?1. The Fur Trade (pp. 109-114) Trading fur with the Aboriginal People The Government then introduced them to our kind of trading known as; Marketing. We changed their view of animals Aboriginal People loved their nature, and every part of animal was used if it was killed. It was something spiritual Colonism (taking over) the Aboriginal lands Taking over their land 2. Luddism (257-269) One who opposes technical or technological change 3. Race as a Social Construct (documentary + pp. 173-174) Human being belongs to a single biological species (homo sapiens) within a larger grouping of genus.

Biologically speaking, the human species resembles other floral and faunal species because of population clusters with varying gene frequencies across spatial dimensions. Talk about human diversity is often couched in term of race There has been no dearth of initiatives to a classify people into racial categories on the basis of fixed and arbitrary characteristics such as skin color, attribute certain physical, social, psychological, and moral properties to these categories, and evaluate and rank these categories in ascending and descending order of inferiority and superiority. – There is no line around countries

– Human beings created those lines – There is only one race, and it is called the human race – We all look the same, under our skin colors – We humans are the one who decide we are different because of our skin color We have hated people for different reasons. And our minds change all the time. Who we hate is not always going to be the same. Nothing is natural about how the world works No child is born with a bad behavior to kill someone. He or she learns it from ones race or community. Good example to talk about in the “Africentric Schools” that are opening up around the country, and the one in Toronto mostly.

(4) Violent Masculinity Jackson Kats: Tough Guise Film – All man are expected to act tough to be consider as a real man – If a man is not a tough guy he is than called names by others, such as (fag) – The pressure on man only breaks them apart. It puts them in situation where they can no longer truly express themselves as humans. – Looks matter as will; a real man should have a nice body big and strong. Significance The idea of man having a fit muscular body changed since the 1990s, even toys were made smaller back than now toys are created with a bigger body.

– Facial expression as a male matters, tough look on the face is good -Real man don’t need help, they can make it on their own – Real man do not too much talking – Talking too much is a woman thing – If a man does not make it on his own it is a problem – Showing pain or suffering is weakness as a man – Man do most crimes and killing – Man get into a lot of car crush The idea of being tough as a man in the society has a big problem a lot of young man die young because of the amount of risk man take at all times. Example given in the film – “The good hunter” Film – “Boys in the hood” Film

Both of the films give an example of a good man. A true good man is not afraid to show his true feelings to the people around him. All of these man in the film show an understanding about standing up for what is right, and trying to settle things down with peace instead of fight, It may take more courage that way but it is much worth it. (5) Medicalization of Homosexuality (Anatomy of Desire film ) P. 32-34 – Focus on the gay life style and an examination of how science and social politics have shaped our notions of homosexuality through history. -Asking questions such as, what makes one person gay, another straight?

– The film focuses on if homosexuality is some sort of sickness that can be healed. – They come to an conclusion that a homosexuality man are born that way. Essay Q 1# Talk about. Guns Class government media / technology social construct -All the above relate together. -Columbine High school shooting – Teen shooting -The three boys shot their other peers at school – A society of people looks up to their leaders. How they deal with situations. It is not all about the media, the government does though blame the media to be the cause of all the teen killings with guns.

– All the above is related cause of whose life is valued In my world there is no need for guns. no body has the right to take someone’s life gun’s are to kill animals and people Guns are not Neutral It is created for self derestriction (All technology) 4# – Darwin. We all got here though spices. – ideas Lead to something called social Darwinism – social Darwinism – For example – if people are struggling in Africa that is their problem. And that is always going to be the case – Everything works out for a reason. If people are suffering that is their nature way of their life.

