Examining The Women Sanctioned In Prison Criminology Essay

The figure of incarcerated adult females sanctioned to United States prisons has increased dramatically since 1980. In 1990, there were about 600,000 adult females in U.S. correctional systems including, prison, and gaols on probation or word, in 2001 the Numberss had increased to more than one million adult females ( Covington & A ; Bloom, 2003 ) . The captivity rate for adult females has doubled the work forces ‘s captivity rate since 1980 ( Covington & A ; Bloom, 2003 ) . The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported in 2002, the figure of adult females in federal and province prisons have increased about eight times, from 12,300 to 93,031. The bulk of the adult females in U.S. prisons have committed non-violent offenses, dwelling of mainly drug and belongings discourtesies. The addition in adult females imprisonment rates can be attributed to the war on drugs policies, stricter compulsory condemning Torahs, and punitory enforcement responses to convoluted societal issues ( Covington & A ; Bloom, 2003 ) .

Incarceration straight affects adult females and their kids because the female parent ‘s are non physically at that place to rise up their kids, go forthing the duty to relations or the kid public assistance system. As a consequence, female parents who are in prison face jobs keeping meaningful relationships with their kids. This is a compelling job because adult females in prison are responsible for 1.5 million dependent kids, and 89 % are under the age of 12 ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000 ) . Maternal captivity has detrimental affects on kids lives.

Harmonizing to Morton and Williams ( 1998 ) , 25 % of adult females admitted to prison are pregnant or have late delivered. The survey besides reported 25 % of incarcerated adult females ‘s kids live with their male parents, compared to 90 % of incarcerated work forces ‘s kids who live with the kid ‘s female parent. Morton and Williams ( 1998 ) found 65 % of kids with female parents in prison live with their grandmas and 10 % are in surrogate attention. More than 50 % of incarcerated adult females with kids under 18 old ages old ne’er have visits from their kids ( Morton & A ; Williams, 1998 ) . Maternal captivity hinders bing relationships between female parents and their kids. The kids of incarcerated female parents are victims of their female parents ‘ behaviours. Strengthening households should be the primary concern for bureaus covering with female inmates who have kids. The societal work profession along with the kid public assistance system promotes household saving and stableness ; if intercession is non implemented the barbarous rhythm of condemnable offending may go on.

Literature Review

In the past two decennaries with the addition of adult females ‘s imprisonment rates partly due to compulsory minimal sentences and stricter countenances due to the war on drugs, kids of these adult females are being greatly affected emotionally and psychologically. The quality of the mother-child relationship shapes future relationships the kid will develop. It is indispensable for kids to hold positive interactions during babyhood and adolescence to develop healthy societal relationships. The kids are at hazard of holding their ain emotional, behavioural and societal jobs if early positive maternal bonds and fond regards are non created ( Mennen & A ; O’Keefe, 2005 ) .

Although kids adapt to their environments for endurance, their schemes are non ever best for their development. Bowlby ‘s fond regard theory explains the importance of constructing a relationship between the health professional and kid ( Mennen & A ; O’Keefe, 2005 ) . Bowlby and Ainsworth identified four stages of fond regard including, secure, dying, avoidant and disorganized. Bowlby and Ainsworth found, fond regard between the female parent and kid depends on the female parent ‘s emotional and physical response to the kid. Attachment is of import because it can make insecurities in the kid and impede psychosocial development. In add-on, fond regard is besides indispensable in that societal accomplishments are learned ; the kid is able to interact with others in future relationships with positive and healthy kineticss.

Separation during imprisonment is considered to be most harmful for both the female parent and kid ( Covington & A ; Bloom, 2003 ) . In most instances, the ground adult females do non have visits from their kids, is due to the geographical distance of the prison from urban countries. Most frequently adult females ‘s installations are located in rural countries that are unaccessible to public transit. The female parent ‘s relationship with her kid is harder to continue, doing passage back place more hard. Consequently, forced separation between the female parent and her kid can ensue in the doomed of parental rights. The 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act ( ASFA ) , mandated expiration of parental rights once the kid has been in surrogate attention for longer than 15 months or more of the predating 22 months ( Jacobs, 2001 ) . The displacement of the correctional system from rehabilitation to more punitory motivations has made adult females ‘s contact with their kids more hard. However, some correctional installations have addressed the concerns of the inmates. Some installations have implemented visiting plans, rearing and child development categories and household furlough plans ( Casey-Acevedo & A ; Bakken, 2002 ) . These plans allow households to maintain ties and remain connected. Some research has shown household trials increase the adult female ‘s opportunities of success on word ( Casey-Acevedo & A ; Bakken, 2002 ) .

