Exceptionalities Chpt 8,9,10,11,12,13,14

The trend today in placement of children with E/BD is away from special facilities and toward
inclusion in regular public schools.
Each of the following is true of instructional considerations for students with E/BD EXCEPT
Incidental social learning is sufficient and preferred to address social difficulties.
Increasingly, researchers recognize that problem behavior occurs less frequently in the classroom when
the teacher is offering effective instruction.
All of the following are controversial concepts specific to discipline of students with disabilities EXCEPT
use of corporal punishment.
An approach to dealing with discipline problems that focuses on research-validated practices and recognizes the “value of nonviolent negative consequences” is
positive behavioral intervention and support.
Bert is a nine-year-old boy with E/BD. If he is like the average child with E/BD, his IQ probably falls in which range on standardized tests?
The most common problems exhibited by children with E/BD are
conduct disorders.
Aggression is encouraged by all of the following EXCEPT
reinforcement for nonaggressive behavior.
In the Garrity and colleagues program for reducing bullying in schools, the “caring majority” refers to
the group of students who neither bully nor get bullied.
Behavioral psychologists tend to attribute withdrawal and immaturity to
failures in social learning.
The causes of E/BD have been attributed to each of the following EXCEPT
membership in a particular cultural group.
In the majority of cases, the cause of E/BD is
In cases of severe E/BD, each of the following is true EXCEPT
There is valid research showing that parenting behavior causes children’s problems.
Each of the following cultural conditions may predispose children to develop E/BD EXCEPT
a child’s temperament.
The term used in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that has been criticized as inappropriate is
emotionally disturbed.
Which one of the following features is common to most definitions of E/BD?
socially unacceptable behavior
The federal definition of E/BD has been most widely criticized for its exclusion of children with
social maladjustment.
Two broad dimensions of behavior disorders are
externalizing and internalizing.
Comorbidity in persons with E/BD is
not unusual.
What percentage of the school-aged population exhibits serious and persistent emotional/behavioral problems, according to credible studies in the U.S. and other countries?
According to the National Research Council, each of the following is considered an essential feature of effective educational programs for preschool children with autistic spectrum disorders EXCEPT
active engagement in intensive instructional programming for at least 10 hours per week.
low student/teacher ratios in the classroom.
inclusion of a family component, including parent training.
entry into intervention programs as soon as diagnosis is seriously considered.
In many ways, outcomes for persons with autism are similar to those with
intellectual disabilities.
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) includes each of the following components EXCEPT
limited use of reinforcement.
focus on functional skills.
require continuous assessment of progress.
using structured lessons.
Educators of students with autistic spectrum disorder are putting increasing emphasis on applying behavioral psychology in
natural settings and natural interactions
What is currently the most popular placement for students with autism?
self-contained classroom
The process by which one alerts another to a stimulus via nonverbal means, such as gazing or pointing, is called
joint attention.
The desire to communicate for social reasons is
communicative intent.
Which of the following statements about intelligence and autism is true?
The majority of individuals with autism display cognitive deficits similar to those with intellectual disabilities.
What percentage of the population of those with autism is thought to be autistic savant?
about 10%
A mixing of sensory or cognitive systems whereby stimulation of one elicits stimulation of the other is
People with Asperger Syndrome tend to be
overly literal and focused on logic over emotion.
The three most prominent theories that identify the major impairments attributed to autism spectrum disorders include each of the following EXCEPT
family systems.
executive functions.
weak central coherence.
theory of mind.
The natural inclination for most people to bring order and meaning to information in their environment by perceiving it as a meaningful whole rather than as disparate parts is
central coherence.
During the 1960s, which idea was popular among professionals trying to explain autism?
psychoanalytic idea that attributes cause to parents
Each of the following supports a neurological basis for autism EXCEPT
Studies show that when one sibling is diagnosed with autism, the chances are much higher that another sibling has autism.
People with autism have a high incidence of brain seizures and cognitive deficits.
People with autism may have experienced sudden, excessive brain growth followed by a deceleration in growth.