– Big penis is dump. Small penis is smart. Darwin idea of explaining – Fighting others in order to win. That is just the natural way of things to be. – They have very little compassion – if is always the persons false if they have trouble in their lives – If you do your best and you don’t do good enough that is just your false – being smart is something your born with if you not that is just too bad – Everybody cannot be on top Talk about it, if you agree to this idea or not. 2# Mothering a lot of women are not happy to stay home and raise baby’s they are more women in university then men

Women are now interested in working 80% will separate ( they cannot get divorce because of money) 40% will get a divorce (End marriage ) They make enough money that is almost the same. – There is more single people than married people and more women now are choosing not to have children. Cause it cost a lot. ( Is Canada still a place that only women are the only care giver) Cause now days a lot of women go to work. And don’t need men for anything. Not even for sex. 3# James Bay – Positive or Nagative. – Prove why the modern has been negative about Indigenous people.

– everything the modern have done it has affected the aboriginal people – Aboriginal people have a relationship with their Environment – When James bay was build in their location they were told they would make more money. This was a lie – All the fish were affected by the mercury Terms. Fur trade – Trading with the aboriginal people They have introduce them to the our kind of of marketing – We changed their view of animals – aboriginal people loved their nature, and every part of animal was used if it was killed. – It was something spiritual – colonialism (Taking over ) – Taking much of their land Care giving.

Anytime someone has to take care of someone else It is seen as a female role Think if gender female it is all build within us as humans that it is only a women job to be a care giver. Sustainable Development – Paper land whatever they take from the endearment they have to put back. If not all the tress will be gone. to run out at some point if they don’t replace Bell Curve Social Darwin Idea Tells how smart you are as an human being show that some people are smart and not Significance – It puts people in a line. You may be good at remembering all your exam and get 100% but not be able to anything you learned 4 months later.

Your grades say something about instead of who you really are. Those numbers do not mean anything about you. It is all Social Constructed 1969 White paper Look up on Google Prescriptive Technologies Google it Liberal Feminism Types of Racial Discrimination There are many types of Racial Not being able to get a job Linkages pieces of a story, that is put together to create a story. things are put together to male a whole The medicalization of homosexuality was attempted by doctors and other members of the scientific community during the late 1800s.

Even though the actual treatments were started in the late 19th century, fascination with the phenomenon of homosexuality inspired studies of the human body and brain on the biological basis much earlier. The reason to conduct such studies was to cure the general public from the sick and unnatural occurrence of homosexuality, as was the common view shared by the public during the time. The experiments were conducted on live subjects and yielded no particular cure, as the predominantly male specimens were unaffected in the choice of attraction to the same sex. The “cures” included aversion therapy (use of shock) and castration of reproductive

organs. These were methods that bordered on the line as acts of torture displaying the prevalent attitude towards homosexuals. Significance: Lack of biological source of homosexuality serves as a factor of discriminating against homosexual people. This idea serves as one more reason to classify people into a hierarchy based on their sexual orientation and provides grounds for debate that these individuals are inferior. This social construct that gays and lesbians are “not people” demonstrates the ability of those in control to mould opinions of the general public.

Prevalent attitudes displayed by the majority of people have proven to be reasons for unnecessary violence between two groups. Such conflicts diminish the unity of the humanity as a whole, thereby affecting the ability of the group to make decisions to benefit all of humans. The violence and hatred between the two groups demonstrates the need of the people to conform to a certain standard that is considered a norm. Anyone outside of that norm is considered inhuman and therefore, treated as such. If the world is to strive to a common goal of bettering people’s lives, acceptance of minority groups has to be mandatory.

This path can be started by thinking of gays and lesbians as a part of a larger global community. Biodiversity was important in the plants evolution, and to the human species. Some cultures were less agrarian, more hunters gather, so they didn’t destroy the earth through agricultural process. From the readings Baird and Maszynski the “Death of birth” is the loss of biodiversity. The destruction of habitat insures that a species cannot live and causes it to become extinct. Therefore the plants depreciates because of lack of species. This goes to show, if our biodiversity is decreasing as opposed to increasing we are devolving as a species.

