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In a feasibility report, the conclusion should
A) judge different options
B) review financing issues
C) summarize procedures
D) define technical terms
The correct answer is A. The conclusion of a feasibility report interprets various options for the audience that have been discussed in the body of the report. Financing issues, procedures, and definitions are addressed in other sections of a feasibility report, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Which method of development would most likely be used when writing a document for skeptical readers?
A) Chronological
B) Specific to general
C) Classification
D) General to specific
The correct answer is B. Writers who need to persuade skeptical readers should use the specific-to-general method of development to build a convincing argument. Readers who are unfamiliar with the topic of a document will most likely benefit from a general-to-specific development pattern because the structure provides broad concepts before moving toward details. Chronological and classification patterns are less likely to be used for persuasive documents.
The conclusion of a technical document is LEAST likely to
A) predict results
B) provide solutions
C) review key points
D) define special term
The correct answer is D. Specialized terms will most likely be defined in the introduction of a document instead of in the conclusion. Conclusions serve many purposes in documents including predicting results, offering solutions, and restating key points.
When writing an article for first-year medical students about a new treatment for arthritis, you should most likely
A) explain all facts and figures
B) omit all facts and figures
C) offer recommendations
D) expand definitions
The correct answer is A. First-year medical students would be categorized as a semi-technical audience because they have some technical knowledge but less than the expert knowledge of doctors. When writing for a semi-technical audience, it is appropriate to include and explain data. Recommendations and expanded definitions are less likely to be included, so choices C and D are incorrect.
Which question is answered by a product description organized in a functional sequence
A) What does the product do?
B) How does the product work?
C) How is the product assembled?
D) What material is used to make the product?
The correct answer is B.A functional organization of a product description explains how the product works in the order that parts operate. The materials used for the product and the product’s appearance are addressed in spatially organized product descriptions. Chronological sequence addresses how a product is assembled, so choice C is incorrect
Visuals in technical documents are only effective when there is
A) documentation
B) textual context
C) cultural significance
D) audience participation
The correct answer is B.The inclusion of a visual in a technical document helps readers focus on specific concepts. However, the effectiveness of a visual mostly depends on the information provided in the text that supports and explains the visual. Documentation, cultural significance, and audience participation are less relevant factors, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Unlike non-technical documents, the language used in a highly technical document is typically
A) persuasive
B) simplistic
C) precise
D) formal
The correct answer is C.The language of highly technical documents tends to be more precise than the language found in nontechnical documents, which are more likely to include simplistic terms and lengthy explanations. Both technical and nontechnical documents may be formal or persuasive, so choices A and D are incorrect.
The primary purpose of a proposal is to
A) present scientific evidence to readers
B) inform readers about a project
C) describe a process to readers
D) persuade readers to take action
The correct answer is D.Proposals are written to persuade people to follow a course of action, such as purchasing a product or supporting a plan. Reports typically inform readers about a project or an employee and lack a persuasive tone, so choice B is incorrect. Lab reports present scientific evidence, so choice A is incorrect.
Which of the following graphics is best for displaying steps in a process?
A) Flowchart
B) Line graph
C) Pie graph
D) Organization chart
The correct answer is A.Flowcharts indicate the relationship between steps in a process and show how one stage leads to the next. Organization charts provide a visual overview of hierarchical relationships. Line graphs and pie graphs show numerical relationships, so choices B and C are incorrect.
The primary purpose of the cover panel of a brochure is to
A) make concepts clear
B) grab the readers’ attention
C) survey reader interest
D) provide an overview
The correct answer is B.The cover panel of a brochure is its front page, and its purpose is to catch the attention of the audience. Cover panels usually contain a visual image and a small amount of text. Concepts and overviews appear inside the brochure, so choices A and D are incorrect.
Which of the following sentences needs revision because of a shift in voice?
A) Working quickly to complete the assignment, the account associate forgot to include an entire section of the report.
B) After the ambulance arrived, managers questioned all employees who witnessed the accident.
C) The national medical association approved the surgical procedure for further research and testing.
D) The proposed solution involves significant risk, but the idea was approved by the board of directors.
The correct answer is D. Choices; “A”, B, and C are written correctly. The first clause in choice D is written in active voice, but the second clause is written in passive voice.
Directions: In items 18-21, some part of the sentence or the entire sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.
The technician repaired the equipment; he received a promotion for his efforts.
A) The technician repaired the equipment; he
B) The technician repaired the equipment; and he
C) The technician repaired the equipment, he
D) The technician repaired the equipment so he
The correct answer is A.A semicolon is appropriate when separating two complete ideas, but it does not need to be followed by a conjunction, which means choice B is incorrect. Choice C is a comma splice, and choice D needs a comma before so.
Directions: In items 18-21, some part of the sentence or the entire sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.
The main manufacturing facilities of the company is located in Mexico and China.
A) facilities of the company is located
B) facilities’ of the company are located
C) facilities of the company, is located
D) facilities of the company are located
The correct answer is D.”Facilities” is a plural subject that requires a plural verb, so choice D is correct. “Facilities” is not possessive, so an apostrophe is unnecessary. A comma should not be placed immediately before the verb “is,” so choice C should be eliminated.
Directions: In items 18-21, some part of the sentence or the entire sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.
After walking into the laboratory without a surgical mask, the doctor scolded me for contaminating the area.
A) After walking into the laboratory without a surgical mask, the doctor scolded me for contaminating the area.
B) The doctor walked into the laboratory without a surgical mask, he scolded me for contaminating the area.
C) After I walked into the laboratory without a surgical mask, the doctor scolded me for contaminating the area.
D) The doctor, after walking into the laboratory without a surgical mask, scolded me for contaminating the area.
The correct answer is C.Choices A and D suggest that the doctor walked into the lab without a mask rather than the speaker. Choice B is a comma splice. Choice C clarifies who walked into the lab without a mask.
Directions: In items 18-21, some part of the sentence or the entire sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

Remove the filter from the system and evaluate it.
A) Remove the filter from the system and evaluate it.
B) Evaluate it when you remove the filter from the system.
C) Remove the filter from the system, and then evaluate it.
D) Evaluate the filter after removing it from the system.

The correct answer is D.Choice D is correct because it contains no ambiguous pronoun references. The meaning of “it” is unclear in choices A, B, and C, so the reader does not know if the filter or the system needs evaluation.
Which of the following is most beneficial when writing a document for a diverse audience?
A) Segmenting the document for various groups
B) Including appendices at the end of the document
C) Using complex terminology within the document
D) Disclosing the sources used for the document
The correct answer is A.When writing a document for a diverse audience with different needs and knowledge, it is most helpful to segment the document for each group. Top managers may focus on the executive summary, while an appendix with data may benefit technical members of the group. Complex terms should be simplified for a diverse audience, so choice C is incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be written by a manager to request hiring a temporary employee?
A) A routine internal proposal
B) An external grant proposal
C) A formal internal proposal
D) An external solicited proposal
The correct answer is A.Routine internal proposals are written to request permission to hire employees, attend conferences, and purchase new equipment. Formal internal proposals, or capital appropriations proposals, are usually written when requesting large amounts of money. External proposals, choices B and D, are sent to other firms or organizations.
Which transition best connects the following pair of sentences?

1. Competition for entry-level jobs in the gaming industry is tough.
2. Over 700 people applied for one position at Nintendo.

A) In addition
B) Therefore
C) For instance
D) Likewise

The correct answer is C.The second sentence is an example of the tough competition in the gaming industry, so “for instance” is the best transition. Choices A, B, and D are not used when introducing an example.
Which of the following condenses the contents of an entire technical document?

I. Informative abstract
II. Descriptive abstract
III. Executive abstract
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and III only
D) I, II, and III

The correct answer is A.Informative abstracts condense an entire document, while descriptive abstracts explain what is covered in the document. Executive abstracts provide enough information to help guide decision makers, so choices C and D are incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely appear in the table of contents of a formal report?
A) Abbreviations
B) Terms
C) Tables
D) Headings
The correct answer is D.Major sections or headings of a report are included in the table of contents. A report with more than five tables will include a list of tables, so choice C is incorrect. Terms are defined in the glossary, so choice B should be eliminated. Abbreviations are generally avoided in formal documents, so choice A is incorrect.
The best way to ensure that data and sources are both valid and current is to use
A) multiple online sources
B) only published books
C) online search engines
D) reputable sources
The correct answer is D. Using reputable sources is the simplest and best method of ensuring the validity of information used in a technical document. Since anyone can post information on the Internet, online search engines and sources are not necessarily valid. While published books may be more valid than some online material, books may not provide the most current data.
Which of the following would most likely be issued by the Department of Education if the agency needed to purchase 500 new desktop computers?
A) Application for service
B) Vendor activity report
C) Request for proposal
D) Invitation for bid
The correct answer is D.IFBs are issued when an organization needs standard products, such as computers. RFPs Request for Proposal are issued when an organization needs customised products or services from vendors.
Which of the following documents would be most suitable for a picture graph?
A) Newsletter
B) Lab report
C) Grant proposal
D) Feasibility report
The correct answer is A.Picture graphs use symbols to represent items, and they are best for a general audience that might read a newsletter. Picture graphs are too informal for lab reports, grant proposals, and feasibility reports, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following would provide the best indication of the reliability of a printed source?
A) Title
B) Graphics
C) Publisher
D) Publication date
The correct answer is C.If a printed source is published by a respected firm, society, or university, then it is probably reliable. Titles and graphics are not indicative of reliability, and the date of publication relates to currency rather than reliability.
Which of the following types of visual would be the easiest for non-technical readers to comprehend?