Postmortem and neurological imaging studies have implicated several areas of the brain that differ from those of people without disabilities.
Which of the following statements illustrates evidence for autism having a hereditary component?
Identical twins are much more likely to both have autism than are fraternal twins.
What percentage of children with autism appears to experience autistic regression?
Each of the following is a misconception about autism spectrum disorders EXCEPT
There is no evidence that bad parenting causes autism.
People with autism spectrum disorders are all intellectually disabled.
It is a single, well-defined category of disability.
People with autism are impaired in some cognitive areas but are highly intelligent or geniuses in others.
The words ʺautisticʺ and ʺautismʺ come from the Greek word autos, meaning
Kannerʹs research with a group of children he called ʺautisticʺ indicated that these children could be set apart from children with schizophrenia in each of the following ways EXCEPT
Children with schizophrenia exhibited bizarre, repetitive physical movement.
Children with autism exhibited unique language patterns, such as echolalia.
Children with schizophrenia withdrew from the world at some point, while children with autism had no social connections to begin with.
Children with schizophrenia tended to deteriorate in their functioning over time, while children with autism did not.
Asperger referred to the children he studied as having
autistic psychopathy.
A condition that is much like autism but usually without significant delays in cognition and language is
Asperger syndrome.
Each of the following is included within autism spectrum disorders EXCEPT
autistic-like disorder.
childhood disintegrative disorder.
Asperger syndrome.
pervasive developmental disorder.
A condition characterized by normal development for at least 2 and up to 10 years, followed by a significant loss of skills is
childhood disintegrative disorder.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, how many people have an autism spectrum disorder?
about 1 out of 110
Which statement about the prevalence rate of ASD is TRUE?
It is 4 times higher for boys than girls.
Planning for transition to adulthood for people with Asperger syndrome is largely concerned with issues of
social interaction.
Functional behavioral assessment is used to reduce or eliminate negative behaviors. The purposes the behaviors serve for a person are
The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) focuses on
improving relatively severe language problems.
Two critical areas of assessment for students with autism spectrum disorders are
progress in language development and social/adaptive behavior.
Each of the following is a characteristic that applies generally to individuals who may be said to exhibit autism spectrum disorder EXCEPT
broad range of interests
impaired social responsiveness.
impaired communication.
stereotyped and ritualistic behavior.
Children with autism have impaired communication; as many as 50 percent are thought to
be mute
Repetitive, ritualistic motor movements such as twirling, flapping hands, and rocking are known as
stereotypic behaviors.
Jeremy has severe autism. He does not interact with others socially and his intellectual functioning appears to be very low. However, Jeremy has extraordinary ability as a pianist (though he is not interested in performing for other people). Which term best describes Jeremy?
autistic savant
A person whose sensory perceptions are so abnormal that he or she could appear to be deaf or blind would be
The social skills that are not taught directly but people are assumed to know, or social rules or conventions that most of us learn incidentally, are what is referred to as the
hidden curriculum
The way people use language in social situations is
Executive functions include all of the following EXCEPT
ability to conceptualize stimuli as a whole.
self-regulation of emotions.
working memory.
the ability to plan ahead.
Jean is a young woman with Asperger syndrome. Her coworker recently lost a family member to cancer. Jean expounded on her knowledge of the cause and effects of the illness, but did not offer condolences, nor did she notice the discomfort she was causing her coworker. Jean’s inability to perceive the feelings or to understand the emotional state of her coworker is related to
theory of mind.
Which term was once commonly applied to mothers of children with autism?
refrigerator moms
Which statement about the causes of autism spectrum disorder is true?
Scientists have established unequivocally that the cause is neurological.
Neurological research that involves the brain and head size of people with autism strongly suggests that for many
their brains grow suddenly and excessively in the first two years of life.
Most children with autism can be diagnosed by the age of
3 years
The seminal work in the field of autism began in what year?
One characteristic that distinguished children studied by Kanner was
an inability to relate to others in an ordinary manner.
