The leader of the 1831 slave uprising in Southampton, Virginia, was

A) Denmark Vessey.
B) Hinton R. Helper.
C) George Fitzhugh.
D) Daniel Webster.
E) Nat Turner.

Slavery would not have lasted as long as it did except for

A) the place it held in the southern economy.
B) the South’s lack of moral sensitivity.
C) the willingness of slaves to submit to the system.
D) the North’s lack of interest in the problem.
E) the constant supply of slaves from Africa.

About ________ percent of whites in the South in 1860 were large landowners with dozens of slaves.

A) 1
B) 4
C) 10
D) 40
E) 50

In the South, social prestige and influence were determined by

A) birth order and family heritage.
B) ties to prominent, English families.
C) class and caste.
D) the region of the South where one lived.
E) the amount of land one owned.

At the time of the Civil War,

A) one quarter of white southerners owned slaves.
B) almost all southerners owned at least one slave.
C) only the upper class were slave owners.
D) the percentage of whites owning slaves was increasing.
E) 30 percent of white southerners owned slaves.

While class differences are based on income, caste differences in the South were based on

A) plantation size.
B) race.
C) religion.
D) national origins.
E) ties to England.

Which of the following statements about slavery is FALSE?

A) About ten percent of southern blacks were free.

B) Within slave society, there were status differences between field hands and house servants.

C) Some slaves worked in urban, industrialized settings.

D) Because all were victims of race prejudice, status differences within the black community did not lead to class conflict.

E) Most blacks shared the goal of ending slavery.

Most African Americans experienced slavery

A) on farms.
B) in mines and small factories.
C) in small southern towns.
D) on plantations.
E) in large southern cities.

Slaveholders continually indoctrinated their slaves with the idea of

A) the God-ordained supremacy of whites.
B) self-sufficiency.
C) the work ethic.
D) patriotism.
E) their superiority to Native Americans.

At the time of the Civil War, there were approximately ________ slaves in the South.

A) 200,000
B) 400,000
C) 1,000,000
D) 2,000,000
E) 4,000,000

The African-American family under slavery

A) was supported by the white society.
B) was nonexistent on most plantations.
C) was protected by the legal system.
D) emphasized kinship and mutual affection.
E) was always matriarchal.

Studies of the slave family reveal that ________ provided a model for personal relationships and the basis for a sense of community.

A) kinship
B) the nuclear family
C) the extended family
D) matriarchal family
E) African family structures

During slavery, African-American folk tales were kept alive primarily through

A) kinship networks.
B) a common language.
C) the encouragement of slave owners.
D) written documents.
E) Christianity.

The “invisible institution” was

A) the Underground Railroad.
B) the black church.
C) a pre-war version of the Ku Klux Klan.
D) a clandestine network of voodoo practitioners.
E) a secret organization of southern white abolitionists

The foundation of the African-American culture was

A) religion.
B) political activity.
C) art.
D) music.
E) a shared language.

Slave sermons and religious songs emphasized

A) eventual deliverance from slavery.
B) political themes.
C) open protest of slavery.
D) acceptance of the condition of slavery.
E) a rejection of worldly pleasures and temptations.

The leader of the uprising in Richmond, Virginia, in 1800 was

A) Denmark Vesey.
B) Stephen Douglas.
C) Nat Turner.
D) Gabriel Prosser.
E) Bob Ferebee.

The Brer Rabbit stories

A) showed how a fugitive slave could find safe haven in the underbrush.

B) were fantasies which enabled slaves to forget their harsh lot for a while.

C) were used to indoctrinate white children with the belief that slaves were no smarter than animals.

D) showed how a defenseless animal could overcome a stronger one through cunning and deceit, a metaphor for survival as a slave.

E) portrayed slaves as being happy and well-adjusted.

The normal way for most slaves to express discontent was

A) political protest.
B) open, armed rebellion.
C) passive resistance.
D) participation in conspiracies.
E) organizing boycotts.

Slave folk tales revealed the attitude that

A) slavery was to be accepted.
B) cunning and deceit worked effectively.
C) the master was supreme.
D) open rebellion was an acceptable tactic.
E) returning to Africa was the only way out of the slave system.