A) Schematic diagram
B) Exploded diagram
C) Logic tree
D) Pictograph

The correct answer is D.Pictographs use symbols instead of lines and bars to represent numerical amounts, so they are most appropriate for readers who lack technical knowledge. Due to their greater level of complexity, schematic diagrams, exploded diagrams, and logic trees would be less appropriate for laypersons.
Which of the following is most likely to weaken paragraph coherence?
A) Using enumeration
B) Writing collaboratively
C) Using chronological sequence
D) Writing short, choppy sentences
The correct answer is D.Short, choppy sentences can harm the flow and coherence of a paragraph. Enumeration and organizational patterns improve coherence by connecting ideas in a logical order for readers, so choices A and C are incorrect. Collaborative writing does not necessarily weaken paragraph coherence, so choice B is incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be written by a college professor to request federal funding for a scientific project?
A) Sales proposal
B) Laboratory report
C) Feasibility report
D) Research proposal
The correct answer is D.Grant and research proposals are written to request funding for projects or programs from government agencies. Sales proposals are written to persuade a potential customer to purchase a product or service, so choice A is incorrect. Lab reports and feasibility reports do not request funding, so choices B and C are incorrect.
For which of the following audiences would a writer most likely include technical terms, detailed graphics, formulas, and theories?

A) Experts
B) Managers
C) Technicians
D) Laypersons

The correct answer is A. An audience of experts has enough understanding of a subject to comprehend a document containing theories, formulas, and technical terminology. Managers, technicians, and laypersons require technical documents that are easier to understand, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
The primary task of a technical writer when submitting an unsolicited proposal is to convince the reader that
A) opportunities exist for funding the proposed service or product
B) competitors are using the proposed service or product
C) a need exists for the proposed service or product
D) the proposed service or product is guaranteed
The correct answer is C.Unsolicited proposals require writers to convince readers that a need for the proposed service or product exists. While product guarantees and competitor activities may help to persuade readers, the primary goal is establishing a need.
What should most likely be included in a table’s stub?
A) Unit of measurement
B) List of compared items
C) Footnotes and definitions
D) Numerical data and results
The correct answer is B.The stub is the left-hand column of a table, and it lists the items being compared. Units of measurement should be noted in the table’s title, and numerical data is included in the table’s columns.
Which of the following terms refers to dividing information in a technical document into portions that are easy for readers to follow?
A) Sequencing
B) Abstracting
C) Chunking
D) Sorting
The correct answer is C.Writers use various sequencing methods to chunk information in a document. Chunking refers to dividing information into manageable pieces so that the document is easier for readers to follow and understand.
Which of the following is an advantage of working collaboratively on a technical document?
A) Reducing the amount of time needed to write a document
B) Creating a document with improved flow, language, and style
C) Gaining a better idea of how readers will respond to a document
D) Improving the motivation of each writer involved with the document
The correct answer is C.One advantage of collaborating on a document is gaining a better understanding of how the audience will read the document because each member of the group provides more questions and suggestions than a single person could. The disadvantages of collaborative writing include disjointed writing styles, increased time to complete the project, and reduced motivation among group members.
Which element of a proposal would most likely cite primary and secondary research to justify a proposed program?
A) Plan of work
B) Network diagrams
C) Direct cost analysis
D) Professional qualifications
The correct answer is A.The plan of work explains what an organization wants to do and justifies the proposal with primary and secondary research. Cost analysis, network diagrams, and qualifications are common elements of proposals, but they are not likely to contain research information used for justifying the proposal.
The logical relationship between two ideas in a paragraph can best be clarified with
A) transitions
B) sub-headings
C) modifiers
D) appendices
The correct answer is A.Transitional words and phrases signal relationships between ideas and improve clarity in a document. Headings improve the coherence of a document by helping readers locate information, but headings do not improve paragraph clarity.
A technical writer can most likely avoid copyright violations by

A) establishing contracts
B) stating goals clearly
C) offering warranties
D) citing sources

The correct answer is D.Citing sources accurately is the ethical and legal way to use another person’s research material. Technical writers can avoid copyright problems by seeking permission from a source and using only limited amounts of material. Contracts will most likely not be necessary, so choice A is incorrect.
A reader from which of the following cultures would most likely value groups more than individuals?
A) U.S.
B) Japan
C) Germany
D) England
The correct answer is B.Asian cultures typically view the group as more important than the individual. Western societies like Germany, England, and the U.S. usually place a higher value on the individual, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
The document or product that will be submitted when a project has been completed is known as the
A) deliverable
B) directive
C) proposal
D) pitch
The correct answer is A.A deliverable is the final document or product that will be submitted once a project is completed. Directives explain policies, and proposals persuade readers to follow a plan of action, making choices B and C incorrect. A sales proposal will most likely pitch an idea to a potential customer, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following will most likely improve the clarity of a technical document?

A) Parallel structure
B) Right justification
C) General terms
D) Relative pronouns

The correct answer is A.Writing in parallel structure enhances clarity in a document. Precise terms are clearer than general ones, so choice C is incorrect. Relative pronouns, such as “who,” are more likely to decrease clarity in a document. Left justification improves the flow of a document, so choice B is incorrect.
Which element of a letter contains the recipient’s full name and job title?
A) Heading
B) Salutation
C) Inside address
D) End notation
The correct answer is C.The inside address of a letter includes the recipient’s name, job title, and address. The heading is the sender’s address, so choice A is incorrect. The salutation is the greeting, so choice B is wrong. End notations are used when enclosures are sent with the letter.
The primary purpose of a transitional paragraph in a technical document is to help readers
A) understand examples more clearly
B) paraphrase textual information
C) understand key technical terms
D) move from one point to another
The correct answer is D.A transitional paragraph is usually a brief paragraph that acts as a bridge between the topic of one paragraph and the topic of the next paragraph. Transitional paragraphs summarize the last point and preview the point to follow.
The primary purpose of back matter in a formal report is to help readers
A) locate secondary sources from the report
B) understand methods used for the report
C) decide whether to read the report
D) find information within the report
The correct answer is A.A list of secondary sources is included in the reference section of the back matter. The front matter helps readers decide whether to read the report and where specific information is located, so choices C and D are incorrect. The body of the report describes methods and findings, so choice B is eliminated.
A technical writer will most likely create a concise document by using
A) imperative mood
B) passive voice
C) helping verbs
D) subordination
The correct answer is D.Subordination in a sentence indicates the relationship between ideas; structuring a sentence with effective subordination improves conciseness. Passive voice and helping verbs increase the wordiness of a sentence, so choices B and C are incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be written in response to a claim letter?
A) An adjustment letter
B) An inquiry letter
C) A cover letter
D) A memo
The correct answer is A.Adjustment letters are written by firms that receive claim letters from unhappy customers. Memos are internal documents, and cover letters accompany job applications. An inquiry letter is written to request information, so choice B is incorrect.
When writing a technical document for an audience of managers, an author should most likely
A) discuss all technical theories
B) place details in appendices
C) avoid using graphics
D) use an informal tone
The correct answer is B.Executives would need to make managerial decisions based on the document. Therefore, theories are less important, and technical details should be placed in appendices for later review. Graphics benefit most technical document readers, but an informal tone should be saved for laypersons.
The purpose of a service manual is most likely to help
A) unskilled users safely operate equipment
B) skilled machinists design equipment
C) trained technicians repair equipment
D) managers oversee equipment operation
The correct answer is C.Service manuals, which contain troubleshooting guides, are written for trained technicians to help them repair equipment. User manuals are written for both trained and untrained users to help them operate equipment safely, so choice A is incorrect.
Which of the following is appropriate to include in an appendix?