Asperger identified children who had
average intelligence but channeled their intellectual pursuits into obsessive preoccupation in narrow areas.
Which term is used to describe disorders similar in many ways to autism?
autism spectrum disorder
According to the APA, in order to be diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, an individual must meet each of these criteria EXCEPT
evidence of echolalia, a unique language pattern with repetition of words and phrases
A condition in which persons display behaviors typical of autism but to a lesser degree and/or with an onset later than 3 years of age is
pervasive developmental disorder.
Most scientists argue that the dramatic increase in prevalence statistics for autism is due to each of the following EXCEPT
widespread use of vaccinations for babies.
a widening of the criteria used for diagnosis.
ʺdiagnostic substitutionʺ (diagnosing with autism rather than intellectual disability).
a greater awareness of autism in general.
Jeremy is a four-year-old boy who makes infantile noises and uses gestures to request objects. He displays
prelinguistic communication.
Ideally, early intervention in the area of speech and language development should begin
during the first few months of life.
Each of the following statements about adolescents and adults with speech and language problems is true EXCEPT
The loss of the ability to speak is typically more disabling than the loss of the ability to use language.
Which one of the following is an example of an alternative question-asking strategy?
reducing the complexity of a question
The ability to transfer written words into speech is
Which of the following statements about written language development is true?
As students progress throughout the grades, written language takes on increasing importance.
To document outcomes based on individual intervention plans, speech-language pathologists use demographic and diagnostic data along with a series of scales that measure
functional communication.
Which of the following statements about communication variations is true?
Someone with a language difference that is a disorder has difficulty communicating even in his or her home language community.
According to typical development, by what age are all American English speech sounds acquired?
8 years
The social interaction, or pragmatic, theory of language development suggests that
the natural environment may be arranged to teach more effective language.
Language disorders are generally classified according to two dimensions:
domain and etiology.
Specific language impairment refers to
language disorders with no identifiable cause.
A failure of the child to understand the sound system of language at an age-appropriate level and in a culturally appropriate way represents
phonological disorders.
Which one of the following is an articulation disorder?
Causes of voice disorders include all of the following EXCEPT
chicken pox.
What percentage of children and adults in this country are considered stutterers?
A disorder due to brain damage that affects a person’s respiratory support for making speech sounds is
Communication requires
encoding and decoding.
The communication of ideas through an arbitrary system of symbols used according to certain rules that determine meaning is
Decoding, or understanding messages, is referred to as
receptive language.
Phonology refers to linguistic rules governing
sound combinations.
A language disorder that involves problems with functional and socially appropriate communication is
All of the following are examples of speech disorders EXCEPT
semantic disorder.
Approximately what percentage of children identified for special education receives services primarily for speech or language disorders?
Approximately what percentage of students in elementary and secondary grades is thought to have speech disorders?
Much of a child’s language and social development depend on two characteristics of language interaction the child has with care givers. What are the characteristics?
nature and quantity of the language
Which procedure most closely resembles ʺmilieu teaching?ʺ
Fiona requests a ball from her teacher who asks ʺWhat do you want to do with the ball?ʺ The teacher gives Fiona the ball only when she replies to the question.
Jennie is a preschooler with delayed language development. Language intervention at this level generally focuses on
Which condition reduces the effectiveness of strategy training for adolescents with speech and language disorders?
poor reading skills
The primary role of the classroom teacher is to facilitate development of which aspect of language?
Students with communication disorders may have trouble with stories about ideas or events one has experienced or thought about, called
personal narratives.
All of the following are guidelines that teachers and parents can follow when talking with children with speech and language disorders EXCEPT
Lead the discussion.
Methods of progress monitoring that involve a cycle of teaching, followed by testing, and then reteaching as necessary are
dynamic assessments.
Which one of the following is the best example of a language variation?
African American English
Which statement is true concerning the comparison between the language of a normally developing child and one with a language disorder?
The sequence of development is similar, but milestones are reached at later years by the child with a disorder.
