Chapter 9 – Transformational Leadership

Transformational Leadership
part of “new leadership paradigm” which gives attention to the charismatic and affective elements of leadership.
Transformational Leadership involves
exceptional form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them
Burns 3 types of leadership
transactional, transformational, Pseudotransformational
Transactional
focuses on the exchanges that occur between leaders and their followers
eg. Turn in assignments = grades
Transformational
process of engaging with others to create a connection that increases motivation and morality in both leader and the follower
Pseudotransformational
focuses on the leader’s own interests rather than the interests of their followers

Leaders who transform but in a negative way

eg. Hitler

Charisma
A special personality characteristic that gives a person superhuman or exceptional powers and is reserved for a few, is of divine origin, and results in the person being treated as a leader
Charismatic Leadership Theory
Charismatic leaders act in unique ways that have specific charismatic effects on their followers
Personality Characteristics
Dominant
Desire to influence
Confident
Strong Values
Behaviors
Sets strong role model
Shows competence
Articulates goals
Communicates high expectations
Expresses confidence
Arouses motives
Effects on followers
Trust in leader’s ideology
Belief similarity between leader and follower
Unquestioning acceptance
Affection toward leader
Obedience
Identification with leader
Emotional Involvement
Heightened goals
Increased confidence
Charismatic Leadership
Transforms follower’s self-concepts; tries to link identity of followers to collective identity of the organization

Forge this link by emphasizing intrinsic rewards & de-emphasizing extrinsic rewards

Express high expectations for followers & help followers gain sense of self-confidence and self-efficacy

Transformational Leadership Model
More attention to followers’ rather than leader’s needs
Suggested Transformational Leadership could apply to outcomes that were not positive
Described transactional and transformational leadership as a continuum
Giving more attention to emotional elements & origins of charisma
Suggested charisma is a necessary but not sufficient condition for TL
Transformational Leadership Factors (4 I’s
Idealized influence charisma
Inspirational motivation
Intellectual stimulation
Individualized consideration
Transactional Leadership Factors
Contingent Reward/Constructive Transactions
Management-by-exception (active and passive corrective transactions)
Leaders who exhibit Transformational Leadership
Have Strong set of internal values & ideals
Are effective in motivating followers to support greater good over self-interest
Idealized Influence
Acting as strong role models
High standards of moral and ethical conduct
Making others want to follow the leader’s vision
Inspirational Motivation
Communicating high expectations
Inspiring followers to commitment and engagement in shared vision
Using symbols & emotional appeals to focus group members to achieve more than self-interest
Intellectual Stimulation
Stimulating followers to be creative and innovative
Challenging their own beliefs and valuing those of leader and organization
Supporting followers to try new approaches & develop innovative ways of dealing with organization issues
Individualized Consideration
Listening carefully to the needs of followers
Acting as coaches to assist followers in becoming fully actualized
Laissez-Faire
The absence of leadership, hands off, let things ride approach.
Refers to leaders who:
abdicates responsibility
delay decisions
gives no feedback
makes little effort to help followers satisfy needs
Four Leader Strategies in Transforming Organizations
Clear vision of organization’s future state
TL’s social architect of organization
Create trust by making their position known and standing by it
Creatively deploy themselves through positive self-regard
Kouzes & Pozner’s 5 fundamental practices
Model the Way
Inspire a Shared Vision
Challenge the Process
Enable Others to Act
Encourage the Heart
Transformational Leadership leaders
empower and nurture followers
stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers
commonly create a vision
require leaders to become social architects
build trust & foster collaboration
Strengths of Transformational leadership
broadly reasearched
intuitive appeal
process-focused
expansive leadership view
emphasizes follower
effectiveness
Weakness’s of Transformational leadership
Lack of conceptual clarity
measurement questioned
treats leadership more as a personality trait or prediposition
suffers from heroic leadership bias
based on qualitative data
potential to be abused
Application of Transformational Leadership
general way of thinking about leadership that stresses ideals, inspiration, innovations, and individual concerns
Can be taught to individuals at all levels of the organization
Able to positively impact a firm’s performance
May be used as a tool in recruitment, selection, promotion, and training development
Can be used to improve team development, decision-making groups, quality initiatives, and reorganizations
The MLQ helps leaders to target areas of leadership improvement

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