Once the female parent is released from prison she faces other hardships which may impede her success, and increase opportunities of recidivism. When re-entering into society, she must follow with conditions of word, find lodging, entree wellness attention, obtain secure and safe lodging free from illegal substances and happen employment. These excess loads on the female parents make it difficult when no household support was given while incarcerated.

Imprisonment breaks the household construction and allows for fond regard and separation upsets to happen. Data has shown that kids of incarcerated parents are up to six times more likely than kids of parents non involved in the condemnable justness system to be incarcerated at some clip in their life ( Luke, 2002 ) . This population is less likely to win in school, nevertheless is more likely to follow in their parents footfalls and maltreatment drugs and become involved in packs. It is imperative that the rhythm be broken for the improvement of the female parent, kid, and society. Children who have female parents in prison are more disposed to following their footfalls if proper intercessions are non in topographic point.

The Purpose of the undertaking

The intent of this undertaking is to develop a prison baby’s room plan, to beef up relationships between female parents in prison and their infant kids, at California Institution for Women, a province prison for adult females. In add-on, short term aims include, increasing maternal cognition about antenatal wellness, infant wellness and development, household development and to increase the female parent ‘s life accomplishments. The grant will be written in concurrence with the Center for Children with Incarcerated Parents ( CCIP ) .

Program Goal

The end of the plan is to prolong, healthy mother-child reunion, to prolong healthy mother-child relationships, and baby, kid and female parent wellbeing. In add-on, long term ends of the plan are to cut down the female prison population in California and better public safety. The plan gives female parents a 2nd opportunity at fostering their kids and signifier fond regards and bonds that they may non hold had a opportunity to make, if the kid was under legal power of the kid public assistance system.


Target Population

The two targeted populations for the proposed plan are pregnant inmates and their unborn babes. The first targeted population for the proposed plan is the babies who have female parents in prison, more specifically female parents imprisoned at California Institution for Women ( CIW ) . The Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents reported in 2004, kids of female captives in California are estimated at 17,880. As of August of 2000, the Bureau of Justice Statistics reported, province and federal prisons incarcerated about 721,500 parents of minor kids. It is besides estimated that approximately 46 % of parents lived with their kid prior to their sentence.

The 2nd targeted population for this plan is pregnant adult females who have been sentenced to California Institution for Women ( CIW ) in Corona, California. Presently the correctional installation houses over 2,000 adult females inmates, across 120 estates of land. The primary mission of California Institution for Women is to supply the adult females with a safe and unafraid environment, while giving them the chance to take part in many enriching activities, including academic and vocational instruction, substance maltreatment intervention, and forestry/camp preparation. CIW besides offers an array of self-help groups and community improvement undertakings for illustration, “ Girls Scouts Beyond Bars ” , Corrections Victim Awareness and vesture fabrication. The end of CIW is to run into the particular demands of the adult females wrongdoers, while supplying quality attention.

Presently the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation has legal power over 312,271 wrongdoers, including 11,423 adult females wrongdoers ( CDCR, 2006 ) . Females history for 7 % of California ‘s inmate population. Of the 11,423 adult females inmates about 8,000 are female parents ( CCIP, 2004 and CDCR, 2006 ) . Across the province the bulk of discourtesies include individual ( 50 % ) , belongings ( 21 % ) and drug related discourtesies ( 21 % ) ( CDCR, 2006 ) . Demographics of the inmates include being ill educated and holding an mean reading degree of 7th class. They are besides disproportionately cultural minorities, Latino/Hispanic wrongdoers make up 37 % of the entire population, Black/African American compose of 29 % and White/Caucasian include 28 % of CDCR inmate population ( CDCR, 2006 ) .

