Dr. Phillippe Pinel
Medical director of a Paris mental institution; pioneered the “humante treatment”/humanitarian approach; provided patients with manual occupation and exercise as part of treatment
William Morris
Pioneered the Arts and Crafts movement in the early 20th century in response to industrialization; urged a return to a simpler life and used crafts as part of the curative process in mental health
OT in World War I
Therapists were known as “Reconstruction Aids” and therapy was focused on “handicrafts” and “habit training”
Founding of the OT Profession occurred in…
the early 1920s
The 1st OT Clinic
Consolation House
The 1st OT schools
by 1945, there were 21 programs
The National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy
Founded 1917, the first OT association; later became the AOTA
Susan Tracy
The “first OT”– a nurse who taught courses in invalid occupations and believed that the goal of occupation is to improve the patient’s condition; she published a book on activities
Eleanor Clark Slagle
OT political and administrative leader; focused on “habit training”; she worked at hull house in Chicago; she was a trained social worker
Jane Adams
Founder of Hull House in Chicago
Dr. William Rush Denton
Taught occupation courses to nurses; published guidelines on the use of occupation; pioneered “reconstruction therapy”
Dr. Adolph Meyer
Professor of psychiatry at Johns Hopkins; elaborated on the basic OT philosophy; published a paper on the importance of balance of work, rest, and play
George Edward Barton
An architect with TB, amputation, and left hemiplegia; he experienced OT first-hand and went on to develop Consolation House (the first OT facility)
Majority of OTs worked in the ______ field from the 1920s to the 1940s
Mental health
Due to WWII, OT shifted to focus on
function and physical abilities (instead of arts and crafts)
Willard & Spackman’s Occupational Therapy was first published in
1st OT school
Hull House in Chicago
The “Rehabilitation Movement”
Post-WWII, OT’s called on to organize and run rehab programs for returning war veterans (VA, rehab act of 1954)
In 1950s, OT shifted and became more aligned with
the medical model (alleviation or elimination of disability)
COTA programs first started in the
In 1958, OT began to move toward
specialization (phys dys, psychosocial) and increased training (neurology, kinesiology)