The English language is described as a living language because
it changes due to growth and decay. In a living language, words are added and others cease to exist.
English has changed over time due to
historical influences, new science and medical discoveries and modifications in social attitudes.
Romantic poets feel that isolation and alienation are important components to the creation of their poetry. What does alienation have to do with Romantic Ideology?
To commune with nature, one needs to be alone with nature. As being with nature is a cathartic experience to the Romantics, there needs to be a one-to-one relationship with no other distractions.
Hamlin Garlin and Bret Harte used realism to create texts. Realism is best defined as
the literary technique of realistically representing the nature of life and the social world, as it would appear to the common reader. Think of realism as a literary attempt at photography-a realistic approach as opposed to a romantic one.
Who is the author attributed with writing The Iliad and The Odyssey?
Scholars credit Homer, a Greek poet
In the construction of an effective persuasive argument, you must include
a full recognition and clear analysis of the counterargument showing its strengths and weaknesses.
What American author is famous for such works as Life on the Mississippi and Innocents Abroad: or The New Pilgrim;s Progess?
What is a topic sentence?
A sentence usually located at the beginning of a paper that states the main premise of the essay.
What is the definition of grammar?
The branch of language study or linguistic study that deals with the means of showing the relationship between words in use.
Approaches to instruction in grammar include
transformational, traditional and structural
The term alliteration means
a repetitive consonant sound occuring at the beginning of a word or of a stressed syllable within a word.
What does the narrator of Moby Dick mean when he says “This is my substitute for pistol and ball”?
If he doesn’t get to the sea right away, he will kill himself. In other words, it suggests that sailing is the only cure for his depression.
When the narrator refers to “a damp, drizzly November in my soul,” he is using what type of figure of speech.
metaphor, whereby symbols replace literal representations.
For the purpose of continuity, historians and scholars divide the periods of English literature into various segments.
Old English, Middle English, Renaissance, Neoclassical, Romantic, Victorian, Modern periods.
The term that denotes or classifies a recurring type of literature, also called a literary form, is more commonly referred to as
Genre is a word of French that denotes the categorizing or classification of literary works by subject. Genres can include but are not limited to such categories as westersn, science fiction, horror, mystery, and detective stories.
Keats, Shelly (Percy Bysshe and Mary), Coleridge, and Wordsmith are names associated with which period of English Literature?
The authors are all associated with the Romantic period.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens, one of the most famous authors in American History, is know by a more familiar pen name. What is it?
Mark Twain, who took his pen name from the language of the river boats he so loved.
A noun formed from a verb by the addition of -ing, as in run to running, is known as a (an)
A gerund is fromed by adding -ing to a verb, resulting in a word that functions as a noun.
When two independent clauses are NOT joined correctly, the sentence is known as a
A run-on sentence
In the phrase to boldly go where no man has gone before, what is the grammatical term for to boldy go?
What is the best practice in writing instruction?
Instruct students in writing, and give them time to write.
Listening is a process students use to extract meaning from oral speech. Activities teachers can engage in to assist students in becoming more effective listeners include
clearly setting a purpose for listening, asking questions about the selection, and encouraging students to forge links between the new information and knowledge already in place.
If a teacher is interested in improving the comprehension skills of students, that teacher should
teach students to decode well, allow time during the day to read and reread selections and discuss the selections after reading to clarify meaning and make connections.
If a student’s purpose is to give an informational speech, he is likely to
be somewhat repetitive to reinforce points made.
A scoring rubric is designed to
focus on each aspect of an assigned task and allow teachers to afford some aspects of an assignment more importance by weighing them more highly.
The primary purpose of an IRI (Informal Reading Inventory) is to
diagnose weaknesses in specific reading skills so that a teacher can target remediation. It can also indicate the student’s instructional, independent, and frustration level, but this is not its primary purpose.
A checklist can be used to assess listening and might reasonably include
the student’s ability to follow directions, make pertinent remarks and ask relevant questions following a presentation.
If a second language learner is literate in his native language, it will usually take him how long to acquire CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency) in the second language?
Specific strategies for integrating language and content for second language learners include
using explicit language modeling, the presentation of realia and body language.
In order to develop proficient writers, teachers must develop
The authoring cycle consists of
brainstorming, drafting, editing, proofreading, final copy
A writing portfolio should be organized by
in chronological order so that improvement in writing over time is documented.
An example of figurative language is a (an)
An example of onomatopoeia is
splash, fizz, pluck, pop
An example of redundancy
The really hot boiling water…
What is responsible for the major change in the meaning of the word “gay” in contemporary society?
What affects a speaker’s use of language?
the age of the speaker, the background experiences of the listeners, the speaker’s purpose
Usually it is more effective to write active rather than passive sentences. A passive sentence puts
the object before the subject.
If a sentence’s subject is contained in a noun phrase, then a sentence’s predicate must contain..
a verb phrase
The rule for applying a preposition or an article to all members of a series is
that you must use either a preposition or article only before the first term or else repeat it before every term.