I. Map
II. Photograph
III. Lengthy quotation
A) I only
B) II only
C) I and II only
D) I, II, and III

The correct answer is D.Maps, photographs, and long quotations are commonly included in appendices. Any type of supplemental or bulky material is most likely appropriate for an appendix, so choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
In which section of a user’s manual would a troubleshooting guide most likely be found?
A) Index
B) Abstract
C) Glossary
D) Appendix
The correct answer is D.The appendices in user’s manuals typically include troubleshooting guides and contact information. A glossary lists definitions, and an index lists the major topics covered in a document. Abstracts summarize information in reports rather than manuals, so choice B is incorrect.
Which of the following documents would most likely provide a client with an update on a major, ongoing project?
A) Test report
B) Feasibility report
C) Progress report
D) Solicited proposal
The correct answer is C.Contractors submit progress reports to clients to provide the schedule and budget status of major projects. Feasibility reports and proposals are typically written before a project begins, so choices B and D are incorrect. Test reports, choice A, are informal versions of laboratory reports.
The conclusion of a set of chainsaw instructions would most likely include
A) assembly precautions
B) professional guidelines
C) technical specifications
D) troubleshooting tips
The correct answer is D.Conclusions for instruction booklets typically include maintenance tips and troubleshooting guidelines for general readers, not technical experts. Assembly precautions would be provided throughout the instructions to ensure user safety, so choice A is incorrect.
Which of the following is best for organizing information in an instructional document?
A) Providing footnotes
B) Numbering steps
C) Citing sources
D) Stating objectives
The correct answer is B.Numbering steps or using transitional words between each step in a process will improve the organization and clarity of an instructional document. Footnotes, sources, and objectives are less likely to benefit the organization of an instructional document, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to improve the unity of a technical document?
A) Defining by cause
B) Creating an outline
C) Using transitions
D) Repeating key words
The correct answer is A.Creating an outline, using effective transitions, and repeating key words all improve the unity of a technical document. Defining by cause is a method of expanding a term in a technical document, and this method of development is less likely to affect unity.
Which of the following is the LEAST likely benefit of usability testing?
A) Reducing costs
B) Increasing product sales
C) Eliminating legal responsibility
D) Improving customer satisfaction
The correct answer is C.Usability testing reduces costs by minimizing customer calls and the need to release document updates. Product sales and customer satisfaction are also likely benefits of effective usability testing. Although usability testing enhances product safety, it does not eliminate a firm’s legal responsibilities.
Which of the following sentences contains a spelling error?

A) Regular employee training has had a positive affect on our firm.
B) The patient’s symptoms have been continuous for five days.
C) The incident report implies that the accident was preventable.
D) Every principal of the company voted in favor of expansion.

The correct answer is A. In choice A, “affect,” which means “to influence,” should be changed to “effect,” which means “result.” Choices B, C, and D contain no spelling errors.
The major difference between justification reports and recommendation reports is that justification reports are
A) requested by the reader
B) initiated by the writer
C) lengthy and formal
D) compiled by teams
The correct answer is B.Recommendation reports are requested by readers, while justification reports originate with the author, who has noticed an issue and devised a solution. Justification reports are often written as memos, so choice C is incorrect. Both types of reports may be compiled by teams, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following decreases the formality of a document?

A) Parallelism
B) Transitions
C) Superlatives
D) Contractions

The correct answer is D.Writers developing a formal document should avoid contractions, but the occasional use of contractions in semiformal or informal documents is acceptable. Parallelism and transitions create clarity in writing, so choices A and B are incorrect. Superlatives affect the tone of a document and indicate bias, but they have a minimal impact on formality.
Which of the following are the two primary sections of most feasibility reports?
A) Descriptive and evaluative
B) Evaluative and supplemental
C) Materials and recommendations
D) Recommendations and definitions
The correct answer is A.Feasibility reports usually include two separate sections: descriptive and evaluative. The descriptive section reviews pertinent data about the project, and the evaluative section draws conclusions based on the data. Materials, recommendations, and definitions will most likely be included in feasibility reports, but they are not primary sections.
What should be the average sentence length in technical documents?
A) 5-10 words
B) 15-20 words
C) 25-30 words
D) 35-40 words
The correct answer is B.Sentences with an average of 15 to 20 words are appropriate for technical writing. Sentences of fewer than 15 words are too short and choppy, and ones longer than 20 words are cumbersome and confusing.
Which of the following would most likely be written when a company is considering the development of a new line of products?

A) External memo
B) Feasibility report
C) Sales proposal
D) Progress report

The correct answer is B.Feasibility reports are internally requested when a project, such as a new product line, is being considered. Feasibility reports help executives determine whether the project is likely to be successful. Progress reports assess ongoing projects, so choice D is incorrect.
The primary purpose of a proposal is to
A) develop marketing methods
B) increase brand awareness
C) satisfy a need
D) research ideas
The correct answer is C.Proposals provide persuasive plans for fulfilling a need, such as funding research or changing a policy. Researching ideas may be an aspect of a proposal but not the primary purpose, so choice D is incorrect.
What type of report would be most appropriate when a manager needs to know whether a long-term project will meet a specified deadline?
A) Laboratory report
B) Progress report
C) Incident report
D) Recommendation report
The correct answer is B.Progress reports keep managers posted on whether a project is on schedule and meeting budgetary requirements. Incident reports are used for analyzing workplace accidents and equipment failures, so choice C is incorrect.
The primary purpose for including an abstract in a technical document is to
A) help readers locate specific information in a document
B) review all tests, recommendations, problems, and results
C) help readers decide whether to read the entire document
D) summarize the writer’s methods for assembling the document
The correct answer is C.An abstract helps the audience by highlighting the main points of a document and helping the audience determine whether to read the entire document. Abstracts sometimes include recommendations, but they are unlikely to review testing methods and problems or to specify where to find information in the document.
Which of the following is especially important to include in a laboratory report?
A) Facts and opinions
B) Cost and recommendations
C) Equipment and procedures
D) Purpose and restrictions
The correct answer is C.With laboratory reports, it is very important to describe the equipment and procedures used in a study because the experiment may need to be duplicated or the data may need to be checked for accuracy. Cost, purpose, and recommendations are less important aspects of lab reports, so choices B and D are incorrect.
Which type of technical document will most likely include a date range in its subtitle?
A) Process description
B) Progress report
C) Sales proposal
D) User manual
The correct answer is B.Progress reports keep readers informed about a project over a specific period, so a date range is included in the subtitle. Process descriptions, sales proposals, and user manuals most likely include the date the report is submitted, but such documents do not review a specific period, choices A, C, and D should be eliminated.
What is the purpose of cross-references in an index?
A) Help readers find related topics
B) Indicate sub-entries of major topics
C) Provide page numbers for footnotes
D) Interpret associated graphs and charts
The correct answer is A.Cross-references enable readers to find related topics in a document that might provide information, usually with the phrase “see also.” Page numbers are not provided with cross-references, so choice C is incorrect.
Which of the following is LEAST important to the unity and coherence of a paragraph?
A) Topic sentence
B) Transitional words
C) Statistical evidence
D) Adequate development
The correct answer is C.A unified and coherent paragraph will most likely have a topic sentence, transitional words, and sufficient development of ideas. Statistical evidence may provide support and evidence, but it does not necessarily improve the unity or cohesion of a paragraph.
The major difference between memos and letters is that memos are usually written
A) for people within the same organization
B) with a formal style, language, and tone
C) for important clients and customers
D) to explain corresponding attachments
The correct answer is A.Memos are written to people within an organization, and letters are written to people outside of an organization, such as customers and clients. Memos are less formal in style than letters, and they do not necessarily include attachments.
When developing an executive summary, a technical writer should most likely
A) use symbols and abbreviations
B) use technical terminology
C) cite all secondary sources
D) explain significant results
The correct answer is D.Executive summaries should provide managers with the major results and implications of an investigation. Technical terms, symbols, and abbreviations should be avoided in executive summaries because managers may be unfamiliar with them. Sources would most likely not be cited in the summary but at the end of the document, so choice C is incorrect.
Which of the following will most likely be included in the first paragraph of a memo?
A) Purpose statement
B) Specific action items
C) Background information
D) Recommendations summary
The correct answer is A. The first paragraph of a memo should state the author’s purpose for writing the memo. Subsequent paragraphs should provide background information, summarize the author’s recommendations, and specify actions that need to be taken, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
The primary purpose of using advance organizers in technical documents is to
A) add visual dimension
B) locate supplements
C) separate headings
D) explain graphs
The correct answer is C.An advance organizer in a technical document is a brief paragraph after a heading that provides the reader with the background, purpose, and scope of the upcoming discussion. The text in an advance organizer separates consecutive headings in a document, so choice C is the best answer.
Of the following, which is the best way to designate a first-level heading from a second-level heading?
A) Underline
B) Bulleting
C) Boldface
D) Text box
The correct answer is C.Boldface, italics, capital letters, font style, and font size are common ways to show readers the difference between first-level and second-level headings. Underlining is not recommended because the line sometimes obscures parts of letters, so choice A is incorrect. Bullets are used for lists, and text boxes are best for highlighting important information.
A topic outline is most commonly used when writing
A) research reports
B) sales proposals
C) manuals
D) letters
The correct answer is D.Topic outlines consist of brief phrases that indicate a document’s method of development, and they are primarily used for short documents like letters and memos. Sentence outlines are commonly used for longer documents like reports, proposals, and manuals, so choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be written by a supervisor when an employee is injured at the workplace?