The theory that language depends on brain development and proper brain functioning and that language disorders resulting from brain dysfunction can sometimes be compensated for is the theory of
biological maturation.
At present, which theory of communication is considered to have the most direct implications for speech-language pathologists and teachers?
pragmatic or social interaction
Each of the following statements about classification of language disorders is true EXCEPT
Difficulty in using language in social interactions and relationships is an exclusive feature of secondary language disorders.
An example of a primary language disorder is a/an
early expressive language delay.
Articulation disorders
involve errors in sound production.
The dimensions of voice are
pitch, loudness, and quality (resonance).
The most common fluency disorder is
Due to a brain injury, Henry has difficulty selecting and sequencing speech. He knows he makes errors and what he wants to say, but simply cannot. Henry’s condition is
acquired apraxia.
Requesting objects, rejecting interactions, sharing ideas, and seeking social interaction are examples of
communicative function.
Encoding, or sending messages, is referred to as
expressive language.
The neuromuscular activity of forming and sequencing the sounds of oral language is called
The meanings and concepts people attach to words and sentences are referred to as
Janice has a speech disorder which causes her to speak extremely slowly. This is a disorder of
It is difficult to estimate the prevalence of communication disorders primarily because
there is so much overlap with other categories of disability.
Approximately what percentage of students in elementary and secondary grades is thought to have a language disorder?
Children with deafness who have parents who are also deaf
develop ASL at a rate similar to the rate at which hearing infants develop English.
Until the mid-1960s the only institution specifically for postsecondary education of students with hearing impairments was
National statistics indicate that 95 percent of adults who are deaf choose deaf spouses. What percentage of the offspring from these marriages has normal hearing?
Teaching people with hearing impairments to use visual information (such as facial expressions) to understand what is being said to them is
Each of the following statements about signing English systems is true EXCEPT
They are more fluent than ASL.
FM systems are used in conjunction with hearing aids to
amplify sound.
ATT is a device for
communicating via telephone.
In recent years, many parents and professionals have questioned the trend toward inclusion of children with hearing impairment because
it reduces their opportunity to participate in the signing community.
Which statement about the assessment of progress of students who have hearing impairments is true?
Most standardized assessments are biased towards the majority culture.
Signs in American Sign Language consist of each of the following EXCEPT
Each of the following is true about individuals with hearing loss EXCEPT
They reach the same language development milestones in sign as children without hearing loss do in spoken language, but at a slower rate.
Which academic area is most affected by deafness?
The two factors that seem to have a positive effect on social adjustment are
less inclusion with hearing peers and having parents who are deaf
Whether a person thinks of himself or herself as deaf is referred to as
attitudinal deafness.
The genetic engineering debate regarding Deaf activism refers to members of the Deaf community who want to
deliberately increase their chances of having a deaf child
The ossicles function to create
transfer of energy from the middle to the inner ear.
Ideally, screening tests for babies should follow a
1-3-6 month rule
Most speech sounds have frequencies (pitch) in the range of
500-2,000 Hz.
When testing the hearing of a two-year-old child, an audiologist should avoid use of which type of audiometry?
A condition in which the external auditory canal does not form is
The most severe hearing impairments are associated with which part of the ear?
inner ear
The most frequent viral cause of deafness in newborns is
congenital cytomegalovirus.
From the physiological perspective, the distinction between ʺdeafʺ and ʺhard of hearingʺ is based on
decibels levels detected.
The term ʺhard of hearingʺ is used to describe people with hearing impairment who
have enough residual hearing to process sound with a hearing aid.
According to the U.S. Department of Education, what percentage of students is identified as deaf or hard of hearing?
People who say that deafness should not be considered a disability argue that
they should be considered a cultural minority with a language of their own
The most important organ for hearing is the
Virtually all new television programs are captioned for use by people with hearing impairment. Federal law requires that TVs over 13 inches must
contains a chip that produces captions
The total communication approach utilizes
oral and manual communication
Among students who are deaf, those who achieve the highest levels of literacy tend to have
parents who communicate with them using both ASL and speech
The ʺspeech reception thresholdʺ is best defined as the
dB level at which one can understand speech
Professionals who work in early intervention programs for infants who are blind often recommend that initial efforts focus on
mobility skills.