While ambiguous writing can be an obsatcle for many novice authors, seasoned veterans of the craft, from Shakespeare to Joyce, use ambiguity for pluralistic effects. What does ambiguous mean?
using a vague or ambivalent word or expression when a precise word or phrase is called for
What is allusion?
using a literary text or reference, without explicit identification of the text or reference.
What is a concrete word or phrase?
using a word or phrase that states specifically what the author is trying to say.
Which activity is considered part of the prewriting phase of the writing phase?
delimiting the topic, point of view, organizational format, augience for the piece
a teacher wants to facilitate her students’ choice of a writing piece. Strategies for assisting them to do this include
interest inventories, journals and freewriting
When you give students a piece of writing that uses the third person and have them change it to first person, they will be practicing the element of the writing process called
point of view
Effective responses to students’ writing include the following
I liked the way you made the protagonist’s intentions clear, your point of view was perfectly appropriate for this piece, the twists and turns in your plot would maintain the reader’s interest
Teachers should respond to student’s writing by doing what?
Providing positive reinforcement by stating waht was done well.
Appropriate ways to assess students’ writing include
a teacher-student writing conference, have the students keep individual tracking sheets on which they include comments about the quality of their writing, have the students use writing comments sheets which have sections for both student and teacher comments on the writing
When two different words share the same or similar meaning they are
According to the National Institute for Literacy, parents and educators “can encourage indirect vocabulary learning by first
reading aloud to children, regardless of age or grade level”
What is the definition of literacy?
the ability to comprehend what one reads and writes
When paraphrasing the plot of a literary work, it is standard practice to
summarize the piece in the present
In a composition on literary analysis, where is the most appropriate spot to place the author’s name, the title of the piece, and the thesis or central theme of your paper?
in the first sentence of the first paragraph
One of the most effective ways for readers to “engage” with the text is to
annotate the text with a pencil or pen and not a highlighter
Why should children be taught to use graphic organizers as a method of organizing data during an inquiry?
It helps children to see similarities and differences across sources
Why should children be encouraged to figure out the structure and the features of the text they are attempting to comprehend and remember?
it helps the students to understand the way the author orgainized the material to be presented, to look at the features of the text, talking about the text provides an opportunity for the teacher to point out the most salient features fto the students, the discussions may help the child make connections between the new material in the chapter and what is already known about the topic.
Having students make a semantic web of several books, including things such as the setting, the plot and the characterization, is a good way to teach them
the elements of the genre: the novel
In their use of a dictionary, the most common weakness that youngsets demonstrate is their failure to
use guide words to locate the word of interest
If youngsters need to locate specific information about an individual, the most appropriate reference book for them to use would be
a biographical dictionary
Students who use metacognition to enhance their reading comprehension have teachers who encourage them to
activate prior knowledge, make predictions, ask questions while reading, summarize what they have read
A quickly and easily made assessment tool that teachers can make to assess strengths and weaknesses in students’ reading is
Another name for an IRI (Informal Reading Inventory) is
a miscue analysis, as it is used to record the errors in decoding made by a student.
Examples of literay genre include
historical fiction, science fiction and realistic fiction
Context clues should be taught in categories. Which are categories of context clues?
definitions of more complex or unusual words, giving an example of what the word means, comparison of the more difficult word with something more familar
If an author portrays a character as having an “Achilles’s heel” to refer to the character’s weakness, he has a literary device known as an
Strategies for teaching literature include
creating plot diagrams, rewriting the books ending, designing a jacket or cover for the book
Which genre would most likely assis young adults with personal, social, and emotional development?
realistic contemporary fiction
Literature circles come together for the specific purpose of doing which of the following?
discussing a designated book, author, or literary genre
Persuasive speakers use which of the following approaches to convince their audience to agree with them?
appeal to reason, appeal to emotion, appeal to character
Someone listening to music while driving is engaged in what level or type of listening?
Advertisers often use euphemisms in their commercials. What are examples of euphemisms?
passed away, faux diamond, imitation leather
A teacher videotaped several television commercials. The students were asked to decipher the real message the advertiser was sending. The teacher did this in order to make the students
A teacher is giving oral directions to her class so that they can create a craft project. The teacher’s goal is to assess the students’
Having students view a film based on a book they have read and compare the two versions, helps them to become
Assessment of speaking should
be performance-based in authentic contexts, include skills such as make eye contact, include the ability to stick to the subject, include responding appropriately to audience questions
Today’s students need to access computers. Drawbacks concerning the use of this technology in schools include
computers are very expensive, grow obsolete quickly and need to be replaced, should not be an end in and of themselves.
Which skills of language arts are considered expressive?
speaking and writing
What is an appropriate strategy that integrates math and writing?
Have youngsters write out a complete explanation of their solution to a math problem.
What are examples of cooperative learning strategies?
Think-pair-share, numbered heads together, jigsaw
Activities that would be appropriate for an integral unit on World War II?
studying a map of the countries involved, making a graph of the troop losses on each side, interviewing veterans about their experiences, reading about the topic in a history textbook
The lesson plan for an integrated lesson differs from that of a lesson in a single subject in what way?
the procedures section includes activities in several curriculum areas.
What are examples of receptive language arts?
viewing, listening, and reading