Earth Science Chapter 7 Study Guide

What does water and glacial erosion need to take place?
Generally cold temperatures
Where does river flow slow down and deposition occur?
Inside of the bends
Temperate Soil
thick, fertile soil because of the presence of many weathering agents
Tropical Soil
poor in minerals & nutrients, little organic material due to rain
Polar Soil
form at high elevations and high altitudes, no distinct horizons-soil too thin, under top few inches of soil, ground is permenantely frozen (permafrost)
Desert Soil
soil is rocky, very dry and contains almost no organic matter
Residual Soil
Soil that remains above its parent rock
Transported Soil
Soil that has been moved away from its parent material by water, wind, or a glacier.
A mechanical weathering process which removes protuding overlying layers and esposing the weathered down dome of the underlying layers
A chemical change in which a substance combines with oxygen, as when iron oxidizes, forming rust
A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water; functions in disassembly of polymers to monomers.
Soil Profile
A vertical section through a soil, from the surface down to the parent material, revealing the soil layers or horizons.
A mixture of mineral particles and organic material that covers the land, and in which terrestrial plants grow.
Chemical Weathering
The process in which rock is broken down by changes in its chemical makeup
Frost Wedging
The mechanical breakup of rock caused by the expansion of freezing water in cracks and crevices
In which climate would chemical weathering most readily occur?
Under what conditions would you expect to see the most erosion?
Heat, (the “Q” variable), is NEGATIVE when thermal energy is being REMOVED from a system.
From where does soil get organic matter?
Plants, dead stuff, animal poop
Which soil horizon has the darkest and richest soil?
The O Horizon
What about water causes mechanical weathering?
When it freezes and expands it breaks up rocks
Where would wind cause the greatest erosion?
Any where there is a lot of sand

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