Each of the following is an accommodation that can be made on the job for those who are blind or who have low vision EXCEPT
more time off.
The basic unit of braille is a
cell of dots.
The National Federation of the Blind had a braille bill passed to
ensure that teachers of students with visual impairment are proficient in braille.
Use of compressed speech enables students with blindness to
listen to recorded texts at a faster rate.
An advantage of using guide dogs is that
they can be a safeguard against walking into dangerous areas.
Guide dogs must learn each of the following except
see when a traffic light has changed color.
Oscar, a ninth grader who is blind, uses a device that converts regular print into synthesized speech. What is the machine called?
Kurzweil 1000
In comparison to sighted children, children who are blind
are not impaired in language functioning.
Which of the following statements about the conceptual abilities of children with visual impairment is true?
Adults need to directly encourage infants and toddlers with vision problems to explore their environment as they are less likely than their sighted peers to do so on their own.
When walking, Lisa, an eighteen-year-old with blindness, has learned to attend to the subtle changes in pitch of echoes from objects as she moves towards them. Which phenomenon is responsible for these changes?
Doppler effect
The lower achievement scores of students who are blind or who have low vision is most likely due to
lack of exposure to braille or low expectations.
People with sight can facilitate communication with people who are blind by
using ʺtelephone skillsʺ when conversing in person.
The structure in the eye which refines and changes the focus of the light rays is the
The colored portion of the eye that contracts or expands depending on the amount of light striking it is the
Janice is described as being able to detect some objects in the environment when they are fully lit. This is an example of a skill a teacher might note when performing a
functional vision assessment.
Clara has good vision for assignments written on the blackboard, but she has difficulty with the print in her textbook. She may have a refraction problem known as
A group of eye diseases that cause damage to the optic nerve is
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is caused by
excessive oxygen given to infants at birth.
A condition characterized by a preference for looking at near objects, non-purposeful gazing, distinct color preferences, attraction to rapid movements, and abnormal visual reflexes is
cortical visual impairment.
The legal definition of blindness involves assessment of
visual acuity and field of vision.
A common criticism of legal definitions of blindness is that visual acuity
doesn’t predict how well people use their remaining sight.
For educational purposes, individuals who are blind
must use braille or aural methods.
Some people think both the legal and educational definitions of blindness are flawed because both focus on
limitations rather than skills.
Blindness occurs most often in
Impediments to independent living and feeling comfortable in society for people who are blind or who have low vision include all of the following EXCEPT
cognitive deficits.
Approximately what percentage of the population of people with blindness currently uses braille as a primary reading method?
The major disadvantage of large-print books is that they
take up a great deal of storage space.
Which mobility aid is most often recommended by professionals?
the long cane
All of the following are appropriate actions pertaining to guide dogs and their owners EXCEPT
Holding the dog’s harness when you are asked to lead the person somewhere.
When guiding a person who is blind, you should
let the person take your arm and walk slightly behind you.
Historically, residential institutions were the preferred means of service delivery because they
offered a number of specialized services in one place.
Most professionals now agree that the intelligence of people with blindness
can’t be compared directly to that of people with sight.
A skill used by people who are blind to aid them in acquiring mobility is
spatial ability.
People who are blind
learn to make better use of the sensations they obtain.
Social adjustment problems for children with visual impairment are most likely the result of
society’s reaction to people who are blind.
Repetitive movements such as rocking, rubbing the eyes, and grimacing displayed by some people who are blind are known as
stereotypic behavior.
The transparent gelatinous substance in the eye is known as the
vitreous humor.
The watery substance found between the cornea and lens of the eye is the
aqueous humor.
Each of the following is a limitation of the Snellen Chart EXCEPT
It depends on a person’s ability to recognize letters.
