The use of rewards and punishments that increase or decrease the likelihood of a similar response occurring in the future.
Intrinsic rewards
These kinds of rewards reside within the participant.
Taking pride in an accomplishment and feeling competent

(coaches, teachers, and exercise leaders cannot directly offer intrinsic rewards)

Allows people to continue to improve as they get closer and closer to the desired response. Specifically, individuals are rewarded for performances that approximate the desired performance.
This can help individuals’ performance
-Two of the main functions are to motivate and to instruct
Motivational feedback
This type of feedback attempts to facilitate performance by enhancing confidence, inspiring greater effort and energy expenditure, and creating a positive mood.
Examples include “Hang in there,” “You can do it,” and “Get tough.”
Instructional feedback
This type of feedback provides information about the specific behaviors that should be performed, the levels of proficiency that should be achieved, and the performer’s current level of proficiency in the desired skill and activities.
Contingency management
Behavioral coaching
Behavioral modification
These are various names in the sport psychology literature. These terms all refer to attempts to structure the environment through the systematic use of reinforcement, especially during practice.
Backward chaining
In this approach, the last step is paired with the next-to-last step, and so forth, with the steps finally progressing back to the beginning of the chain.
Extrinsic rewards
Examples of extrinsic rewards-
medals, trophies, ribbons, money, and jackets, stickers, toys
Intrinsic motivation
People who have this kind of motivation strive inwardly to be competent and self-determining in their quest to master the task at hand. They enjoy competition, like the action and excitement, focus on having fun, and want to learn skills to the best of their ability. Individuals who participate for the love of sport and exercise would be considered intrinsically motivated, as would those who play for pride.
“Turning Play Into Work” Theory
This theory used nursery school children as participants and selected an activity that was intrinsically motivating for these children- drawing with felt pens. Each child was asked to draw under one of three reward conditions. In the expected reward condition, the children agreed to draw a picture in order to receive a Good Player certificate. In the unexpected reward condition, the ward was given to unsuspecting children after they completed the task. In the no reward condition, the children neither anticipated nor received an award. One week later, the children were unobtrusively observed for their interest in the same activity in a free-choice situation. The children who had drawn with the felt pen for expected rewards showed a decrease in intrinsic motivation, whereas the other two groups continued to use the felt pens just as much as they had before the experiment. When the expected reward was removed, the prime reason for the first group using the felt pen was also removed, although they had initially been intrinsically motivated to use the felt pen. This study demonstrates potential long-term effects of extrinsic rewards and the importance of studying how the reward is administered.
Integrated regulation
This is the most developmentally advanced form of extrinsic motivation. Activity is personally important because of a valued outcome rather than interest in the activity solely for itself.
Identified regulation
The behavior is highly valued, accepted, and judged by the individual and this is performed willingly, even if the activity is not pleasant in itself. This reflects the feeling of “want” rather than “ought” and thus have been found to positively relate to affective, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes.
Introjected regulation
The individual is motivated by internal prods and pressures; however, the behavior is still not considered self-determined because it is regulated by external contingencies.
When someone goes through the motion because he/she really doesn’t care about teaching or doing anything anymore.
Harmonious passion
This kind of passion is a strong desire to engage in an activity freely as it becomes part of one’s identity. The activity occupies an important but not overwhelming space in one’s identity.
Obsessive passion
This kind of passion is an uncontrollable desire to participate in an activity that does not become part of one’s identity. The person becomes controlled by the activity.
Social factors
Most prominent social factors include:
a) success and failure (experiences that help define one’s sense of competency)
b) focus of competition (competing against yourself and some standard of excellence where the focus is on improvement rather than competing against your opponent where the focus is on winning)
c) coaches’ behaviors (positive vs. negative)
Psychological factors
The factors affecting motivation include:
a) need for competence (to feel confident and self-efficacious)
b) need for autonomy (to have input into decisions or some some way “own” them)
c) need for relatedness (to care for others and to have them care for you)
Cognitive Evaluation Theory
This theory is a thsubtheory of the more general Self-Determination Theory (SDT). This theory was developed to help explain the variability in intrinsic motivation. In essence, it focuses on the factors that facilitate or undermine the development of intrinsic motivation. It hypothesizes that any events that affect individuals’ perceptions of competence and feelings of self-determination ultimately will also affect their levels of intrinsic motivation. These events (distribution of rewards, the quantity and quality of feedback and reinforcement, and the ways in which situations are structured) have two functional components: a controlling aspect and an informational aspect. Both the informational and controlling aspects can increase or decrease intrinsic motivation depending on how they affect one’s competence and self-determination.
Locus of causality
What causes a person’s behavior
In which people believe they are totally involved or on automatic pilot. The flow experience occurs when your skills are equal to your challenge. Intrinsic motivation is at its highest and maximum performance is achieved.