Significance is that there exists a relationship between business and the environment. It further illustrates the dichotomy between the modern and traditional social culture. Traditionally the indigenous people lived with the land and they had a spiritual connection with the land. On the other hand, modern society lives off the land. In traditional culture, it is deemed inappropriate and unfit to take more then you need for yourself. However, modern society is infatuated with profit, and gaining as much as possible, at any cost. Modern businesses do not

consider the long term, only the short term. Traditional societies do not create a surplus value they shared everything with each other. Capitalist markets do not share in this way but encourage a false mentality of survival of the fittest. The best and fittest company has to be the one that constantly over step and exceed carrying capacity. Caregiver role Rich, Hays – Double standard conation between concept of father and mother – Division of labour long established – Motherhood – idea of child bearing important to identity to a woman Potential relationship

Institution – Womens’ natural power to reproduce – Seeks to control power of reproduction – Works to dehumanize/exploit the potential of women – Patriarchal system – Regulation of womens’ reproductive power by men – Legal & technical control of contraception, fertility, abortion, obstetrics, gynaecology, and reproductive experiments – There is an assumption that a woman’s identity is that of a mother and attached to her children – Tradition of what women HAVE to do – Marriage means sacrifice to raise children

This patriarchal system has separated women into categories of good/pure and evil/impure and forced them to do their part in the natural order of life. Mothering the children has been a cultural conception of women in the home, in the private spheres of life as the caregiver whereas men are in the public sphere, in the business world. In addition, the cultural images of women are that they are selfless nurturing individuals whereas men are selfish and competitive in the business world. Motherhood is a constructed ideology/institution/social construct Mothering is the verb; tending to children, and is dependent on the ideology

Intensive mothering: From the Rich, and Hay readings Intensive mothering is a belief, and a practice that the mother should devote her time to her children, it is not the responsibility of the fathers. This is similar to the tradition of the “Greek village” where gender lines were drawn between male and females. The male went out of the home to hunt, kill, or work, and the mother stayed home with the children as a care giver. The Traditional good mother stays home and doesn’t leave the house; they are property of the male and not persons in their own right.

1929 Canada Person day women were given equality under the law. The ideology of motherhood transformed when society moved from traditional to modernity. The transformation took place because in WW2 women were needed to work. The fact that women worked shows that traditional values are inconstant with reality. There exists a conflict between traditional mothering and reality which is liberal democracy. The ideology believes that mothers should be completely immersed in their children. Women are told to stay home and take care of their children. Women are solely dependent on the male to be the provider.

The significance is that mothers are trying to fit someone else’s definition, rules and concepts of what a mother is. Mothers are smothering their children, and some liberal feminists believe that they are ruining the child’s ability to socially interact. Furthermore, women need understand that they must maintain a marketable skill so that they are always plugged into the market. Only after the division of labour is lifted can intensive mothering be eliminated, and replaces with the mothering that is not constructed. The Death of Birth – Hawken readings in relative to sustainable development

Significance is that there exists a relationship between business and the environment. It further illustrates the dichotomy between the modern and traditional social culture. Traditionally the indigenous people lived with the land and they had a spiritual connection with the land. On the other hand, modern society lives off the land. In traditional culture, it is deemed inappropriate and unfit to take more then you need for yourself. However, modern society is infatuated with profit, and gaining as much as possible, at any cost. Modern businesses do not consider the long term, only

the short term. Traditional societies do not create a surplus value they shared everything with each other. Capitalist markets do not share in this way but encourage a false mentality of survival of the fittest. The best and fittest company has to be the one that constantly over step and exceed carrying capacity. Significance is that there exists a relationship between business and the environment. It further illustrates the dichotomy between the modern and traditional social culture. Traditionally the indigenous people lived with the land and they had a spiritual connection with the land.

On the other hand, modern society lives off the land. In traditional culture, it is deemed inappropriate and unfit to take more then you need for yourself. However, modern society is infatuated with profit, and gaining as much as possible, at any cost. Modern businesses do not consider the long term, only the short term. Traditional societies do not create a surplus value they shared everything with each other. Capitalist markets do not share in this way but encourage a false mentality of survival of the fittest. The best and fittest company has to be the one that constantly over step and exceed carrying capacity.

