Developmental Psychology Paper Essay
Piaget. Erikson. and Kohlberg. I decided to carry on personal interviews and associate my findings to these three theories. Piaget’s theory explained the four phases of cognitive development. Erikson divided psychosocial development into eight phases. depicting how the people and the environment affects how we gain our personality. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development was to understand the logical thinking to why we make the determinations we do. Below are how my happening relate to these assorted developmental psychological theories. Piaget’s four phases of cognitive development start with the sensorimotor phase. This phase is from birth to around two old ages of age when the baby creates their first apprehension of the universe around them by gustatory sensation and touch. At two old ages of age to six or seven old ages. the kid passages into the pre-operational phase.
In this phase the child’s thought is still egoistic. Even though this age group has stable constructs and mental logical thinking. they lack the logic for mental operations and can merely believe in their point-of-view. Then the concrete operational phase begins at about seven old ages old and lasts until the kid is. approximate. eleven old ages old. During this phase. the kid can understand and organize simple mathematical operations. Egoism will be eliminated and they will no longer be able to see life from one position ( their ain point of position ) . Not merely in mathematical operations. the kid can comprehend multiple facets when work outing a job. At this phase. they begin to organize a sense of duty for their pets and/or personal properties. Formal operational. Piaget’s concluding phase. begins around age 12 and continues through maturity.
Formal operational stage is when the chid develops into an grownup and is capable of abstract idea and moral logical thinking influences determination devising. The trial-and-error method begins here. along with the start of sing future results and effects from determinations. Erikson’s eight phases of psychosocial development Begin with birth to the first twelvemonth of life. During this clip an baby is wholly incapacitated and relies off their caretaker for everything. For this first twelvemonth it is important for the caretaker of the baby to organize a relationship for socialisation development. The 2nd phase extends from the first twelvemonth of the kid to age three. when there is a struggle between uncertainty or shame and liberty. The genital. or 3rd phase stopping points from age four to age five. The struggle here is between imitative and a feeling of guilt. The 4th phase. the latency phase. stopping points from six to eleven old ages old. This is when a kid learns to ground. create. and earn. The struggle is between industry and lower status.
These first four phases are more dependent on others and the person is easy influenced by their environment. The last four phases of Erikson’s developmental theory occurs when the person begins to seek for their mature ego and a sense of way. The 5th phase begins with adolescence. that lasts from age 12 to age 18. Here. the struggle is between individuality and function confusion. The adolescent passages into the immature maturity phase. enduring from age 18 to 25. This is a clip when developing a sense of individuality and calling success. This is when the person is on the way to adulthood and independency. Adulthood lasts about from 35. to fifty five old ages old. During this stage the grownup starts to go through on their cognition to another. The struggle is between generalization or self soaking up. The concluding phase of development is adulthood. This phase lasts until decease. when the single battles to look back on life with a sense of satisfaction and measure our life. Kohlberg’s theory of moral development provides us with a clearer apprehension of why we make picks.
This theory was divided into three phases of moral logical thinking. The most basic phase. is pre-convention. During this phase the thought that we make our determinations due to fear of penalty or desire for wages occurs. A kid is most likely to do determinations with this phase. due to a fright or obeisance to authorization. Next. conventional morality is less of a fright to an authorization figure. more the single wanting to make the right thing. This is society conforming us to play nice to keep societal order. Post-conventional may be the antonym of conventional. Post-conventional does non intend we do something incorrect to crush conformance. but an person will follow what they believe to be good even if it conflicts with the Torahs or mores of society. Harmonizing to Piaget’s 2nd phase. the pre-operational phase. the child’s ideas and actions are egoistic and lack logic for mental operations. The kid I interviewed had a egoistic mentality on life. missing realistic ends and accomplishments.
At this clip in the child’s life. they are besides at Erikson’s latency phase. when they learn to ground. create. and earn. therefore explicating why one of this child’s biggest achievements was blending two sodium carbonates to make one. In decision. Piaget’s and Erikson’s theories can accurately foretell a child’s ideas and behaviours. Adolescents are more complicated. for they have moved past the latency phase into the adolescence phase. Identity development and function confusion are the larger struggles. Besides at this point. they transition into the formal operational phase. when they can believe abstractly and do their ain determinations. When asked if she had gained or lost assurance over the old ages. the miss I interviewed. Ashley. responded: “So I lost it throughout in-between school. but bit by bit started deriving it through high school. ”
This is due to Ashley fighting and get downing to happen her individuality. She had already ends that she wanted to accomplish and was able to foretell what she wanted to make in five old ages. As a adolescent. Ashley can do determinations for other grounds than fright of penalty or desire. A measure off from maturity. at adolescence Ashely is about able to move and believe like an grownup. Adulthood is similar to adolescence in a manner. Due to the fact that both adolescences and grownups are able to do determinations utilizing any of the antecedently mentioned moral logical thinking schemes and both are in the formal operational phase. Whereas. maturity continues to ramify off from adolescence is merely apparent utilizing Erikson’s developmental phases. The immature grownup I interviewed. Dustin. is on the fencing of two phases: immature maturity and maturity.
By now. Dustin should hold a sense of ego and independency. “Back so I had no aspiration. I merely wanted to put video games. I mean I still want to play video games. but I besides want money and to be successful. ” said Dustin when I asked him how different he was from when he started high school. Over the old ages his desires and ends changed as he matured with his calling. Yet. at 47 with four childs and a calling. the adult female I interviewed had no jobs understanding her individuality ulike a adolescent or immature grownup might hold. Her struggles are generalization. experiencing worthless or without intent in life. Harmonizing to Erikson. at this phase middle-aged grownups have the desire to go through on their cognition and accomplishments to the following coevals. When asked what she wanted to accomplish in the following five old ages. she responded: “I want to acquire all four my childs financially independent and get down salvaging money for retirement. ”
She besides shared her hopes about her kids acquiring married and holding childs: “I’ll be able to play with them but non hold to worry about all the duties. ” Towards the terminal of our lives when we reach aged maturity. assorted experiences can be carry throughing or dissatisfactory. The concluding phase of Erikson’s theory. ripening. when the single battles to look back on what they have done with a sense of satisfaction. When I asked my grandmother what she wanted to accomplish in the following five old ages. there was a intermission in her voice and I could state the reply she blurted out was non echt. Possibly my grandmother had been through so much. she no longer wanted to challenger herself with more life hurdlings.
“I think childs had more fun and didn’t concern about material things. ” she said after I asked how things were different now compared to when she was a adolescent. My grandmother looked back on her past lovingly. and offered me advice how I should move in the hereafter. She had more advice and cognition to go through on than programs in front of her. Over the class of the implementing these theories into my personal interviews. I have learned that the development of the encephalon works in phases. and the three scientific surveies could accurately foretell the behaviours of the assorted age groups I questioned. In decision. the surveies were really effectual in explicating how our behaviours and development addition over clip. and in which order they do.