David has myopia. Another term for this condition is
The condition that results when the cornea or lens of the eye is irregular resulting in blurred vision is known as
A condition that involves an underdevelopment of part of the eye and is often associated with brain abnormalities such that a child is at risk for speech and cognitive disabilities is
optic nerve hypoplasia.
A hereditary disease that usually causes the field of vision to narrow and also affects night vision is
retinitis pigmentosa.
As a result of improper muscle functioning, Zelda’s eyes are misaligned. This description suggests which one of the following conditions?
As a disability of children, blindness is
the least prevalent disability.
Even though he has visual acuity of 20/20, Jeff is considered legally blind. This is possible if he has severely restricted
peripheral vision.
The educational definition of blindness and low vision stresses
the method of reading instruction.
Many students who are legally blind would not be considered blind from an educational perspective because they
are able to use vision for learning.
What percentage of school-aged children does the federal government classify as visually impaired?
Any manual or electronic means by which a person who is unable to communicate through normal speech can express wants and needs, share information, engage in social closeness, or manage social etiquette is
augmentative or alternative communication.
Manual signs that easily convey their meaning (i.e., cradling one’s arms while gently rocking back and forth to represent ʺbabyʺ) are
Any repetitive, stereotyped behavior that seems to have no immediately apparent purpose is
Repeated physical self-abuse, such as biting, scratching, or poking oneself, head banging, and so on is called
self-injurious behavior.
The process of finding out why or under what circumstances problem behavior is exhibited is called
functional behavioral assessment
Which of the following is a fundamental assumption of positive behavioral support?
Each behavior carries a communicative intent.
Michelle is an early intervention specialist who works with families who have children with severe disabilities. Although they are not proven to be effective by research, she knows that she needs to provide individualized practices for each family, communicate with family members in a non-paternalistic manner, and ensure that any placement she recommends be safe and clean. These are examples of
value-based practices.
Each of the following is an example of vocational training that would likely occur in elementary school EXCEPT
student volunteering at different jobs.
Each of the following is a feature of the federal government’s definition of deaf-blindness EXCEPT
hearing impairment of 30 dB or greater in the better ear.
Each of the following is a category of causes of deaf-blindness EXCEPT
perinatal conditions.
A condition in which a child is born with an abnormally shaped pupil and/or abnormalities of the retina or optic nerve is
Each of the following is a symptom of CHARGE syndrome EXCEPT
tunnel vision.
The fact that Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder means that
both parents must carry the gene and there is a 25% chance of the child having the syndrome
Each of the following has been shown to sometimes cause deaf-blindness EXCEPT
childhood mumps
The first person who was deaf-blind who was known to be taught language was
Laura Bridgman
Each of the following is an objective to help meet the needs of infants who are deaf-blind EXCEPT
avoid using subroutines within specific activities as this leads to confusion.
An adaptation that may be used by a person who is deaf-blind to communicate with the public is
assistance cards.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the most common injuries of
the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Brain damage caused by internal compression, stretching or other shearing motion of neural tissues within the head is due to
closed head injuries.
Which statement about TBI is TRUE?
Males are more prone to TBI than females are.
Carl was three years old when he acquired TBI. Which of the following was the most likely cause of his brain injury?
He fell off a counter in his home.
Each of the following characteristics is an essential feature of appropriate education for students with TBI EXCEPT
emphasis on catching up to academic content, rather than spending time trying to develop basic cognitive skills.
The greatest complicating factor in most studentsʹ return to school following TBI is
language or speech disorders.
Effective education and treatment for students with TBI often requires each of the following EXCEPT
Avoid trying to develop a personal relationship.
Each of the following statements about severe and multiple disabilities is true EXCEPT
Even combinations of mild disabilities do not constitute severe educational problems.
Manual signs that closely resemble the object or action they represent (i.e., gesturing throwing a ball for ʺthrowʺ) are
Each of the following is a challenge particular to users of augmentative or alternative communication (AAC) not faced by natural communicators EXCEPT
There are no systems that allow for expression of complex, abstract thoughts.