Biodiversity was important in the plants evolution, and to the human species. Some cultures were less agrarian, more hunters gather, so they didn’t destroy the earth through agricultural process. From the readings Baird and Maszynski the “Death of birth” is the loss of biodiversity. The destruction of habitat insures that a species cannot live and causes it to become extinct. Therefore the plants depreciates because of lack of species. This goes to show, if our biodiversity is decreasing as opposed to increasing we are devolving as a species.

Significance is that there exists a relationship between business and the environment. It further illustrates the dichotomy between the modern and traditional social culture. Traditionally the indigenous people lived with the land and they had a spiritual connection with the land. On the other hand, modern society lives off the land. In traditional culture, it is deemed inappropriate and unfit to take more then you need for yourself. However, modern society is infatuated with profit, and gaining as much as possible, at any cost. Modern businesses do not consider the long term, only the short term.

Traditional societies do not create a surplus value they shared everything with each other. Capitalist markets do not share in this way but encourage a false mentality of survival of the fittest. The best and fittest company has to be the one that constantly over step and exceed carrying capacity. Sustainable Development: Who: Hawken What: a system that would continue economic growth while conserving the environment. This development would fulfill human needs of the present while sustaining the environment for future generations and not compromise future needs. Where/When: it is a global issue that affects us all.

It has been a concern since the Industrial Revolution when global degradation became a factor in the expansion and growth of economy and business. Currently, there is work being done to move away from harmful development and form a “greener” society. How: as Hawken describes, we require a restorative economy where restoring the environment and making money will be the same process. Unlike current business where environmental degradation and wasteful consumption provides companies with more money, we need to develop a system the two can work in harmony – a symbiosis of company, customer, and ecology.

Why: in order to sustain the environment and life itself, humans need to make changes in how we develop and affect the world for our own present needs. At this rate, we are headed towards the death of birth, opposite of sustainable development. Significance: our society is at a critical point where saving our planet has become a key issue. Creating a sustainable development would reduce our impact on the delicate balance that sustains life. We have become the problem due to our wasteful and harmful lifestyle and therefore must find the solution.

Sustainable development is an important step in order to save the planet as well as ourselves. The Bell Curve Who: concept by Herrnstein and Murray, discussed in the readings by Gould. What: a controversial book claiming intelligence is influenced by genetics, race, and social construct. The two key concepts are 1) intelligence must be depictable as a single number that can rank people in linear order and is genetically based and immutable, 2) innate cognitive (the natural process of acquiring information) stratification is by social class and inherited racial differences in IQ.

This studies differences in intellectual capacity among people and ethnic groups and what these differences mean. The bell curve itself is a reflection of intelligence distribution in IQ tests. When: the book was published in 1994 Why: it was controversial because of its emphasis on race as a deciding factor of intelligence and how IQ contributes to social and economic differences. How: the conclusions made in this book were solely based on IQ tests, disregarding other forms of intelligence study. Significance: as argued by Gould, such strongly stated claims about ethnic group differences could have political impact.

This is due to our society’s obsession with meanings and consequences of ethnicity. There was much uproar and debate about the controversial conclusions of this book, considering the fact that it brings up the touchy subject about advantage and intellectual superiority of one race over another. Herrnstein and Murray’s concepts bring light to an unpopular viewpoint; that the underclass are unintelligent. This biased view clumps all disadvantaged people as ignorant people who ultimately commit more crimes, have illegitimate babies, and overall are a drain on society.

This type of thinking could cause the upperclass and government to pull funding from social programs such as welfare and learning programs. This would only cause a further gap in society. The 1969 White Papers The Stephen Brooks and Lydia Miljan reading of Aboriginal Policy brought to our attention of the 1969 White Papers made by Pierre Trudeau to bring integration and equality to the Aboriginals in Canada. This would make the Natives give up their status and become Canadians that would be equal to society. The Natives found it to be cultural genocide.