A) Memo
B) Directive
C) Field report
D) Incident report

The correct answer is D.Incident or trouble reports are written to describe events like safety emergencies, equipment problems, and workplace accidents. Both directives and memos convey information about policies and procedures, and field reports, or lab reports, describe experiments and studies.
Which of the following is the best tool for dividing a technical document into accessible sections?
A) Headings
B) Abstracts
C) Footnotes
D) Graphics
The correct answer is A.Headings divide lengthy documents into chunks that make it easy for readers to locate information. Abstracts, footnotes, and graphics are common elements of technical documents, but they are not tools for dividing text into sections, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Text that appears above a visual for the purpose of explaining the graphic is known as a

A) header
B) caption
C) widow
D) thumbnail

The correct answer is B.Captions are titles or brief statements that describe a visual. Headers appear on the top of every page in a document to indicate the page number and document title. Widows are single words or short lines carried over to the top of a column or page, and thumbnails are reduced images of pictures.
Which letter format is most appropriate with letterhead stationery?

) Half-block style
B) Full-block style
C) Semi-block style
D) Modified-block style

The correct answer is B.With the full-block style, all letter elements are aligned to the left margin, and company letterhead is commonly used. When using a modified-block style, center the return address, date, and closing, and align body paragraphs to the left.
Which of the following does NOT need revision to correct an error in parallel structure?
A) The current production system wastes a significant amount of material and is reducing our profits.
B) The machinist needs to create a new locking mechanism; do not alter the existing device.
C) The sales team found it difficult to agree on the best technique for contacting customers or develop schedules.
D) The administrative assistant mailed the document to the board of directors and forgot to send a copy to the CEO.
The correct answer is D.Choice D is written correctly, but choices A, B, and C are not parallel. The verbs in choice A are in different tenses. In choice B, the clauses on each side of the semicolon do not contain the same grammatical structure. Choice C is incorrect because “develop” should be changed to “developing.”
Which definition method of development would most likely be used with medical terms?

A) Cause
B) Etymology
C) Negative
D) Components

The correct answer is B.Since many medical terms derive from Greek and Latin origins, etymology is a common method of definition. Definition by cause, negative definitions, and definition by components are less likely to be used for defining medical terms.
Which type of letter would most likely be written to request a refund from a company for a defective product?
A) Claim letter
B) Refusal letter
C) Application letter
D) Inquiry letter
The correct answer is A.The purpose of a claim letter is to request a refund or exchange for poor service or a defective product. Refusal letters convey bad news, such as an applicant not being hired for a job. Inquiry letters request additional information about a product or service.
A technical writer who uses color and size to distinguish main topic and sub-topic headings is most likely following the guidelines of
A) Filtering
B) Leading
C) Queuing
D) Chunking
The correct answer is C.Queuing involves using headings and alignment to indicate the level of importance of information in a document. Using visual patterns to indicate different types of information is known as filtering, so choice A is incorrect. Chunking, choice D, involves presenting information in small units to help with comprehension.
White space in a technical document is most likely important because it
A) meets the needs of a diverse audience
B) forces technical writers to be concise
C) appeals to non-technical readers
D) emphasizes elements on a page
The correct answer is D. White space is the page area that contains no text or graphics, and it helps draw a reader’s attention to a particular page element. White space improves the readability of a document for all types of readers, so choice C is incorrect. Although white space limits the amount of information on a page, it does not necessarily force writers to be concise.
Which of the following is emphasized in a functional resume?
A) Skills
B) Work history
C) Education
D) References
The correct answer is A.The functional resume format emphasizes abilities and skills rather than work history. This type of resume is appropriate for people who are changing careers or who have limited work experience. Education and references are included but not stressed, so choices C and D are incorrect.
The most likely purpose for writing instructions is to help readers
A) coordinate different responsibilities
B) purchase materials and equipment
C) complete a task safely and quickly
D) understand legal requirements
The correct answer is C.Instructions are written to help an audience complete a task safely, such as assembling a bicycle or installing an appliance. Procedures are a type of instruction that assists group members in coordinating activities, so choice A is incorrect.
Which of the following headings will most likely make readers feel involved in a document?
A) Major topic heading
B) Question heading
C) Minor topic heading
D) Statement heading
The correct answer is B.Headings posed as questions personalize a message and invite readers to participate in the document. Topic headings and statement headings are more formal and less personal, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following would be appropriate to present as a list in a technical document?

I. Necessary materials
II. Mechanism parts
III. Recommendations

The correct answer is D.Bulleted and numbered lists help readers understand information in a document and help break up the monotony of paragraphs. Materials, mechanism parts, conclusions, recommendations, and steps in a sequence are all appropriate for lists, so choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
The primary difference between procedures and instructions is that instructions are intended for
A) subject matter experts
B) skilled technicians
C) part-time workers
D) unskilled users
The correct answer is D.Instructions are the steps taken to complete a task, and they are primarily intended for users who are unfamiliar with a task. Procedures clarify the rules and expectations that group members should follow in different situations. Procedures are usually written for people who are already familiar with a particular task, such as experts, technicians, and other workers.
Which of the following is best for precisely defining a term that has multiple meanings?
A) Parenthetical definition
B) Sentence definition
C) Negative definition
D) Analytical definition
The correct answer is B.Sentence definitions are most appropriate when a writer needs to define a multiple-meaning term with precision. A parenthetical definition is too brief and general to convey the complexity of such a term, so choice A is incorrect. Negative definitions use comparison to define, but they are less likely to be used for terms with multiple meanings.
Directions: Question 97 refers to the following group of numbered sentences:

1. Previous studies resulted in only weak links between melanoma risk and indoor tanning.

2. According to scientists from the University of Minnesota, individuals who use any sort of tanning device for any length of time are 74% more likely to develop melanoma than are non-users.

3. Recent studies indicate that a definitive connection now exists between the use of indoor tanning devices and an increased risk of skin cancer.

4. The Minnesota research clearly links the frequency of indoor tanning, rather than the age or gender of an individual, with a higher chance of skin cancer.

5. People who frequently use tanning devices are at an even greater risk because they are three times more likely than non-users to develop melanoma.

If the sentences are arranged into a paragraph, which sequence will be the most coherent?

A) 2-3-4-1-5
B) 4-1-2-3-5
C) 3-2-5-1-4
D) 1-4-5-2-3
Directions: Question 98 refers to the following group of numbered sentences:

1. Previous studies resulted in only weak links between melanoma risk and indoor tanning.

2. According to scientists from the University of Minnesota, individuals who use any sort of tanning device for any length of time are 74% more likely to develop melanoma than are non-users.

3. Recent studies indicate that a definitive connection now exists between the use of indoor tanning devices and an increased risk of skin cancer.

4. The Minnesota research clearly links the frequency of indoor tanning, rather than the age or gender of an individual, with a higher chance of skin cancer.

5. People who frequently use tanning devices are at an even greater risk because they are three times more likely than non-users to develop melanoma.

If Sentence 1 and Sentence 4 were combined into one sentence, the new sentence would begin with which of the following?
A) Since
B) Thus
C) Because
D) Although

The correct answer is D.Using “although” to link the two sentences best contrasts the information: “Although previous studies resulted in only weak links between melanoma risk and indoor tanning, the Minnesota research clearly links the frequency of indoor tanning, rather than the age or gender of an individual, with a higher chance of skin cancer.” Choices A, B, and C are not transitions used for contrasting ideas.
Which of the following sentences is written correctly?

A) The proposal is intriguing; however, the company cannot allocate any funds for it at this time.
B) The marketing director, and the finance director advocate expanding the company’s product line.
C) Our supervisor recommended a safety training program, and requested that we enroll this week.
D) It can be assumed that, productivity in the facility will improve when the new system is installed.

The correct answer is A.The comma in choice B is unnecessary with a compound subject. Choice C is incorrect because the sentence is not compound, and a comma is not needed. The comma after “that” in choice D is unnecessary, although readers may assume a natural pause exists.
Which of the following sentences is written correctly?
A) As soon as the architect finalizes the blueprints we can begin construction.
B) The software, which was installed last week slows my computer system.
C) The new accountant, however once worked for a large law firm.
D) When the alarm sounded, most employees were in the cafeteria.
The correct answer is D. A comma is needed after introductory clauses, so choice A is incorrect. A comma needs to be added after “week” in choice B and after “however” in choice C.
Which of the following sentences is written correctly?

A) The manager, who had worked in the department for years was the first to applaud the change.
B) The plan, developed by the board of directors, was intended to guide business development.
C) No one could specify the reasons for the new policy which appeared to be entirely random.
D) Even with the entire team’s buy-in the decision was still difficult to implement.

