predominantly desert-dwelling Arabian ethnic group.means those in the desert,a hierarchy of loyalties based on proximity of kinship that runs from the nuclear family through the lineage, the tribe, and, in principle at least, to an entire genetic or linguistic group. when plies were plentiful tents would travel with others known as glum.
a tax that muslims put on non muslims or nonbelievers
five Pillars
the five basic acts in islam, mandatory.They make up Muslim life, prayer, concern for the needy, self purification and the pilgrimage.
Shahadah: declaring there is no god except God, and Muhammad is God’s Messenger
Salat: ritual prayer five times a day
Sawm: fasting and self-control during the blessed month of Ramadan
Zakat: giving 2.5% of one’s savings to the poor and needy
Hajj: pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in a lifetime if he/she is able to do.
portion or share.
Genghis Khan
Born Temujin 1167-1227
founder of the mongol empire
the largest contiguous empire in history
conquest of most of Eurasia. These included raids or invasions of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, Caucasus, Khwarezmid Empire, Western Xia and Jin dynasties.
he adopted a new writing system and religious tolerance.
Leonardo da vinci
1452 -1519

studied science anatomy interested him
he would study on dead bodies.
he was also a great inventor and he was known for the weapons he invented. like a canon and he tried to invent flying machines.

Gupta dynasty
covered the indian subcontinent.Guptas enabled the pursuit of scientific and artistic endeavor.
This period is called the Golden Age of India[3] and was marked by extensive inventions and discoveries in science, technology, engineering, art, dialectic, literature, logic, mathematics, astronomy, religion and philosophy that crystallized the elements of what is generally known as Hindu culture
Foot Binding
also known as three inch golden Lotus. is the custom of applying painfully tight binding to the feet of young girls to prevent further growth breaking the foot and bending it back,. started in Song Dynasty 960 and 1279 and eventually became common among all but the lowest of classes.it was to show status, for rich women who could afford to break their feet because they did not need to work or depend on their feet.
Zheng He
Zheng commanded expeditionary voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, the Middle East, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433.
Yongle Emperor
2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424
was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.
Born as Zhu Di,
his capital at Beiping (modern Beijing). Amid the continuing struggle against the Mongols, Zhu Di consolidated his own power and eliminated rivals such as the successful general Lan Yu
Augustus was the founder of the Roman Empire and the first Emperor his reign was from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. In 44 BC his uncle Julius Caesar adopted him after Augustus father died. Then following Caesarʻs assassination, with the help of Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus Augustus formed a political alliance. and defeated the people who assassinated caesar. after that they divided rome and the three of them ruled a different section. during Augustus reign it was a time of peace known as Pax Romana. he is a very important figure in roman history because he was a ruler who brought significant change to rome.
Constantine is a roman emperor from 306 AD to 312 AD. Constantine was the son of Flavius Valerius Constantius who later became Caesar. Constantine became victorious in many civil wars against Maxentius and Licinius to become sole ruler of both west and east by 324. he built an empire in Byzantium which was later called Constantinople. he was also important to history because he made so much contribution to roman history.
Bach Dang River
Battle of Bach Dang River in 938 It took place at the Bach Dang River, near Halong Bay in northern Vietnam. the Vietnamese forces, led by Ngo Quyen, defeated the invading forces of the Southern Han state of China and put an end to centuries of Chinese imperial domination in Vietnam.
Justinian the Great, was Byzantine Emperor from 527 to 565. During his reign, Justinian sought to revive the Empire’s greatness and reconquer the lost western half of the historical Roman Empire.
Yelu Chucai
was a statesman of Khitan ethnicity with royal family lineage to the Liao Dynasty, and became a vigorous adviser and administrator of the early Mongol Empire in the Confucian tradition. He was the first of Genghis Khan’s retainers to suggest the policy of Mongol conquests, and he also introduced many administrative reforms in North China during the reign of Genghis Khan and his successor Ögedei.
Emperor Taizu of Liao was the first emperor of the Liao Dynasty (907-926). His given name was Abaoji. He was born on 872 in southern Mongolia and had a turbulent childhood. His grandfather was killed in a conflict between tribes, and his father and uncles fled. Yelü Abaoji was hidden by his grandmother for his safety. He was enthroned as emperor on February 29, 907 and died on September 6, 926.[2]
Leif Ericson
Leif Ericson Old Norse: Leifr Eiríksson; Icelandic: Leifur Eiríksson; Norwegian: Leiv Eiriksson c. 970 – c. 1020) was a Norse explorer regarded as the first European to land in North America (excluding Greenland), nearly 500 years before Christopher Columbus.According to the Sagas of Icelanders, he established a Norse settlement at Vinland, tentatively identified with the Norse L’Anse aux Meadows on the northern tip of Newfoundland in modern-day Canada.
