History Of Tourism Essay Sample

Early Beginnings of Travel

The Babylonians (Sumerians)

– The creation of money and trade

– Trade was developed around 400 B.C.

– Babylonians were also credited with thefounders of travel business.

Early Beginnings of Travel The Egyptians

– First cruises were organized and conducted from Egypt.

• The first journey for Tourism was made by Queen Hatshepsut to the land of Punt in 1480.

– Early Egyptians started the trait of purchasing souvenirs from the places they visit

Early Beginnings of Travel The Egyptians

– 2700 BC: the Pharaohs began to build elaborate burial tombs (pyramids)

– Egyptians were also the first ones to start celebrating festivals.

First Voyage Around the World Use of Early roads

– Mesopotamian roads were mainly paved dirt roads.

– The island of Crete had better roads

• 13 ½ feet wide twolane road.

First Voyage Around the World Use of Early roads

– The Romans developed roads for military use and it covered most of their empire.

• Developed at around 150 BC

• Roman roads were quite elaborate in construction. (cobblestones)

• And some of these roads are still in use.

First Voyage Around the World

The Silk Road

– The fabled road where the east met the west.

– Some sections were directions across trackless steppe or desert

– A trade route where states along this route traded.

– Silk was not the only thing traded there.

The Classical World

The Olympic Games

– Started in 776 BC.

– City states gathered togetherevery 4 years for competition

– The games created festivals, and attractions were born out of it.

– Lodging also became a commodity needed during these festivals

The Classical World


– Father of History

– Travelled all over Greecce and the Aegean Islands, sailed to Cyrene and explored Sicily and Italy.

– Made records of his travels

– Also considered as the worlds first “Travel Writer”

Early Ships


– Master shipwrights.

– Built a network of trading posts

around the Mediterranean.


– Followed the Phoenicians.

– Improved ships and accelerated the Mediterranean trade.

– Merchantships also carried passengers for profit.

Early Ships and Records of



– Had ministers for travel as early as 4,000 years ago.


– Used small dugout canoes under 40 feet and used these to travel from South East Asia.

Early Tourism Developments


– The fall of Rome spelled disaster for travel and tourism.

– Dark ages- only the most adventurous persons would travel. Travel was not for pleasure.

• The Crusades

– End of the Dark Ages; pilgrimages were popular.

• The ancient Passport was born in 1388: permits for pilgrimages were required

Early Tourism Developments


– The rise of tour guides came about in the 14th century.

– Pilgrimages gave birth to different accommodation facilities.

– The “Grand Tour”

• Travelling for educational purposes.

• Where present trips to Europe originated

Early Tourist Attractions

• Great Pyramids of Egypt (including Sphinx)

• Hanging Gardens of Babylon

• Tomb of Mausolus at Halicarnassus

• Statue of Zeus at Olympia

Early Tourist Attractions

• Collosus of Rhodes in the Harbor at Rhodes

• Great Lighthouse (Pharos) in Alexandria, Egypt

• Temple Artemis at Ephesus

Other Early Accommodation Facilities

Spas, Baths and Seaside Resorts

– The use of Spas after the original use by the Romans.

– 18th century: Spas were very fashionable

– Sea Bathing also became popular because saltwater had medicinal effects.

First Travel Agents

Robert Smart

– Self-Proclaimed first steamship agent.

First Travel Agents

Thomas Cook

– Began Running a special excursion train from Leicester to Loughborough

– Was recognized as the first rail excursion agent.

– It covered a distance of 22 km for 570 members.

– He acted as an agent by buying tickets in bulk and selling it to others on a non profit basis.

– This gave him an idea to package tours in a profitable manner.

First Travel Agents

Thomas Cook

– He organized the travel arrangements, accommodations, transport at the destinations and return to the homeland.

– He organized the first ‘inclusive tour’ to Paris Exhibition in 1855.

– ‘Hotel voucher’ was introduced by Thomas Cook in 1867 and ‘Circular Note’ in 1873 which made travel easier.

– First ‘Round the world tour’ in 1872.

First Travel Agents

Thomas Benett

– Served as the British consul general in Oslo.

– Arranged scenic tours in Norway for visiting British notables.

– 1850: he set up a “Trip Organizer” business and provided tourists with itineraries, carriages, provisions and a “traveling kit”

Historic Transportation

Stagecoach Travel

– Coaches were invented in Hungary during the 15th century and provided regular service on prescribed routes.

– Stagecoach travel became so popular that it was responsible for the development of the famous English Tavern.

Historic Transportation

Water Travel

– As early as 1772, market boats picked up passengers and goods on ship canals in England.

– Transport Service between Manchester and the London Bridge

• This water travel service had a coffee room

– Then came the Steamboats in 1815.

Historic Transportation

• Rail Travel

• Automobile and Motor coach Travel

Historic Transportation

Air Travel

– 1926 saw the first US Airline: Variety Airlines

– First international route was flown by Pan American Airways from Key West, FL to Havana, Cuba

– Gradual expansion of territories covered by US Airlines.

– Most of their staff and equipment was used for war service during WWII.

Historic Transportation

Air Travel

– The Boeing 707: the first commercial Jet made by the United States.

– 1969: The Concorde takes flight

– 2003: The Concorde took its last Commercial Flight.

Historic Accommodations

• Private dwellings were the earliest guest rooms. Travellers were hosted almost like members of the family.

• Caravansaries and inns were used in the Middle East and in the Orient.