Critically evaluate how psychological theories
In order to understand why it really is of which addictive behaviours occur, all of us must first acknowledge that there are two types of dependence. Eddy et al (1965) defined psychological dependence since “ A feeling of satisfaction and a psychic drive that requires routine or continuous administration of the drug to create pleasure or avoid discomfort” (cited in Ghodse 1995). This kind of reliance demonstrates an overriding compulsion to take the drug, also when the individual is certain in the knowledge that will it is harmful, or even when aware of the outcomes of possession of the substance (Ghodse 1995).
The other kind of dependence is actual physical dependence, also defined by Eddy et al since “ An adaptive condition manifested by intense actual physical disturbances when the drug is withdrawn”. The physique becomes so accustomed in order to the drug and disengagement symptoms are much even more apparent. The unpleasant characteristics of the withdrawal syndrome can lead to an individual really increasing the intensity regarding their drug taking, within order to avoid or perhaps relieve this withdrawal discomfort (Ghodse 1990). Psychoactive elements all have very different chemical properties. Not all medicines are obviously addictive.
For example, long term, regular use of marijuana results in tolerance and improving difficulty stopping despite wishing or attempting to do so. Although the risk of dependence is substantially lower than for nicotine or opiates, it is similar to be able to that of alcohol (DiClemente 2003). Heroin addicts often take daily doses that will would kill a normal person and experience very unpleasant symptoms if they go ‘ cold turkey’ and try to end. In these terms, cigarettes and cocaine were not really obviously addictive, yet this was clear these were really difficult habits to crack. (Drugs: dilemmas and options 2000).
This particular is where the distinction between physical and psychological reliance emerged. It is feasible to get a person to end up being psychologically influenced by a medication, without manifesting any actual physical dependence on it. On the other hand, it is generally accepted that although someone might be physically dependant on a new drug, the state regarding dependence cannot be thought to exist without some kind of psychological dependence current (Ghodse 1995). Under the particular Rational Informed Stable Selection (RISC) model, we carry out things because we assume them to produce advantages, and know about plus are willing to accept the adverse consequences, whether this is smoking, taking in, or drug taking.
For example, a new drug user continually have drugs because it will be much better the alternative in order to living without drugs, not really necessarily because they are not able to stop (West 2006). Quite simply, the pleasure or avoid the addict obtains from your drug is worth no matter what the consequences might be. This model is instead simplistic, as its main point is that each person chooses to keep taking the drug, and does not take into account any kind of biological factors that may possibly could be relevant.