The Senate has certain powers that the House does not. These include accepting to treaties as a precondition to their ratification and accepting or confirmation of appointments of Cabinet secretaries, federal judges, military officers and other federal government officials. The number of House of Representatives for each state is determined by the population of each state. Powers that the House of Representatives hold include the power to start revenue bills, impeach officials, and the power to elect the President in Electoral College deadlocks.
A bill is proposed to the congress and it is then discussed and revised. If it is passed, with identical language, it is then forwarded to the President who then may veto the bill or sign it into law. Congress has the largest amount of members in Congress with 53 seats in the House of Representatives and 40 State Senators. 3) What are the various steps in legislation? * First, a representative sponsors a bill. * The bill is then assigned to a committee for study. * If released by the committee, the bill is put on a calendar to be voted on, debated or amended. If the bill passes by simple majority 218 of 435, the bill moves to the Senate. * In the Senate, the bill is assigned to another committee and, if released, debated and voted on. * If the Senate makes changes, the bill must return to the House for concurrence. * The resulting bill returns to the House and Senate for final approval. * The President then has 10 days to veto the final bill or sign it into law. Usually the first step in this process is a public hearing, where the committee or subcommittee members hear witnesses representing various viewpoints on the measure.
After hearings are completed, the bill is considered in a session that is popularly known as the mark up session. At this point, amendments may be offered to the bill, and the committee or subcommittee members vote to accept or reject these changes. At the conclusion of deliberation, a vote of committee or subcommittee members is taken to determine what action to take on the measure. It can be reported, with or without amendment, or tabled, which means no further action on it will occur.
If the committee has approved extensive amendments, they may decide to report a new bill incorporating all the amendments. This is known as a clean bill, which will have a new number. 4) How dose a bill become law? There are potentially 10 steps a bill can go through before becoming a law. * Step 1: A bill is born, Anyone may draft a bill however, only members of Congress can introduce legislation, and, by doing so, become the sponsor(s). The president, a member of the cabinet or the head of a federal agency can also propose legislation, although a member of Congress must introduce it. Step 2: Committee action,
As soon as a bill is introduced, it is referred to a committee. At this point the bill is examined carefully and its chances for passage are first determined. If the committee does not act on a bill, the bill is effectively “dead. ” * Step 3: Subcommittee Review, Often, bills are referred to a subcommittee for study and hearings. Hearings provide the opportunity to put on the record the views of the executive branch, experts, other public officials and supporters, and opponents of the legislation. Step 4: Mark up, When the hearings are completed, the subcommittee may meet to “mark up” the bill that is, make changes and amendments prior to recommending the bill to the full committee. If a subcommittee votes not to report legislation to the full committee, the bill dies. If the committee votes for the bill, it is sent to the floor. * Step 5: Committee action to repot a bill, After receiving a subcommittee’s report on a bill the full committee votes on its recommendation to the House or Senate. This procedure is called ordering a bill reported. * Step 6:
Voting, After the debate and the approval of any amendments, the bill is passed or defeated by the members voting. * Step 7: Referral to other chamber, When the House or Senate passes a bill it is referred to the other chamber, where it usually follows the same route through committee and floor action. This chamber may approve the bill as received, reject it, ignore it, or change it. * Step 8: Conference Committee Action, When the actions of the other chamber significantly alter the bill, a conference committee is formed to reconcile the differences between the House and Senate versions.
If the conferees are unable to reach agreement, the legislation dies. If agreement is reached, a conference report is prepared describing the committee members’ recommendations for changes. Both the House and Senate must approve the conference report. * Step 9: Final action, After both the House and Senate have approved a bill in identical form, it is sent to the president. If the president approves of the legislation, he signs it and it becomes law. Or, if the president takes no action for ten days, while Congress is in session, it automatically becomes law.
If the president opposes the bill he can veto it or if he takes no action after the Congress has adjourned its second session, it is a pocket veto and the legislation dies. * Step 10: Overriding a veto, If the president vetoes a bill, Congress may attempt to “override the veto. ” If both the Senate and the House pass the bill by a two-thirds majority, the president’s veto is overruled and the bill becomes a law. 5) If you were given the change to become a congressman or a senator, which one would you like to be and why? A senator practices in the senate, and a congressman in the House of Representatives.
Senators have 6 year terms, and representatives serve two year terms. Each senator probably has more individual power and responsibility, since there are only 100 senators, and 435 congressmen. I’d be a senator, because the term is greater, and my vote would count more it would suck to have to campaign every two years. In terms of personality, senators need to be friendly, outgoing, charismatic and aggressive without being overbearing have strong people and time management skills and have excellent communication and public speaking skills. A passion for public service and a spotless reputation are two other vital characteristics for becoming a senator.