During the Second Seminole War of 1835-1842

A) most slaves rebelled against their masters.
B) many escaped slaves hiding in Florida actually fought with the Native Americans against U.S. soldiers.
C) slaves slaughtered Seminole Indians in large numbers.
D) whites killed their slaves in fear of an alliance between slaves and Native Americans.
E) escaped slaves hiding in Florida were returned to their owners.

The typical runaway slave was

A) a married man.
B) a young, unmarried man.
C) a married woman.
D) a young, unmarried woman.
E) light-skinned.

The case of ________ showed that a prosperous, free, African American might give his life in the struggle for freedom.

A) Frederick Douglass
B) Nat Turner
C) Denmark Vesey
D) David Walker
E) John Brown

In pre-Civil War American society, free African Americans

A) were almost nonexistent.
B) were readily accepted.
C) could vote in all northern states.
D) had few serious problems.
E) were treated as social outcasts.

Free blacks in the South faced each of the following limitations EXCEPT

A) being forced to register or have a white guardian who was responsible for their actions.

B) being required to carry documentation of their free status at all times.

C) being vulnerable t o re-enslavement through vagrancy or apprenticeship laws.

D) having their attempts to hold meetings or form organizations blocked by the authorities.

E) having to get official permission to move from one county to another.

The typical great planter of the pre-Civil War South was

A) most likely a self-made man.
B) looked down on by most southern whites.
C) well-educated and highly intellectual.
D) born to wealth and position.
E) born into a planter family.

Most southern whites

A) owned at least one slave.
B) were nonslaveholding yeoman farmers.
C) were poor people who sympathized with the slaves.
D) owned at least five slaves.
E) favored abolishing slavery as a means of breaking the power of the planter elite.

To become a successful planter, it was probably most important that one have sound
knowledge of
A) slave behavior and culture.
B) southern politics.
C) good business and accounting practices.
D) labor practices.
E) current agricultural practices.
Southern planters considered their slaves to be

A) hard-working and industrious.
B) children who required constant supervision.
C) skilled and motivated.
D) dangerous malcontents.
E) mere property.

When compared with other New World slaves, southern slaves

A) lived under much worse conditions.
B) lived under similar conditions.
C) experienced more problems with their owners.
D) had higher literacy rates.
E) enjoyed a higher standard of living.

Good physical conditions for slaves were necessary to

A) ensure that they could work hard and bear children.
B) meet the requirements of federal law.
C) lessen the probability of slave revolts.
D) meet southern Christian ethical requirements.
E) maintain good standing in the white community.

The yeoman farmer of the South was

A) a slave owner.
B) shiftless.
C) proud and self-reliant.
D) much different from his northern counterpart.
E) a squatter on unproductive land.

Yeoman farmers of the South could be found

A) in the back-country of the South.
B) near southern cities.
C) clustered around the large plantations.
D) evenly spread throughout the region.
E) along the Gulf Coast.

The prosperity of the southern yeoman was limited by the lack of

A) money crops.
B) land.
C) transportation facilities.
D) educational facilities.
E) focus on building large enterprises.

Southern yeoman farmers

A) were staunchly against slavery.
B) listened sympathetically to abolitionist protests.
C) paid little attention to the slave system.
D) tolerated slavery.
E) directly benefited from the slave system.

Which one of the following individuals tried to convince southern yeoman farmers that slavery actually reduced their standard of living?

A) John C. Calhoun
B) Denmark Vesey
C) Hinton R. Helper
D) Harriet Beecher Stowe
E) Will Campbell

Nonslaveholders followed the leadership of slave owners because

A) their economic livelihood depended on it.
B) they feared and disliked African Americans.
C) of their desire to become slave owners.
D) they could not participate in the political process.
E) of their fear of the slave owners.

Southern proslavery arguments did NOT include the belief that slavery was

A) the natural status for blacks.
B) sanctioned by the Bible.
C) mandated by the United States Constitution.
D) consistent with the humanitarian spirit.
E) eventually going to become unnecessary.

Southern apologists claimed the master-slave relationship was more humane than
employer-worker relationships because

A) it offered more opportunities for job training.
B) it was actually a freer relationship.
C) it emphasized cultural identities in a segregated environment.
D) it afforded greater long-term security.
E) it included women in the work force.

In the upper tier of southern states, the principal slave-produced commodity was

A) tobacco.
B) cotton.
C) corn.
D) wheat.
E) indigo.