The correct answer is B.The phrase “developed by the board of directors” is an appositive used to modify the word “plan,” so it is correctly set off by commas. A comma is required after “years” in choice A and “policy” in choice C. Commas are also required after introductory clauses, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be used to track an individual employee’s progress on a project?
A) Laboratory report
B) Activity report
C) Recommendation report
D) Feasibility report
The correct answer is B. Activity reports are used to track the progress of an individual employee on a project. Recommendation reports outline steps to take to resolve a problem, so choice C is incorrect.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

The manager assembled a meeting, reviewed the new policy, outlined a schedule, and answers questions from subordinates.
A) The manager assembled a meeting, reviewed the new policy, outlined a schedule, and answers questions from subordinates.
B) The manager assembled a meeting to review the new policy, outlined a schedule, and will answer questions from subordinates.
C) The manager assembles a meeting, reviews the new policy, outlines a schedule, and answered questions from subordinates.
D) The manager assembled a meeting, reviewed the new policy, outlined a schedule, and answered questions from subordinates.

The correct answer is D. Choices A, B, and C have errors in parallelism in which verbs are not expressed in the same tense. Choice D corrects the problem by changing “answers” to “answered” to correspond with the other past tense verbs in the sentence.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, a tankless water heater initiates the heating process.
A) After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, a tankless water heater initiates the heating process.
B) After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, the heating process initiates in a tankless water heater.
C) After it senses the flow of water through a turbine, the heating process begins in a tankless water heater.
D) After the tankless water heater senses the heating process, it begins to flow water through a turbine.

The correct answer is A. Choices B and C are incorrect because the “heating process” does not sense the “flow of water.” The unclear meaning of “it” in choice D creates a confusing sentence. Choice A is the most clearly phrased sentence.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
A) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
B) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer; it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
C) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer, it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
D) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer for it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.

The correct answer is B. Choice A is a run-on sentence that needs either a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon. Choice C needs a conjunction before the word “it,” and choice D needs a comma before the conjunction “for.” Choice B corrects the run-on with a semicolon.
Which of the following aspects of a product will a schematic diagram most likely illustrate?
A) Appearance
B) Strength
C) Function
D) Cost
The correct answer is C. Schematic diagrams use lines and symbols to illustrate how a product or a process works. A schematic diagram will not likely depict appearance, strength, or cost, so choices A, B, and D are incorrect.
Which word best combines the following pair of sentences?

1. Relocation will improve production efficiency.
2. The initial costs will be extremely high.
A) However
B) Moreover
C) Then
D) So