Each of the following statements about self-stimulation is true EXCEPT
The type of self-stimulation among those with disabilities is what differentiates it from the norm.
Madeline’s mother told her to pick up her stuffed bear and put it away. Madeline threw herself to the ground and began kicking and screaming. Madeline’s mom put the bear away herself, telling Madeline, ʺO.K, O.K., calm down.ʺ Madeline quickly ended her tantrum and returned to playing. Which statement is true?
The mother’s behavior reinforced the tantrum behavior.
The process of identifying alternative, acceptable ways to communicate through teaching more appropriate behaviors and/or changing the environment to reduce the likelihood of prompting the undesirable behavior is
positive behavioral support.
Each of the following is considered a criterion essential for early intervention programs in special education EXCEPT
disregard for the principle of normalization.
Each of the following statements about early intervention is true EXCEPT
It is best to assume that all parents need to be educated about how to be better parents to avoid overlooking a likely problem.
Each of the following statements about the outcomes for individuals with deaf-blindness is true EXCEPT
Additional disabilities do not tend to increase the impact on a person’s ability to adapt.
How many children from age 6 to 11 were receiving services for deaf-blindness in 2007 (compared to 32,000 for deafness and 12,000 for blindness)?
fewer than 550
A syndrome that causes deaf-blindness and is characterized by a combination of physical anomalies including cranial nerve damage, heart defects, blockage of the air passage from the nose to the throat, and retardation in growth and intellectual development present at birth is
CHARGE syndrome.
The absence or closure of a body opening present at birth is
An inherited syndrome of deaf-blindness characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa is
Usher syndrome.
Which condition is associated with tunnel vision?
Usher syndrome
Most authorities agree that the biggest obstacle faced by persons with deaf-blindness is
In addressing the needs of students with deaf-blindness, two principles that practitioners and parents should keep in mind are
direct instruction and structured routines.
Tactual signals that can convey a number of messages depending on the situation and context are
touch cues.
Most authorities agree that a student with Usher syndrome should
begin braille and O & M training while functioning as a seeing person.
Each of the following is a feature of definitions of TBI EXCEPT
injury to the brain can be caused by a degenerative or congenital condition.
Possible effects of TBI include each of the following EXCEPT
sudden improvement in memory.
The prevalence of TBI has increased so much in recent years that it is now sometimes referred to as
a high-incidence disability.
After age 5, and increasingly through adolescence, the primary cause of TBI is
vehicular accidents.
Many teachers don’t want students with TBI in their classrooms, probably because
the students may exhibit characteristics the teachers find troublesome.
Each of the following is true about TBI EXCEPT
behavior management strategies used with students who have emotional or behavioral disorders are not appropriate for use with students who have TBI.
Each of the following statements about severe and multiple disabilities is true EXCEPT
A person with TBI can be expected, with time and care, to recover completely and function without disabilities.
All low-incidence, severe, and multiple disabilities combined probably affect what percentage of the population?
less than 1%
Which of the following is likely to be the least concern of early intervention for children with physical disabilities?
improving access to school and public buildings
When special educators talk about transition, they are generally referring to the change from
school to work.
Sociosexual education for students with physical disabilities includes instruction in all of the following EXCEPT
suppression of sexual desire.
The primary goal of adapted physical education is
to allow access to activities that support physical, recreational, and leisure goals.
A person who provides support for daily living skills and fine motor skills is a(n)
occupational therapist.
Which statement about phenylketonuria (PKU) is true?
It requires a life-long special diet for treatment.
Children’s reactions to their own physical disabilities are largely
a reflection of how others respond to them.
Gareth uses braces on his legs to help provide support when he walks. This is an example of a/an
The greatest problem with using technology for people with physical disabilities is
accurately evaluating them to determine what would be most useful.
When a child’s nervous system is damaged, no matter what the cause, which of the following is often one of the symptoms?
muscular weakness or paralysis
Cerebral palsy is a condition that occurs
before brain maturity.
Andre’s legs are paralyzed, but he has full use of his arms. His condition is
Abrupt, involuntary movements and difficulty in maintaining balance is known as
choreoathetoid movements.