A major reason for the weaker hold of slavery in the upper South was the

A) increasing industrialization and agricultural diversification in the region.
B) growing moral outrage against slavery in the region.
C) passage of federal laws restricting slavery in the area.
D) effectiveness of the abolitionist movement in the region.
E) lower slave birth rates.

When tobacco prices sagged after 1820,

A) farmers in Virginia and Maryland switched over to cotton and rice production.

B) farmers in Virginia and Maryland found effective ways to reverse soil depletion.

C) large numbers of surplus slaves were sold from the upper South to the lower South.

D) planters in Virginia and Maryland turned openly to slave breeding as a business.

E) Virginia and Maryland began exporting slaves to the Caribbean Islands.

The institution of slavery became even more entrenched in the South because of the
increasing importance of

A) rice.
B) indigo.
C) long-staple cotton.
D) sugar cane.
E) short-staple cotton.

Cotton was well suited to plantation production because it

A) required little labor.
B) required skilled labor.
C) required intensive, simple labor.
D) allowed for seasonal variation in labor needs.
E) could be virtually ignored during the growing season.

The invention in the 1790s that permitted the great expansion of cotton cultivation
was the

A) railroad.
B) cotton gin.
C) cotton reaper.
D) steel plow.
E) mechanical seed planter.

During the nineteenth century, the center of cotton production

A) remained in the Southeast.
B) moved northward.
C) stabilized in Alabama and Mississippi.
D) shifted rapidly westward.
E) was in Georgia.

Each of the following is a valid statement regarding the cotton gin

A) It was instrumental in creating the cotton agriculture in the south and in revitalizing
slavery as an economically viable institution.

B) It made it possible for one slave to do the work of several while producing large quantities of clean cotton fiber each workday.

C) An affordable machine to manufacture, it separated cotton seeds from the fibers.

D) It was invented in 1863.

E) It turned cotton into the most important agriculture product grown in the south and
America’s most important export crop.

Which of the following is true of cotton agriculture in the pre-Civil War era?

A) Many planters worked their land until it was exhausted.
B) Changes in the price of cotton were relatively insignificant between 1830 and 1860.
C) Cotton was a major export for the South, but relatively unimportant to the national
D) both A and B
E) both B and C

The cotton economy of the lower South

A) brought uniform prosperity to the region.
B) was free from market fluctuations.
C) did not create uniform prosperity throughout the region.
D) led to greater southern self-sufficiency.
E) constantly grew.

A leading advocate of the need for southern self-sufficiency was

A) Stephen Douglas.
B) Daniel Webster.
C) Robert Fogel.
D) J. D. B. DeBow.
E) William Gregg.

The union of slavery and cotton

A) decreased the southern dependence on the North.
B) hindered industrialization in the South.
C) facilitated economic self-sufficiency in the South.
D) led to industrialization in the South.
E) encouraged more whites to work as plantation laborers.

(T/F) By the time of the Civil War, most southern slaves worked on plantations and farms.
(T/F) Masters of large plantations generally had a close relationship with their slaves, which helped ensure loyalty.
(T/F) In recent years, historical studies of slavery have found it to be somewhat more
efficient and profitable than previously thought.
(T/F) Small slaveholders and nonslaveholders realized only limited benefit from the great
profits of the cotton economy.
(T/F) Plantation owners’ concern for the welfare of their slaves was a product of economic necessity and paternalism.
(T/F) Slavery survived in the South even though it was not economically profitable to slaveowners.
(T/F) A huge source of profits to slave-owners in the upper South was selling slaves to
plantations in the lower South.
(T/F) Although cotton was central to the southern economy by the 1850s, cotton production did not really increase significantly between 1800 and 1850.
(T/F) Even had the South won the Civil War, cotton had already reached the point in 1860 at which it could no longer expand in the United States.
(T/F) In 1860, only one in ten white families in the South owned slaves.
(ESSAY) How did the South’s reliance on a slave labor system restrict its ability to diversify its
(ESSAY) Compare the economic systems of the upper and lower South. In which region would slavery have died a “natural” death? Explain.
(ESSAY) Evaluate the impact of slavery on the economic and social systems of the South.
(ESSAY) Why weren’t there more slave revolts and rebellions in the two-hundred-year history of the South? In what other ways did slaves demonstrate their opposition to the system?
(ESSAY) Describe the characteristics of the African-American culture that slaves developed in their communities. What role did family and religion play for this culture? Could slaves have survived without this culture? Explain.

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