An Act of 1876 offered Indians the possibility of enfranchisement, whereby they would lose their Indian status and acquire in exchange the same citizenship and legal rights as non aboriginal Canadians. Pierre Trudeau believed it should be mandatory however as he saw how bad of a state most of the reserves where in. The Natives want sovereignty (government free from external control) but was not clearly given in the royal proclamation. (Charter of rights and freedoms) Where treaties exist the courts have take the view that any Native claim to its own land outright has been extinguished in exchange for various entitlements.

Clearly as a historical document the charter represents only one story of Canada- that is the story of colonialists-. It represents an act of ethnocentrism and domination. Ethnocentrism is the tendency to believe that one’s ethnic or cultural group is centrally important, and that all other groups are measured in relation to one’s own. Pierre Trudeau wants everyone to be Canadian and be equal so he can sovereign it. They want the natives to give up their land but at the same time they were the ones who first owned it. It’s Social Darwinism as survival of the fittest and its becoming their time that their culture must die.

The relation to Social Construct is key, as the 1969 White Papers is a sign of race discrimination showing power over another. Everyone is entitled of keeping their own culture and Natives share the land unlike the white people owning it. They want to run themselves without government interference. They have every right to as they were the first ones who lived on it, we as a culture should not make the same mistake of Christopher Columbus. Functional Underclass: Galbraith talks about the functional underclass, and gives us a brief history lesson on why it is needed in a capitalist society.

In order for capitalist nations to flourish and grow, there must always be an available underclass to supply low-end labour. When the underclass strives to climb up in social status, their positions must be filled. According to Galbraith it is done in the following way: As that generation went on to personally more attractive or socially more distinguished occupations, the assembly lines there reached out o more distant refugees from poor farming and mining areas and to the erstwhile sharecroppers and other deprived workers of the Deep South. (Galbraith 36)

In the modern day, companies are no longer limited to just poorer parts of their region. Instead as the world globalizes, labour in second and third world nations becomes to new source of replenishment for the functional underclass. Thus, over time as the original underclass tries to move up the social class, there must be a constant replenish of the underclass. Many people would even argue that there is no need for the underclass if there is a continuous incline in unemployment in all sectors, and the unemployed underclass would just be a burden to the state.

However, when the economy demands more goods, and companies require positions to be filled, they will have access to the functional underclass. Prescriptive Technologies As described extensively by Ursula Franklin, prescriptive technology is a mode of technology which encourages the division of labour among the workers by separating the process into a sequence of identifiable steps. An extreme rise of such technology was observed during the Industrial Revolution in Britain, but was also seen much earlier as exercised in ancient Rome and China in a variety of tasks.

Prescriptive technology was largely introduced to assert a form of control over the workers by the employers. This idea creates a culture of compliance in the workplace as the workers pace of work and their actions are strictly controlled by the machinery, which they operate. Further, this technology causes the deterioration of skill and responsibility by the worker, as the people are required to perform a repetitive tasks, which needs no decision making from the person. This method is completely opposite to holistic technology whereby one person completes the whole process of making a good

Significance: Prescriptive method of organizing work dominates society presently emphasizing a culture of compliance, not only in the workplace, but as a way of life as a whole. The governments around the globe are starting to design policies for the satisfaction of technological needs, instead of people and environment in which the society resides. To clarify, the governments of today attempt to maximize profit that is obtained through cooperation with business, which is dependent on the use of technology.

People are at a disadvantage in this case, as increasing involvement of technology into the work process reduces the need for human workers. Constant layoffs by the companies create a functional underclass, which leads to the wider separation of the gap between the rich and the poor. Further, the focus on maximizing profit, instead of minimizing disaster allows for technology to neglect the environment by dumping increasing amounts of waste into it. Pollution deteriorates the ecosystems of various species, thus leading to the death of birth and eventually, jeopardizing the ability of future generations to sustain a comfortable living.