Funding Source Identification and Selection Strategies

Funding beginnings will be researched from several databases including foundation directories, web beginnings, for illustration www.grants.gov, and the Grantmanship Center in Los Angeles. In add-on, support beginnings will besides be explored through the Long Beach Non-Profit Partnership, the Foundation Center and the hunt engine at the Non-Profit Resource Library in Los Angeles every bit good. Potential support beginnings may be private or public funders, fiting specific demands of the proposed plan.

Needs Appraisals

Approximately 5-6 % of adult females admitted to imprison or province prisons are pregnant ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1999 ) . It is estimated, that there were 180 pregnant adult females among 2000 female inmates at the California Institution for Women and 35 pregnant adult females among 50 adult females inmates located in CDCR mother-child correctional installations in Los Angeles County ( CDCR, 2005 ) . It is viewed that captivity of pregnant adult females causes stress upon the female parent and unborn kid. Captivity of pregnant adult females may psychologically impact the adult females due to the environmental limitations and the separation from their household and many concerns sing the arrangement of their neonates ( Martin, Haesook, Kupper, Meyer, & A ; Hays, 1997 ) .

Budget Guidelines

Presently, California ‘s Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation ( CDCR ) has proposed to fund $ 300,000 per financial twelvemonth for basic staff for the baby’s room. However, there is no proposed support for educational stuffs, or specialized human services places within the plan. The plan intends to use full-time kid attention workers, clinical psychologists and infant mental wellness specializers. Operational costs have non been funded either for illustration ; auto seats, feeding chairs, chest pumps or playthings for the babies. It is proposed that a standardised line-item budgeting system format will be used to construction the budget. Within the budget, definitions and footings will be explained, all grosss and disbursals will be identified, and eventually the budget will hold set balance guidelines. The possible budget for the proposed plan to use human services workers is estimated between $ 150,000 to 200,000 per financial twelvemonth. In add-on, the operational costs are estimated between, $ 50,000 to $ 75,000 per financial twelvemonth.

Cross Cultural Relevance

There are a disproportional figure of cultural minority kids who have female parents in prison. It is estimated, African American kids are nine times more likely than white kids to hold a parent in prison ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000 ) . Latino kids are three times more likely to hold a parent in prison, compared to white kids ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000 ) . In add-on, cultural minorities with kids are besides overrepresented in U.S. and Federal prisons, African American parents represent the largest cultural group ( 49 % ) , White parents consist 29 % and Latino parents equal 19 % ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000 ) .

The proposed plan will turn to the multiethnic population, in that the bulk of the adult females sentenced to California prisons are adult females of colour. Therefore, the baby’s room plan which allows the female parents to organize unafraid relationships with their kids will include holding the two most represented cultural groups ( Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latino ) participate in the plan. However the nursery plan is non limited merely to Black/African Americans and Hispanic/Latino adult females.

Social Work Relevance

Because the bulk of incarcerated adult females ‘s kids are removed from their attention, the kid public assistance system sometimes is involved in the kids ‘s lives. Approximately 10 % of female parents in province prisons study holding a kid in the Foster attention system ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2000 ) . Unlike parents who are non in prison, female parent ‘s who are incarcerated have great trouble recommending for themselves due to their fortunes. Family Reunification is a challenge for the kid public assistance system and the household due to the forced separation. Therefore, female parents in prison have a greater hazard of fring their parental rights. In add-on, surveies have besides found that incarcerated female parents and their kids are less likely to reunite, due to rigorous timelines. Unfortunately, non merely are kids of incarcerated female parent ‘s at hazard of come ining the kid public assistance system, they besides are at hazard of life in low income communities where resources and services are limited.

As studied conducted by Smith and Elstein ( 1994 ) found, more than half of kid protective services workers acknowledged the addition in petitions to put kids with arrested parents. The same studied besides reported 80 % of the bureaus had no specific policies to react to the petitions ( Smith & A ; Elstein, 1994 ) . Both the condemnable justness and kid public assistance systems need to work collaboratively, to efficaciously function the households involved. Once child public assistance workers and condemnable justness functionaries implement a program of action, incarcerated parents may diminish the possibility of re-offending and increase the opportunity of reuniting with their kids ( Smith & A ; Elstein, 1994 ) .

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