The Navigator”, Prince Henry’s first goal was to find gold for Portugal.
Bartolomeu Dias
sailed around the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa.
Vasco da Gama
sailed eastward across the Indian Ocean.
Columbian Exchange
Products, plants, animals, and even diseases traveled between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres.
Treaty of Tordesillas
between Spain and Portugal moved the line farther west.
triangular trade
First, merchants shipped cotton goods, weapons, and liquor to Africa in exchange for slaves or gold.
Middle Passage
was the shipment of slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas. There, slaves were sold for goods produced on the plantations.
Ponce de León
invaded Mexico. Cortés captured and destroyed the great Aztec city of Tenochtitlán.
Moctezuma II
also known as Montezuma.
Francisco Pizarro
led 180 men and 37 horses on an expedition.
viceroys
represented the monarchy in the colonies and reported to the Council of the Indies in Spain.
Philip II
received Spain and its possessions. His branch of the family became known as the Spanish Habsburgs.
William of Orange
led a revolt against Philip.
Guerrilla warfare
small bands of soldiers on quick raids to keep the Spanish army confused.

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