When there is an abnormal discharge of electrical energy in certain brain cells, the result is
Seizures may differ on all of the following dimensions EXCEPT
Harris has a congenital midline defect resulting from failure of the bony spinal column to close completely during fetal development. His condition is known as
spina bifida
The extent of the paralysis in spina bifida depends on
the location of the spinal cord defect.
Tim has a hereditary disease characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of muscle fibers. His condition is
muscular dystrophy.
The intelligence of students with conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system is
A lung disease characterized by episodic inflammation or obstruction of the air passages such that the person has difficulty breathing is
What causes more deaths in children than all childhood diseases combined?
Impairments that a child is born with are referred to as
congenital anomalies.
A condition that is incurable is
A condition that becomes more and more severe over time is
What effect have advances in medicine had on the need for special education due to physical disabilities?
increased the need for special education for students with severe disabilities
Providing support for the child’s body and arranging instructional or play materials in certain ways is known as
A situation in which a person with a disability becomes a regular employee, performs a valued function in a regular work setting, and receives fair pay while receiving training, social skills instruction, and other services is
supported employment.
Each of the following statements about education for most children with a physical disability is true EXCEPT
It should be similar to that for children without disabilities but at a somewhat lower age level.
Each of the following is a reason why most students with physical disabilities are integrated into public schools EXCEPT
federal law defined the least restrictive environment (LRE) as the regular classroom.
Mr. Kent has a child in his class who has a terminal illness. He should
be direct and open in discussing death and dying with the class.
Each of the following statements about preventing physical disabilities is true EXCEPT
Reducing the number of childhood vaccinations has reduced the number of cases of autism.
For children with most physical disabilities and other health impairments, a common cause of academic difficulties is
erratic school attendance.
Jim has an artificial leg. This is an example of a/an
Which principles are most important to keep in mind when considering prosthetics and orthotics?
residual function, simplicity, reliability
Impairments that are the result of injury to the brain that also affect the ability to move parts of one’s body are
neuromotor impairments.
Cerebral palsy is
a nonprogressive disorder.
Cerebral palsy is classified by
the limbs involved and type of motor disability.
Stiffness or tenseness of muscles and inaccurate voluntary movements is known as
The intelligence of children with cerebral palsy is
difficult to assess due to difficulties in perception, movement, or response
All of the following are common causes of seizures EXCEPT
high blood sugar.
All of the following procedures should be followed if a student has a seizure in school EXCEPT
inserting an object between the teeth.
Any malformation of the spine, spinal cord, or brain is a
neural tube defect.
Catheterization is necessary for individuals with
lack of bladder control.
Rheumatoid arthritis is a potentially debilitating disease that
is characterized by pain in and around the joints and muscles.
Chronic diseases and health conditions of children have
increased dramatically during recent decades.
In addition to its effect on the immune system, AIDS poses all of the following threats to children EXCEPT
muscular dystrophy.
The primary distinguishing characteristic of children with physical disability is
medical or health problems.
A condition that may be severe but resolves with treatment is
A condition that recurs at successive times but does not necessarily become more severe over time is
Which statement is true?
The number of people with physical disabilities is growing but the availability of service programs is not.
Patterns of behavior that signal problems in preschool are
frequent conflicts and aloofness from others.
Each of the following is a reason why early, comprehensive, intense, and sustained intervention is so rare EXCEPT
familiarity with the early signs of problems.
It is difficult to design a special education program for E/BD at the secondary level because
this category of youths is so varied.
All credible conceptual models of education have the same objectives. They are
controlling misbehavior and teaching academic and social skills.
Each of the following statements regarding the need to balance behavioral control with academic and social learning is true EXCEPT
Excellent academic instruction has been shown to eliminate most disruptive behaviors.
Susan and Mike are looking to place their son, Max, in an effective educational program for students with E/BD. They should select a program that includes all of the following elements EXCEPT
emphasis on intensive, short-term intervention.

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