The correct answer is A. The information in the two sentences contrasts the positive with the negative, so “however” is the best transition to illustrate this relationship. “Moreover,” “then,” and “so” are not transitions appropriate for contrasting two ideas, so choices B, C, and D are eliminated.
Which of the following audiences would most likely prefer technical documents that include highly detailed and specific information?
A) Low context culture
B) Individualistic culture
C) High context culture
D) Collectivistic culture
The correct answer is A. Low context cultures appreciate detailed information where procedures are explained completely. An audience of readers from a high context culture might be offended by the inclusion of information that is considered common knowledge. Choices B and D are less relevant because individualistic cultures value the individual more than the group and collectivistic cultures stress group harmony
Which of the following is a characteristic of the decreasing order method of development?
A) Strong concluding argument
B) Useful for reference manuals
C) Key points explained first
D) Effective for oral reports
The correct answer is C. With the decreasing order pattern, key points are presented first followed by less important points, which is an effective structure for busy readers but not for people reading manuals. The increasing order pattern is best for oral reports and includes a strong conclusion, so choices A and D are incorrect.
Which of the following should be avoided when using the classification method of development?
A) Using only one basis of categorization
B) Arranging categories spatially
C) Including all categories
D) Overlapping categories
The correct answer is D. Writers should avoid overlapping categories; one item should not be placed in more than one category. Categories should be arranged logically, which may be spatially, chronologically, or any other way that makes sense, so choices A, B, and C are incorrect.
Which of the following guidelines applies to revising technical documents?
) Convert verbs into nouns with nominalization.
B) Make negative instead of positive statements.
C) Avoid beginning sentences with “there” and “it.”
D) Use qualifiers such as “I feel” to soften the tone.
The correct answer is C. Sentences beginning with “there” and “it” are weak and should be avoided. Nominalization, which involves using verbs as nouns, such as “consideration” instead of “consider,” creates a wordy and weak sentence. Qualifiers are also wordy, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following occurs when members of a collaborative writing project avoid conflict by failing to question and criticize poor ideas?
A) Stereotyping
B) Rationalizing
C) Transparency
D) Groupthink
The correct answer is D. Groupthink sometimes occurs during collaborative projects when group members favor harmony over critical thinking. The result of groupthink may be an inferior document. Choices A, B, and C do not fit the definition given in the question stem.
What is the primary benefit of using the active voice in technical writing?
A) Accessibility
B) Conciseness
C) Formality
D) Accuracy
The correct answer is B. Active voice is less wordy than passive voice because it eliminates helping verbs, so choice B is correct. Although active voice emphasizes the action of the subject, it is not any more accessible, formal, or accurate than passive voice, which means choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate for the recommendations section of a feasibility report?
A) Cause and effect
B) Chronological
C) Order of importance
D) Division and classification
The correct answer is A. The cause and effect method of development is common in the recommendations section of a report. With the cause and effect pattern, a writer proposes that a recommended solution will lead to specific effects. Chronological, order of importance, and division and classification are less appropriate patterns for the recommendations section of a report.
Question 88 refers to the following group of numbered sentences:
1. Scientists believe that a connection exists between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular problems.
2. A research study conducted in 2000 indicated that females who regularly snore are twice as likely to experience a heart attack or a stroke as women who sleep quietly.
3. Not only is heavy snoring bothersome, it might also be a health risk.
4. Additional research is necessary before a definite correlation can be made between snoring and cardiovascular problems.
5. Loud, regular snoring may be a sign of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition that briefly stops a person’s breathing at night.
If the sentences above are arranged into a coherent paragraph, which sentence will come last in the sequence?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 4
D) 5
The correct answer is C. Sentence 3 is the topic sentence of the paragraph, and Sentences 1 and 5 are details explaining obstructive sleep apnea. Sentence 4 should be the last sentence of the paragraph because it wraps up the paragraph by indicating that the previous study was informative but inconclusive.
Which method of paragraph sequencing is best for an instruction guide that explains how to assemble a bookcase?
A) Emphatic
B) Chronological
C) Cause and effect
D) Effect-to-cause
The correct answer is B. Chronological sequence is best for explaining how to accomplish a task or goal, so it would be best for assembly instructions. When readers need to remember a specific idea, the emphatic sequence is best. Cause and effect structures address problems and results, which are unnecessary for product instructions.
Which of the following factors primarily determines whether a writer should use a direct or indirect organizational pattern in a memo?
A) Length of the memo
B) Number of recipients
C) Anticipated reader reaction
D) Paper or electronic submission
The correct answer is C. Anticipated reader reaction to a memo primarily determines the choice of organizational pattern. The direct pattern in a memo places the main point in the first paragraph; this pattern is most commonly used when relaying positive or routine information. The indirect pattern is frequently used when providing information that may be resented or resisted. Length, the number of recipients, and format are less relevant for determining organizational pattern, so choices A, B, and D are incorrect.
All of the following are effective graphics for illustrating numerical data EXCEPT
A) tables
B) pictographs
C) pie charts
D) logic trees
The correct answer is D. Tables, pictographs, and pie charts are commonly used in technical documents to illustrate numerical information. Logic trees illustrate multiple paths to follow and are useful when describing processes, so choice D is the best answer.
Which of the following graphics is best used to illustrate the schedule of a project?
A) Pictogram
B) Gantt chart
C) Organization chart
D) Representational diagram
The correct answer is B. Gantt charts depict how the phases of a project relate to each other and are useful tools for illustrating a project’s schedule and progression. Organization charts depict the management structure in a firm but not the schedule of a project, so choice C is incorrect. Pictograms and diagrams display relationships but not schedules, so choices A and D are incorrect.
Which of the following is characteristic of most feasibility reports?
A) Minimal details
B) Comparative tables
C) Foreword and preface
D) Specific recommendations
The correct answer is D. Feasibility reports include the specific recommendations of the author as well as enough details to support the recommendations. Feasibility reports may include tables, forewords, and prefaces, but not in all cases, which eliminates choices B and C.
Which of the following appears first in most justification memos?
A) Achievement summary
B) Cost and savings analysis
C) Problem and recommendations
D) Primary and secondary research results
The correct answer is C. Most justification memos begin with a brief introduction that explains a problem and a recommendation for solving the problem. Financial analyses and research results are likely to appear later in the memo, so choices B and D are incorrect.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be conveyed by the title of a technical report?
A) Tone
B) Scope
C) Purpose
D) Findings
The correct answer is D. The title of a technical report should convey the document’s tone, scope, topic, and purpose. A writer’s findings and recommendations would most likely be revealed at the end of a report rather than in the title, so the best answer is choice D.
Which of the following is an example of primary research?
A) Operating manuals
B) Questionnaires
C) Brochures
D) Meeting minutes
The correct answer is B. Primary research involves collecting raw data through interviews, surveys, and questionnaires. Secondary research involves using information that has already been collected, analyzed, and compiled in books, articles, manuals, brochures, and minutes of meetings, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which type of graph is based on a line graph?
A) Subdivided bar graph
B) Multi-column graph
C) Deviation graph
D) Area graph
The correct answer is D. Area graphs, which stem from line charts, show how quantities change over time. Subdivided bar graphs, multi-column graphs, and deviation bar graphs illustrate numerical information that has been presented in columns, which eliminates choices A, B, and C.
The conclusion of a feasibility report serves the purpose of
A) providing background information
B) reviewing budgetary guidelines
C) describing methods and procedures
D) explaining possible options
The correct answer is D. The conclusion of a feasibility report explains possible options and suggests which one is most appropriate. The introduction provides background information, methods, and procedures, so choices A and C are incorrect. Choice B is incorrect because the body of a feasibility report includes information about budget constraints.
Which of the following guidelines applies to preparing a glossary in a technical document?
A) Place lengthy glossaries in the front matter.
B) Define terms that are unfamiliar to laypersons.
C) Provide examples and definitions for each term.
D) List terms in the order that they appear in the document.
The correct answer is B. Terms unfamiliar to general readers should be briefly defined in a glossary and listed in alphabetical order. Only short glossaries are included in the front matter; lengthy glossaries belong in the back matter.
Which of the following is an example of soft evidence?
A) Speculations
B) Factual statements
C) Expert opinions
D) Statistics
The correct answer is A. Factual statements, expert opinions, and statistics are examples of hard evidence, which can be verified. Speculations and uneducated opinions are examples of soft evidence.
Grouping related text and graphics together follows the design principle of
A) contrast
B) proximity
C) alignment
D) repetition
The correct answer is B. The principle of proximity suggests grouping related information together, such as a graph and the text that explains its significance. Contrast, alignment, and repetition are three other design principles that are not related to grouping, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
alignment design principle of technical writing
Alignment Related items should line up to aid in overall coherence. Bad Alignment Makes Documents Difficult to Read
proximity design principles of technical writing
The principle of proximity is fairly simple; it dictates that related items should be visually arranged together
contrast design principles of technical writing
Using different font sizes or styles can help distinguish between elements in a document that are meant to be distinct from each other. Examples include: Bolded or Underlined Subheads Use of italics for lists or titles Even things like bullets are used partly for contrast
white space design principle of technical writing
Everywhere there is not a text or visual constitutes white space. White space helps to separate your text into disparate, distinguishable parts. White space also helps to emphasize key points/parts of your document
Proximity design principle of technical writing
Everywhere there is not a text or visual constitutes white space. White space helps to separate your text into disparate, distinguishable parts. White space also helps to emphasize key points/parts of your document
Which type of document most often contains mistakes?
A) Memo
B) E-mail
C) Manual
D) Proposa
The correct answer is B. E-mails frequently contain grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors because of the informal nature of the medium. Memos, manuals, and proposals are more formal, so writers typically review these documents before distribution, which means that choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following is NOT included in the standard format of most memos
A) Date
B) From
C) Address
D) Subject
The correct answer is C. The standard memo format includes a subject line, date line, and lines for the receiver and sender (“To” and “From”). Since memos are internal communication within an organization, an address is unnecessary.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to appear in the header of a technical document?
A) Document title
B) Section topic
C) Author’s name
D) Page number
The correct answer is C. Headers and footers in technical documents typically include elements such as the document’s name, section topic, date, and page number. Headers and footers should be concise, so the name of the author or authors would probably not be included.
Which of the following will most likely be submitted as a formal report?
A) Directives
B) Incident reports
C) Meeting minutes
D) Feasibility reports
The correct answer is D. Directives, incident reports, and meeting minutes are typically written as informal reports, so choices A, B, and C are incorrect. Feasibility reports are formal reports that require writers to evaluate and present multiple courses of action.
Which of the following page design elements helps readers know their location within a document?
A) Glossaries and indexes
B) Footnotes and endnotes
C) Widows and orphans
D) Headers and footers
The correct answer is D. Headers and footers help readers know their location within a document by providing information such as chapter, section, and page number. The index enables readers to find specific information, while glossaries, footnotes, and endnotes provide additional details to interested readers.
What is the best method for editing a document with short, choppy sentences?
A) Adding transitions
B) Eliminating articles
C) Combining sentences
D) Adding topic sentences
he correct answer is C. Sentence combination is the best way to improve a document and eliminate short, choppy sentences. Transitions and topic sentences improve clarity and unity but have no effect on short sentences, so choices A and D are incorrect. Eliminating articles may occur during sentence combining, but the process alone will not create better flow in a document.
Which of the following will most likely improve how easily a document is translated into another language?
A) Personal pronouns
B) Short sentences
C) Appendices
D) Process descriptions
The correct answer is B. Short sentences, simple words, and glossaries improve the ability to translate a document. Pronouns should be used with caution because of the potential for confusion, so choice A is incorrect. Appendices and process descriptions are less likely to affect translation.
An organization submitting a proposal will most likely demonstrate professionalism by
A) emphasizing the needs of certain readers
B) providing a detailed plan and work schedule
C) using creative graphics
D) underestimating the completion date of the project
The correct answer is B. Proposals that include detailed plans and work schedules indicate that the organization is professional enough to consider all possible problems and situations. Although using creative graphics can boost the appeal of the proposal, this does not necessarily convey professionalism. Underestimating when a project will be completed is dishonest, which eliminates choice D
Which of the following errors in logic occurs when a writer draws conclusions based on an insufficient number of cases?
A) Hasty generalization
B) Oversimplifying
C) Ad populum
D) Non sequitur
The correct answer is A. Hasty generalizations are logic errors that occur when a writer makes a conclusion based on a small number of cases.
Oversimplifying is a error in logic
involves leaving out important information and creating a cause and effect relationship
Ad populum
is the argument that an idea is true because many people believe it
non sequitur
is a gap in logic
Which of the following needs revision to correct an error in parallel structure?
A) If the laboratory report indicates high levels of fluoride, chlorine, and mercury, then the company will need to reconsider the deal.
B) The newly hired finance manager is experienced, outgoing, and you will learn a great deal from working with him.
C) Either we must increase our advertising budget, or we must use alternative methods for reaching the target market.
D) After assembling the bicycle, check the chain and brakes regularly, and keep the tire pressure at the required level.
The correct answer is B. The sentence in choice B contains an error in parallelism because “you will learn a great deal” is not balanced with “is experienced, outgoing.” Choices A, C, and D are structured in parallel format.
Which of the following is an example of filtering?
A) Placing a stop sign symbol beside every safety tip in an instruction manual
B) Double-spacing between paragraphs and after headings in a lab report
C) Including chapter, section, and page number in all headers of a manual
D) Providing hyperlinks to additional resources in an online training guide
The correct answer is A. Filtering involves the use of visual patterns, such as symbols, to indicate different types of information in a document.
Spacing, headers, and hyperlinks
improve the readability of documents but are not examples of filtering
Which of the following sentences needs revision because of a shift in voice?
A) The architect revised the plans for the office building, and the survey was managed by him as well.
B) After developing a new business strategy, top executives announced plans to hire additional employees.
C) The manager required employees to work overtime last weekend to rearrange the layout of the department store.
D) Although the chef prepares creative, delicious dishes, she fails to manage the business aspects of her restaurant.
The correct answer is A. The sentence in choice A shifts from active voice to passive voice and needs revision.
Which revision method is most commonly associated with instructional writing?
A) Vulnerability audit
B) Usability test
C) Internal audit
D) Case study
The correct answer is B. Usability testing is a process of evaluating and revising instructional documents to improve safety and to detect potential problems for users. Surveys, interviews, and observations are common methods of testing the usability of instructional documents.
Audits and case studies generally
are not associated with instructional writing
The characteristic that helps writers to determine the vocabulary level, sentence structure, and graphics to use in a technical document is the reader’s
A) job responsibilities
B) educational background
C) expectations of the document
D) attitude about the subject matter
The correct answer is B. The educational background of an audience guides a writer’s choice of vocabulary, sentence structure, and graphics. It would be appropriate for a writer to use sophisticated vocabulary for an educated audience but not for less educated readers. Job responsibilities, expectations, and attitudes are important considerations for writers when determining the focus, organization, and scope of a document rather than vocabulary, sentence structure, or graphics.
Directions: Part of the following sentence is underlined. Beneath the sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing the underlined part. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.
The agribusiness industry is any business related to large-scale food production and it has been blamed in recent years for the demise of small, family farms.
A) The agribusiness industry is any business related to large-scale food production and it has been blamed
B) The agribusiness industry has been blamed for any business related to large-scale food production
C) Agribusiness, which is the industry of large-scale food production, has been blamed
D) Large-scale food production and the agribusiness industry have been blamed
The correct answer is C. The original compound sentence needs a comma after production, so choice A is incorrect. Choices B and D misinterpret the original information. Choice C is best because it eliminates unnecessary words and creates a concise sentence.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

After working diligently on the grant proposal, the funding would be received by the professor within eight weeks.
A) After working diligently on the grant proposal, the funding would be received by the professor within eight weeks.
B) After working diligently on the grant proposal for eight weeks, the funding would be sent to the professor in eight weeks.
C) After working diligently on the grant proposal, the funding would arrive within eight weeks to the professor.
D) After working diligently on the grant proposal, the professor learned that the funding would arrive within eight weeks.

