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solar;chemical
Photosynthesis is the process that converts ___ energy into ___ energy
Autotroph
An organism that can capture energy and synthesize organic molecules from inorganic nutrients
Heterotroph
____ organisms cannot synthesize organic compounds from inorganic substances and therefore must take in organic molecules(food)
Solar
Chlorophyll is the primary photosynthetic pigment that plants use to absorb ____ energy
Stomata
During photosynthesis, carbon dioxide enters the leaf of the plant through the…
Chloroplasts
What organelle in plant cells contains chlorophyll and is the site of photosynthesis?
Stroma
The two outer membranes of the chloroplast include a gelatinous matrix called the…
Oxidation Reaction
What reaction involves the loss of electrons or hydrogen ions?
Reduction Reaction
What reaction involves the gain of electrons or hydrogen ions?
NADP+
What functions as a coenzyme that transports electrons during photosynthesis?
ATP
What is produced during light reactions and used during the calvin cycle?
Absorption Spectrum
The pigments of chloroplasts only absorb a specific range of wavelengths, what is this called?
Carotenoids
What is the yellow or orange pigment that serves as an accessory to chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
Photosystem
This light-capturing unit found in the thylakoid membrane consists of a pigment complex and electron acceptor molecules
Visible Light
Which part of the electromagnetic spectrum is used in photosynthesis?
1: Carbon Dioxide Fixation
2: Carbon Dioxide Reduction
3: Regeneration of RuBP
What are the three steps of the calvin cycle?
B. plants, algae, and some bacteria
What organisms are capable of photosynthesis?

A. plants and algae only
B. plants, algae, and some bacteria
C. plants only
D. plants and some bacteria only

A. excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast.
When an electron has been excited to a higher energy state, it can then drop back to the original level, re-emitting the light as fluorescence. When chlorophyll is extracted in solution, and a bright red or blue light is shown on it, the chlorophyll fluoresces brightly. However, when the chlorophyll is packaged inside chloroplasts and the red or blue light is turned on, there is no fluorescence. This most likely indicates that

A. excited electrons are transferred to electron acceptors in the chloroplast.
B. fluorescence does not work in living cells.
C. chlorophyll in solution is a different molecule than chlorophyll in a chloroplast.
D. green light must be used to make living cells fluoresce.
E. the red and blue light waves are reflected by the chlorophyll membrane.

A. have these processes separated by time.
While C-4 plants have carbon dioxide fixation and carbon dioxide uptake separated by location within the plant, CAM plants

A. have these processes separated by time.
B. fix much greater amounts of carbon dioxide than C-4 plants.
C. are found in tropical regions where nutrients are abundant.
D. All of the choices are correct

D. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
To what does the term grana refer?

A. the central fluid-filled space of the chloroplast
B. the double membrane of the chloroplast
C. a flattened disk or sac in the chloroplast
D. a stack of thylakoid membrane structures
E. the cytochrome system in the membranes of the thylakoids

A. carbon dioxide fixation
Which is most closely associated with the Calvin cycle?
A. carbon dioxide fixation
B. ATP production
C. removal of electrons from water for passage through an electron transport system
D. carbon dioxide production
E oxygen production
D. photosystem one.
Oxygen production in photosynthesis involves all of the following EXCEPT

A. photosystem two.
B. light reactions.
C. splitting of water.
D. photosystem one.

D. All of the choices are correct.
C-4 plants

A. store carbon dioxide temporarily as oxaloacetate.
B. are found in hot dry climates.
C. have a net photosynthetic rate two to three times that of C-3 plants.
D. All of the choices are correct.

A. they are taken up by NADP+ to produce NADPH
What is the ultimate destination for the energized electrons during the light reactions of photosynthesis?

A. they are taken up by NADP+ to produce NADPH
B. they are taken up by NAD+ to produce NADH
C. they are taken up by NADH to produce NAD+
D. they are taken up by NADPH to produce NADP+

E. They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.
Why are plants green?

A. They reflect nearly all wavelengths of light.
B. They absorb only yellow and blue wavelengths of light.
C. They reflect yellow and blue wavelengths of light.
D. They absorb only green wavelengths of light.
E. They reflect green wavelengths of light and absorb blue and red light.

B. ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco).
The major enzyme that ‘fixes’ carbon dioxide is called
A. PEP carboxylase (PEPcase).
B. ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (rubisco).
C. glyceraldehyde-3-phospate (G3P).
D. lactate dehydrogenase.
C. Glucose
A product of photosynthesis, __________, is the chief source of energy for most organisms.

A. Oxygen
B. Sucrose
C. Glucose
D. All of the above

B. excite electrons in chlorophyll
The function of sunlight in photosynthesis is to:

A. fix O2 in the Calvin cycle
B. excite electrons in chlorophyll
C. reduce NADPH to NADP
D. combine carbon dioxide and water to form ATP and NADPH

C. just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green
The action spectrum of photosynthesis shows a high light absorption for violet/blue and orange/red and a low absorption for green/yellow. If we were to set up an experiment where narrow bands of unicolored light were shown on an aquatic plant such as Elodea, and we counted the number of bubbles of oxygen produced as an indicator of photosynthetic rate, how would the graph appear?

A. exactly inverted from the action spectrum with a peak for yellow/green
B. There is no way to guess without actually running the experiment.
C. just like the action spectrum with peaks at violet/blue and orange/red and a trough at yellow/green
D. a descending line because ultra-violet has more energy than infra-red
E. perfectly flat because many wavelengths are used by chlorophyll

C. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.
Which statement is NOT true about the noncyclic electron pathway?

A. Electrons are boosted to higher energy level in Photosystem I.
B. Sunlight excites electrons in Photosystem II.
C. It produces carbohydrates through carbon dioxide fixation.
D. It produces NADPH.
E. It produces ATP.

A. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.
If the Calvin cycle uses three molecules of CO2 to produce six molecules of G3P (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate), but only one G3P molecule is used to form a carbohydrate molecule, what happens to the other carbons that were taken in?

A. The other five G3P molecules are used to regenerate more RuBP.
B. Any unused G3P molecule is converted and stored as starch.
C. The remaining five G3P molecules are used to reduce CO2.
D. Any unused CO2 is released into the environment.

B. oxygen.
G3P (glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate) is used by plants for all of the following EXCEPT the formation of

A. amino acids.
B. oxygen.
C. sucrose.
D. fatty acids.

A. More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.
If plants were only able to undergo the cyclic pathway, which of the following would NOT be true?

A. More NADPH would be produced during the cyclic electron pathway.
B. Plants would not produce oxygen.
C. Carbohydrate could still be produced but in much smaller quantities.
D. ATP production would decrease due to a smaller amount of H+ being available.

B. chloroplast
During the light reactions what structure is responsible for absorbing the solar energy?

A. bark of the tree
B. chloroplast
C. stoma
D. stroma

E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP.
Protons (H+) accumulate in the thylakoid space during electron transport between photosystems I and II. The excess of protons in the thylakoid space

A. is small enough to diffuse back out through the lipid bilayer.
B. converts NADP to NADPH and generates ATP in the process.
C. enters the photorespiration pathway.
D. raises the pH of the space until the processes stop.
E. moves from the thylakoid space to the stroma through an ATP synthase complex channel that generates ATP.

A. Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II.
Which statement is NOT true about photosystems?

A. Photosystem I passes electrons on to Photosystem II.
B. Electrons in the reaction center molecule are excited by absorbed solar energy and are passed along to an acceptor molecule.
C. Photosystem II contains a reaction center molecule that loses electrons which are then replaced by electrons from water.
D. Each photosystem contains numerous pigment molecules that act as antennas to capture light.

C. oxygen and carbohydrate
What are the end products of photosynthesis?

A. water and oxygen
B. water and carbon dioxide
C. oxygen and carbohydrate
D. carbohydrate and water

A. chlorophyll c
Which of these is NOT a major photosynthetic pigment in plants?
A. chlorophyll c
B. carotenoid pigments
C. chlorophyll a
D. chlorophyll b
E. cactus
Which of the following plants is an example of a CAM plant?

A. wheat
B. oak tree
C. rice
D. corn
E. cactus

C3 Plants
Photorespiration occurs mainly in…
Chloroplast
What structure is required for an organism to be classified as an autotroph?
Glyceraldhyde-3 Phosphate (G3P)
____ is a product of the calvin cycle that is used to form glucose phosphate amino acids or fatty acids?

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