It is believed that Leif was born in Iceland around the 970s—the son of mother Thjóðhildr and father Erik the Red, an explorer and outlaw from Western Norway. Erik founded the first Norse colonies in Greenland, and was based at the family estate Brattahlíð in the so-called Eastern Settlement, where Leif had his upbringing. Leif had two known sons: Thorgils, born to noblewoman Thorgunna in the Hebrides; and Thorkell, who succeeded him as chieftain of the Greenland settlement.
the Crusades
battle of the holy land 11th-13th cent
Catholicism vs muslim
examination system
the scholars- bureaucrats
ran government on day to day basis
graduates from intense civil service examinations
open only to men
designed to select the best potential candidates to serve as administrative officials, for the purpose of recruiting them for the state’s bureaucracy.
the Renaissance
was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. Though availability of paper and the invention of metal movable type sped the dissemination of ideas from the later 15th century, the changes of the Renaissance were not uniformly experienced across Europe.In politics, the Renaissance contributed the development of the conventions of diplomacy, and in science an increased reliance on observation.
spice island
Pax Romana
was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. Since it was established by Augustus, it is sometimes called Pax Augusta. Its span was approximately 206 years (27 BC to 180 AD).
Paul of Tarsus
was an apostle (though not one of the Twelve Apostles) who taught the gospel of Christ to the first-century world.He is generally considered one of the most important figures of the Apostolic Age.In the mid-30s to the mid-50s, he founded several churches in Asia Minor and Europe. Paul used his status as both a Jew and a Roman citizen to advantage in his ministry to both Jewish and Roman audiences.
ashoka maurya
Ashoka maurya was a indian emperor of the maurya dynasty he ruled almost all of the indian subcontinent from 269 BCE to 232 BCE he was said to be one of indias greatest emperors. He did a number of military conquests after ruling india. He had a large empire that went from ancient territories to what is now called afganistan. This is significant because a lot of people looked up to him and what he did he was the prime example of what a good ruler or emperor should be. He had a large empire and for that he is significant.
Angkor is a region in Cambodia where the khmer empire was it was around from the 9th century to the 15th century. The angkorian period started in AD 802 during this time khmer hindu who was a monarch declared himself as a universal monarch and god king . through negotiating he was able to achieve unification with champa which we know today as Vietnam. Angkor is a significant thing in history because it was the largest city in the world and it was the most developed city during this time
Prince Shotoku
also known as Prince Umayado (厩戸皇子 Umayado no ōji?) or Prince Kamitsumiya (上宮皇子 Kamitsumiya no ōji?), was a semi-legendary regent and a politician of the Asuka period in Japan who served under Empress Suiko. He was a son of Emperor Yōmei and his younger half-sister Princess Anahobe no Hashihito. His parents were relatives of the ruling Soga clan,[3] and was involved in the defeat of the rival Mononobe Clan.[4] The primary source of the life and accomplishments of Prince Shōtoku comes from the Nihon Shoki.
570-632. Islam’s last and greatest prophet. Believed angel gabriel revealed to him the word of God or Allah. He wrote these words down in the Koran and they became the basis of the Islamic religion. Forced to retreat to Medina but he and his followers later took over mecca.
(c. 500 – 28 June 548), was empress of the Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the wife of Emperor Justinian I. Theodora is perhaps the most influential and powerful woman in the Roman Empire’s history. Some sources even mention her as empress regnant with Justinian I as her co-regent. she was weird he let goose and geese eat varies off her naked body
April 742/747/748[1] – 28 January 814), also known as Charles the Great (German: Karl der Große;[2] Latin: Carolus or Karolus Magnus) or Charles I, was the King of the Franks from 768, the King of Italy from 774, and from 800 the first emperor in western Europe since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state he founded is called the Carolingian Empire.