The correct answer is D. Choices A, B, and C are incorrect because the wording suggests that the “funding” worked “diligently on the grant proposal.” Choice D clearly conveys to the reader that the “professor worked diligently on the grant proposal.”
Which of the following is the most important factor when determining the best tone for a document?
A) Size of audience
B) Reader preference
C) Scope and topic
D) Style guidelines
The correct answer is B. Reader preferences dictate decisions regarding the most appropriate tone of a document because the reader is the final judge. Although audience and purpose influence tone decisions, the size of the audience is less relevant.
Special instructions written for group members to help them perform a task in a coordinated manner are known as
A) flowcharts
B) policy statements
C) section transitions
D) procedures
The correct answer is D. Procedures are instructions that act as guidelines to help people perform a task in the same manner every time.
Flowcharts offer a
visual rather than a written explanation of a procedure
Policy statements and section transitions
do not provide step-by-step instructions
Margins serve all of the following purposes in a document EXCEPT to
A) limit information included on a page
B) supply space for binding purposes
C) meet reader typeface preferences
D) provide room for marginal glosses
The correct answer is C. Margins limit the amount of information that can be included on a page and provide necessary space for binding a document. Margins also allow authors to include marginal glosses, which are notes and definitions that appear in margins. Typeface and margins are not related, so choice C is the best answer.
The typical type size for technical manuscripts is
A) 10-12 points
B) 14-16 points
C) 16-20 points
D) 22-24 points
The correct answer is A. The primary text of most technical documents is set in a 10-12 point type size. Use larger type sizes for headings and titles and smaller ones for headers, footers, and notes.
1. Scientists believe that a connection exists between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular problems.
2. A research study conducted in 2000 indicated that females who regularly snore are twice as likely to experience a heart attack or a stroke as women who sleep quietly.
3. Not only is heavy snoring bothersome, it might also be a health risk.
4. Additional research is necessary before a definite correlation can be made between snoring and cardiovascular problems.
5. Loud, regular snoring may be a sign of obstructive sleep apnea, a condition that briefly stops a person’s breathing at night.
If the sentences above are arranged into a coherent paragraph, which sentence will come last in the sequence?
The correct answer is C. Sentence 3 is the topic sentence of the paragraph, and Sentences 1 and 5 are details explaining obstructive sleep apnea. Sentence 4 should be the last sentence of the paragraph because it wraps up the paragraph by indicating that the previous study was informative but inconclusive.
Which organizational pattern would be most appropriate for the recommendations section of a feasibility report?
A) Cause and effect
B) Chronological
C) Order of importance
D) Division and classification
The correct answer is A. The cause and effect method of development is common in the recommendations section of a report. With the cause and effect pattern, a writer proposes that a recommended solution will lead to specific effects. Chronological, order of importance, and division and classification are less appropriate patterns for the recommendations section of a report.
recommendations section of a report
is common in the cause and effect method of development. With the cause and effect pattern, a writer proposes that a recommended solution will lead to specific effects.
What is the primary benefit of using the active voice in technical writing
A) Accessibility
B) Conciseness
C) Formality
D) Accuracy
The correct answer is B. Active voice is less wordy than passive voice because it eliminates helping verbs, so choice B is correct. Although active voice emphasizes the action of the subject, it is not any more accessible, formal, or accurate than passive voice, which means choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following occurs when members of a collaborative writing project avoid conflict by failing to question and criticize poor ideas?
A) Stereotyping
B) Rationalizing
C) Transparency
D) Groupthink
The correct answer is D. Groupthink sometimes occurs during collaborative projects when group members favor harmony over critical thinking.
Which of the following guidelines applies to revising technical documents?
A) Convert verbs into nouns with nominalization.
B) Make negative instead of positive statements.
C) Avoid beginning sentences with “there” and “it.”
D) Use qualifiers such as “I feel” to soften the tone.
The correct answer is C. Sentences beginning with “there” and “it” are weak and should be avoided.
Nominalization,
which involves using verbs as nouns, such as “consideration” instead of “consider,” creates a wordy and weak sentence.
Qualifiers
are also wordy, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following should be avoided when using the classification method of development?
A) Using only one basis of categorization
B) Arranging categories spatially
C) Including all categories
D) Overlapping categories
The correct answer is D. Writers should avoid overlapping categories; one item should not be placed in more than one category.
Categories should be
arranged logically, which may be spatially, chronologically, or any other way that makes sense
Which of the following is a characteristic of the decreasing order method of development?
A) Strong concluding argument
B) Useful for reference manuals
C) Key points explained first
D) Effective for oral reports
The correct answer is C. With the decreasing order pattern, key points are presented first followed by less important points, which is an effective structure for busy readers but not for people reading manuals.
The increasing order pattern
is best for oral reports and includes a strong conclusion
Which of the following audiences would most likely prefer technical documents that include highly detailed and specific information?
A) Low context culture
B) Individualistic culture
C) High context culture
D) Collectivistic culture
The correct answer is A. Low context cultures appreciate detailed information where procedures are explained completely.
An audience of readers from a high context culture
might be offended by the inclusion of information that is considered common knowledge.
individualistic cultures value
the individual more than the group
collectivistic cultures
stress group harmony.
Which word best combines the following pair of sentences?
1. Relocation will improve production efficiency.
2. The initial costs will be extremely high.
A) However
B) Moreover
C) Then
D) So
The correct answer is A. The information in the two sentences contrasts the positive with the negative, so “however” is the best transition to illustrate this relationship.
not transitions WORDS appropriate for contrasting two ideas
“Moreover,” “then,” and “so”
Which of the following aspects of a product will a schematic diagram most likely illustrate?
A) Appearance
B) Strength
C) Function
D) Cost
The correct answer is C. Schematic diagrams use lines and symbols to illustrate how a product or a process works.
A schematic diagram will not likely
depict appearance, strength, or cost
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
A) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
B) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer; it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
C) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer, it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.
D) The 1065 laptop is our company’s bestselling computer for it combines speed, versatility, and durability in a budget-friendly machine.

The correct answer is B. Choice A is a run-on sentence that needs either a comma and a conjunction or a semicolon. Choice C needs a conjunction before the word “it,” and choice D needs a comma before the conjunction “for.” Choice B corrects the run-on with a semicolon.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing answers, pay attention to grammatical correctness, appropriate word choice, and smoothness and effectiveness of sentence construction.

After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, a tankless water heater initiates the heating process.
A) After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, a tankless water heater initiates the heating process.
B) After sensing the flow of water through a turbine, the heating process initiates in a tankless water heater.
C) After it senses the flow of water through a turbine, the heating process begins in a tankless water heater.
D) After the tankless water heater senses the heating process, it begins to flow water through a turbine.

The correct answer is A. Choices B and C are incorrect because the “heating process” does not sense the “flow of water.” The unclear meaning of “it” in choice D creates a confusing sentence. Choice A is the most clearly phrased sentence.
Directions: Below the following sentence, you will find four ways of phrasing it. The first choice, A, repeats the original sentence; the other three choices are different. If you think the original sentence is better than any of the alternatives, choose answer A. Otherwise, choose one of the others. In choosing
A) The manager assembled a meeting, reviewed the new policy, outlined a schedule, and answers questions from subordinates.
B) The manager assembled a meeting to review the new policy, outlined a schedule, and will answer questions from subordinates.
C) The manager assembles a meeting, reviews the new policy, outlines a schedule, and answered questions from subordinates.
D) The manager assembled a meeting, reviewed the new policy, outlined a schedule, and answered questions from subordinates.
The correct answer is D. Choices A, B, and C have errors in parallelism in which verbs are not expressed in the same tense. Choice D corrects the problem by changing “answers” to “answered” to correspond with the other past tense verbs in the sentence.
Which of the following would most likely be used to track an individual employee’s progress on a project?
A) Laboratory report
B) Activity report
C) Recommendation report
D) Feasibility report
The correct answer is B. Activity reports are used to track the progress of an individual employee on a project. Recommendation reports outline steps to take to resolve a problem, so choice C is incorrect.
A technical document that is too concise will most likely trigger problems associated with
A) ambiguity
B) denotation
C) chunking
D) redundancy
The correct answer is A. An overly concise document will most likely be choppy and unclear. Redundancies are a problem associated with wordy documents, so choice D is incorrect. Chunking a document into manageable sections improves readability, so choice C is wrong. The denotation of a word is its literal meaning, so choice B is incorrect.
The index of a technical document contains a list of
A) definitions
B) sources
C) topics
D) graphs
The correct answer is C. The index provides a list of major topics covered in a technical document. Definitions are listed in the glossary, and sources are provided in a bibliography, so choices A and B are eliminated. Documents containing numerous visuals often include a list of figures, so choice D is incorrect.
What do most writers of grant proposals request from readers?
A) Project funding
B) Policy changes
C) Tangible products
D) Increased publicity
The correct answer is A. Most grant proposals request funding for projects. Other types of proposals may request goods and services or changes to policies and procedures, which means that choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
The purpose of the concluding paragraph of a job application letter is to
A) summarize the applicant’s work history and education
B) explain how the applicant learned about the job opening
C) encourage the reader to invite the applicant for an interview
D) describe why the applicant would make an excellent employee
The correct answer is C. In the concluding paragraph of a job application letter, a writer should politely request an interview and provide contact information to motivate the reader to meet with the applicant. Work history and education are summarized earlier in the letter, so choice A is incorrect. Earlier paragraphs should also explain how the applicant learned about the job and why the applicant would be an excellent employee, which eliminates choices B and D.
Which of the following has the LEAST relevance when determining the best tone for a technical document?
A) Audience
B) Purpose
C) Subject
D) Scope
The correct answer is D. The audience, purpose, and subject of a document determine whether the tone should be informal, moderately formal, or highly formal. The scope of a document, or its depth and length, is less relevant to determining the appropriate level of formality, so the best answer is choice D.
Using an informal tone in a technical document is most likely appropriate when the audience consists of
A) potential clients
B) top-level executives
C) friendly colleagues
D) academic professionals
The correct answer is C. An informal tone is appropriate if a writer has a relationship with colleagues and co-workers. An informal tone would be inappropriate for potential clients, executives, and any other readers who are unfamiliar with the writer, so choices A, B, and D are incorrect.
The primary purpose of a refusal letter is to
A) deny liability
B) counter a claim
C) request a refund
D) convey bad news
The correct answer is D. Refusal letters convey negative messages, such as denying a proposal or a promotion. Individuals write claim letters to request refunds for poor products or services, so choice C is incorrect. Denying liability and countering claims are less likely goals of refusal letters.
Grouping related text and graphics together follows the design principle of
A) contrast
B) proximity
C) alignment
D) repetition
The correct answer is B. The principle of proximity suggests grouping related information together, such as a graph and the text that explains its significance. Contrast, alignment, and repetition are three other design principles that are not related to grouping, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which type of document most often contains mistakes?
A) Memo
B) E-mail
C) Manual
D) Proposal
The correct answer is B. E-mails frequently contain grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors because of the informal nature of the medium. Memos, manuals, and proposals are more formal, so writers typically review these documents before distribution, which means that choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following is NOT included in the standard format of most memos?
A) Date
B) From
C) Address
D) Subject
The correct answer is C. The standard memo format includes a subject line, date line, and lines for the receiver and sender (“To” and “From”). Since memos are internal communication within an organization, an address is unnecessary.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to appear in the header of a technical document?
A) Document title
B) Section topic
C) Author’s name
D) Page number
The correct answer is C. Headers and footers in technical documents typically include elements such as the document’s name, section topic, date, and page number. Headers and footers should be concise, so the name of the author or authors would probably not be included.
Which of the following page design elements helps readers know their location within a document?
A) Glossaries and indexes
B) Footnotes and endnotes
C) Widows and orphans
D) Headers and footers
The correct answer is D. Headers and footers help readers know their location within a document by providing information such as chapter, section, and page number. The index enables readers to find specific information, while glossaries, footnotes, and endnotes provide additional details to interested readers.
What is the best method for editing a document with short, choppy sentences?
A) Adding transitions
B) Eliminating articles
C) Combining sentences
D) Adding topic sentences
The correct answer is C. Sentence combination is the best way to improve a document and eliminate short, choppy sentences. Transitions and topic sentences improve clarity and unity but have no effect on short sentences, so choices A and D are incorrect. Eliminating articles may occur during sentence combining, but the process alone will not create better flow in a document.
Which of the following will most likely improve how easily a document is translated into another language?
A) Personal pronouns
B) Short sentences
C) Appendices
D) Process descriptions
The correct answer is B. Short sentences, simple words, and glossaries improve the ability to translate a document. Pronouns should be used with caution because of the potential for confusion, so choice A is incorrect. Appendices and process descriptions are less likely to affect translation
An organization submitting a proposal will most likely demonstrate professionalism by
A) emphasizing the needs of certain readers
B) providing a detailed plan and work schedule
C) using creative graphics
D) underestimating the completion date of the project
The correct answer is B. Proposals that include detailed plans and work schedules indicate that the organization is professional enough to consider all possible problems and situations. Although using creative graphics can boost the appeal of the proposal, this does not necessarily
Which of the following errors in logic occurs when a writer draws conclusions based on an insufficient number of cases?
A) Hasty generalization
B) Oversimplifying
C) Ad populum
D) Non sequitur
The correct answer is A. Hasty generalizations are logic errors that occur when a writer makes a conclusion based on a small number of cases. Oversimplifying involves leaving out important information and creating a cause and effect relationship, which makes choice B incorrect. Ad populum is the argument that an idea is true because many people believe it, so choice C is incorrect. A non sequitur is a gap in logic, so choice D is incorrect.
Which of the following needs revision to correct an error in parallel structure?
A) If the laboratory report indicates high levels of fluoride, chlorine, and mercury, then the company will need to reconsider the deal.
B) The newly hired finance manager is experienced, outgoing, and you will learn a great deal from working with him.
C) Either we must increase our advertising budget, or we must use alternative methods for reaching the target market.
D) After assembling the bicycle, check the chain and brakes regularly, and keep the tire pressure at the required level.
The correct answer is B. The sentence in choice B contains an error in parallelism because “you will learn a great deal” is not balanced with “is experienced, outgoing.” Choices A, C, and D are structured in parallel format.
Which of the following is an example of filtering?
A) Placing a stop sign symbol beside every safety tip in an instruction manual
B) Double-spacing between paragraphs and after headings in a lab report
C) Including chapter, section, and page number in all headers of a manual
D) Providing hyperlinks to additional resources in an online training guide
The correct answer is A. Filtering involves the use of visual patterns, such as symbols, to indicate different types of information in a document. Spacing, headers, and hyperlinks improve the readability of documents but are not examples of filtering, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Which of the following sentences needs revision because of a shift in voice?
A) The architect revised the plans for the office building, and the survey was managed by him as well.
B) After developing a new business strategy, top executives announced plans to hire additional employees.
C) The manager required employees to work overtime last weekend to rearrange the layout of the department store.
D) Although the chef prepares creative, delicious dishes, she fails to manage the business aspects of her restaurant.
The correct answer is A. Choices B, C, and D are written correctly. The sentence in choice A shifts from active voice to passive voice and needs revision.
Which revision method is most commonly associated with instructional writing?
A) Vulnerability audit
B) Usability test
C) Internal audit
D) Case study
The correct answer is B. Usability testing is a process of evaluating and revising instructional documents to improve safety and to detect potential problems for users. Surveys, interviews, and observations are common methods of testing the usability of instructional documents. Audits and casestudies generally are not associated with instructional writing, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
What is the primary purpose of a conclusion in an analytical report?
Analytical reports provide and analyze information, and the conclusion interprets the report’s findings.
Which of the following graphics would be most appropriate for making numerical comparisons?

I. Table
II. Diagram
III. Bar graph

Tables and bar graphs illustrate numerical information and enable readers to make comparisons. Diagrams illustrate relationships in systems, such as components in an electronic device, so choices B and D are incorrect.
Which type of visual would be most appropriate for installation instructions provided with a home ceiling fan?
A) Schematic diagram
B) Picture graph
C) Line graph
D) Table
Schematic diagrams show how parts of a product work, which would be useful to people assembling and installing a ceiling fan. Picture graphs, line graphs, and tables would be less useful for laypersons, so choices B, C, and D are incorrect.
Which type of graphic would most likely improve the effectiveness of a document comparing three different television models?
Tables often accompany reports that use the comparison method of development, and a table comparing three televisions by specific categories would be a helpful reference tool for readers. Flowcharts, maps, and line graphs are not tools for making comparisons, so choices A, C, and D are incorrect.
Which method of definition development is being used when a writer compares a computer’s central processing unit to the human brain?
A) Operation
B) Partition
C) Analogy
D) Cause
The correct answer is C.
Defining through analogy involves comparing two seemingly different objects that share a common characteristic. Partition involves dividing an idea into different parts and explaining each part separately, so choice B is incorrect.
Which of the following would most likely be written and provided to police officers regarding how to collect evidence from a crime scene?
Which of the following would most likely be written and provided to police officers regarding how to collect evidence from a crime scene?
A) Memos
B) Procedures
C) Descriptions
D) Instructions
The correct answer is B. Procedures are rules and guidelines provided to people who know how to perform a task, while instructions are written for unskilled individuals. In order to ensure that crime evidence is collected and stored properly, police departments provide specific procedures for officers to follow.

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