The Hajj
is an Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca and the largest gathering of Muslim people in the world every year.[1][2] It is one of the five pillars of Islam, and a religious duty which must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime.[3] The state of being physically and financially capable of performing the Hajj is called istita’ah, and a Muslim who fulfils this condition is called a mustati. The Hajj is a demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God (Allah in the Arabic language).[4] The word Hajj means “to intend a journey” which connotes both the outward act of a journey and the inward act of intentions.[5]
Marco Polo
1254 – January 8-9, 1324)[1] was an merchant traveler from the Republic of Venice[2][3] whose travels are recorded in Livres des merveilles du monde, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned the mercantile trade from his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, who traveled through Asia, and apparently met Kublai Khan. In 1269, they returned to Venice to meet Marco for the first time. The three of them embarked on an epic journey to Asia, returning after 24 years to find Venice at war with Genoa; Marco was imprisoned, and dictated his stories to a cellmate. He was released in 1299, became a wealthy merchant, married and had three children. He died in 1324, and was buried in San Lorenzo.
His pioneering journey inspired Christopher Columbus[4] and many other travellers. There is a substantial literature based on his writings. Polo influenced European cartography, leading to the introduction of the Fra Mauro map.
Black Death
An outbreak of bubonic plague that spread across Asia, North Africa, and Europe in the mid-fourteenth century, carrying off vast numbers of persons. (p. 397)
ruled from 210 to 174 BC, was the most successful ruler of the Han dynasty, and he brought strict military discipline to the Xiongnu. He was also the Minister of Culture of China from 1949 to 1965. He is renowned as one of the best realist novelists in the history of modern China.
Abu Bakr
c.( 573 CE – 23 August 634 CE) popularly know by his nickname Abū Bakr [1] was a senior companion (Sahabi) and the father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He ruled over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632-634 CE
had a kid with Julius caesar when he dies she allies with marc antony.
Punic Wars
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.[1] At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place.
is a cuboid building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. It is the most sacred site in Islam.[1]
Al-Masjid al-Haram, the most sacred mosque in Islam, is built around the Kaaba.[2] Muslims are expected to face the Kaaba during prayers, no matter where they are. From any given point in the world, the direction facing the Kaaba is called the Qibla
The Steppe
is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome. It stretches from Moldavia through Ukraine to Siberia with one major exclave located mostly in Hungary called Puszta.[1] The steppe has connected Europe, Central Asia, China, South Asia, and the Middle East economically, politically, and culturally through overland trade routes, most notably the Silk Road during Antiquity and the Middle Ages, and the Eurasian Land Bridge in the modern era. It has been home to Nomadic empires and many large tribal confederations and ancient states through out history such as the Xiongnu, Scythia, Cimmeria, Sarmatia, Hunnic Empire, Chorasmia, Transoxiana, Sogdiana and Göktürk Khaganate.
Flagellant Movement
the flagellant movement were roving groups of religious fanatics who roamed Europe during the Black Death,
Chan Buddhism
A people of this name is mentioned as early as the records of the Tang Empire, living as nomads in northern Eurasia. After 1206 they established an enormous empire under Genghis Khan, linking western and eastern Eurasia. >(p. 325)
Ibn Battuta
simply Ibn Battuta (ابن بطوطة) (February 25, 1304 – 1368 or 1369), was a Moroccan explorer of Berber descent.[1] He is known for his extensive travels, accounts of which were published in the Rihla (lit. “Journey”). Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of the known Islamic world as well as many non-Muslim lands. His journeys included trips to North Africa, the Horn of Africa, West Africa and Eastern Europe in the West, and to the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia and China. Ibn Battuta is considered to be among the great travellers of all time.[2]
Christopher Columbus
was not the first one to discover america but he was the first to return back to it and colonize it. 1451-1506ferdinand and isabella catholics who funded his voyage. colombian exchange diseases and stuff
Charles Martel
charles the hammer martel , “The Hammer” the Frankish commander for the battle of Tours. He defeated the Muslimsin the Battle of Tours, allowing Christianity to survive throughout the Dark Ages. He in a way started Feudalism by giving land to his knights that served for him.
real sick guy he was a sex feen addict and impregnated his sister and cut the baby out of her alive.he wanted his horse to be in the senate.
bread and Circuses
is a metaphor for a superficial means of appeasement. In the case of politics, the phrase is used to describe the creation of public approval, not through exemplary or excellent public service or public policy, but through diversion; distraction; or the mere satisfaction of the immediate, shallow requirements of a populace,[1] as an offered “palliative.” Juvenal decried it as a simplistic motivation of common people.[2][3][4] The phrase also implies the erosion or ignorance of civic duty amongst the concerns of the commoner.

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