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C. A replicated chromosome contains two sister chromatids.
Which statement is correct concerning the relationship between chromosomes and chromatids?

A. A replicated chromosome contains a single chromatid.
B. An unreplicated chromosome contains a single chromatid.
C. A replicated chromosome contains two sister chromatids.
D. An unreplicated chromosome contains two sister chromatids.

B.Separation of homologs in meiosis I, because it produces 2 haploid (n) daughter cells from a single diploid (2n) parent cell
Which event makes meiosis a reductional division and why?

A.Separation of sister chromatids in meiosis I, because it reduces the number of chromatids per chromosome
B.Separation of homologs in meiosis I, because it produces 2 haploid (n) daughter cells from a single diploid (2n) parent cell
C. Separation of homologs in meiosis II, because it produces 2 haploid (n) daughter cells from a single diploid (2n) parent cell
D. Separation of sister chromatids in meiosis II, because it reduces the number of chromatids per chromosome

D. It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
If a cell has completed meiosis I and is just beginning meiosis II, which of the following is an appropriate description of its contents?

A.It has one-fourth the DNA and one-half the chromosomes as the originating cell.
B.It is identical in content to another cell formed from the same meiosis I event.
C.It has half the chromosomes but twice the DNA of the originating cell.
D. It has half the amount of DNA as the cell that began meiosis.
E. It has the same number of chromosomes, but each of them has different alleles than another cell from the same meiosis.

D. haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
After telophase I of meiosis, the chromosomal makeup of each daughter cell is _____.

A. tetraploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
B. diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid
C. haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of a single chromatid
D. haploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids
E. diploid, and the chromosomes are each composed of two chromatids

D. synapsis of chromosomes
Which of the following occurs in meiosis but not in mitosis?

A. production of daughter cells
B. condensation of chromosomes
C. alignment of chromosomes at the equator
D. synapsis of chromosomes
E. chromosome replication

C. Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis occurs in diploid cells.
What is a major difference between meiosis II and mitosis in a diploid animal?

A. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, and homologues separate in meiosis II.
B. Crossover takes place in meiosis II.
C. Meiosis II occurs in a haploid cell, while mitosis occurs in diploid cells.
D. Homologues align on the metaphase plate in meiosis II.

B. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I.
What is a major difference between mitosis and meiosis I in a diploid organism?

A. DNA replication takes place prior to mitosis, but not before meiosis I.
B. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis I.
C. Sister chromatids separate in mitosis, while homologous pairs of chromosomes separate in meiosis II.
D. Only meiosis I results in daughter cells that contain identical genetic information.

8
The egg of a fruit fly has 4 individual chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in a somatic cell of a fruit fly?
fertilization
If meiosis produces haploid cells, how is the diploid number restored for those organisms that spend most of their life cycle in the diploid state?
B. genetic recombination during meiosis
What makes sexually reproduced offspring genetically different from their parents?

A. crossing over during mitosis
B. genetic recombination during meiosis
C. genetic recombination during mitosis
D. Sexual reproduction does not produce genetically different offspring

B. one chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene
A certain female’s number 12 chromosomes both have the blue gene and number 19 chromosomes both have the long gene. As cells in her ovaries undergo meiosis, her resulting eggs (ova) may have which of the following?
A. either two number 12 chromosomes with blue genes or two with orange genes
B. one chromosome 12 with one blue gene and one chromosome 19 with one long gene
C. either two number 19 chromosomes with long genes or two with short genes
D. either one blue or one orange gene in addition to either one long or one short gene
16
How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 (2n = 8)?
independent assortment
The statement, “It is a matter of chance which homolog goes to which daughter cell” best describes _____.
D. One daughter cell would be 2n; the other would have no chromosomes.
What would be the outcome of meiosis I if none of the homologous chromosomes separate at anaphase?

A. Both daughter cells would be n.
B. One daughter cell would be 4n; the other would have no chromosomes.
C. One daughter cell would be 2n; the other would be n.
D. One daughter cell would be 2n; the other would have no chromosomes.

39 chromosomes and 78 chromatids
If a diploid dog cell enters meiosis, how many chromosomes and chromatids will be present in each daughter cell at the end of meiosis I?
126
Some plants are triploid. If a plant has a haploid chromosome number of 42, how many chromosomes are present in its somatic cells?
beginning: 50
end: 25
If a cell has a diploid number of 50, how many chromosomes are present in the nucleus at the beginning of meiosis? How many chromosomes are present in each resulting nucleus at the end of meiosis?
meosis II
“Sister chromatids separate and begin moving to opposite sides of the cell.” this occurs during meosis I or II?
between chromatids of homologous chromosomes
Crossing over occurs _____.
two haploid cells in metaphase II
A researcher examines a cell undergoing meiosis and identifies the nuclei of two daughter cells. Which of the following best represents how the researcher would characterize the cell?
An offspring with a chromosome complement unlike that of either parent
What is the end result of meiosis and the subsequent fertilization of gametes?
T
T/F Chromosomes that result from crossing over have a mixture of paternal and maternal alleles.
independent assortment and crossing over during the formation of spores
An individual plant that exhibits self-fertilization can produce offspring different from itself primarily as a result of _____.
By counting the number of daughter cells resulting from mitotic and meiotic division
How could you distinguish human mitotic cells from human meiotic cells?
Asexual organisms generally produce more offspring than sexually reproducing organisms.
What conclusion can be drawn from John Maynard Smith’s mathematical model comparing asexual and sexual reproduction?
The entire grove would die as a result of infection
If a fatal disease were to infect a grove of aspen trees that reproduced asexually (e.g. the trees are clones), which of the following effects on the aspen grove would be most likely?
The offspring that result from sexual reproduction are genetically variable, and some of them can fight off diseases more easily than genetically identical offspring.
Which of the following statements is a leading hypothesis to explain why many organisms reproduce sexually?
A haploid yeast
Which of the following organisms would most likely be affected by a mutation that occurred at a single locus on one chromosome?
25 picograms
A cell at the end of S phase (DNA synthesis phase of interphase) contains 100 picograms of nuclear DNA. If this cell undergoes meiosis, how much nuclear DNA will be in each daughter cell?
Sexually reproducing parents can produce offspring that are unique and lack deleterious alleles.
Which of the following statements helps to explain why sexual reproduction is favored in many groups?
24, 24, 22, and 22
The cells that produce sperm in humans contain 46 chromosomes. If one of these cells undergoes meiosis to form sperm cells, and chromosomal nondisjunction occurs in chromosome 22 during meiosis I, what is the chromosome number in each of the resulting sperm?
23, 23, 22 and 24
The cells that produce sperm in humans contain 46 chromosomes. If one of these cells undergoes meiosis to form sperm cells, and chromosomal nondisjunction occurs in chromosome 22 during meiosis II, what is the chromosome number in each of the resulting sperm?
Aneuploidy tends to be lethal in embryos if it involves chromosomes with a large number of genes.
Which hypothesis explains why many instances of aneuploidy in humans involve chromosome 21?
nondisjunction in the production of the male gamete
Some males have an abnormal karyotype consisting of 47 chromosomes with an extra Y chromosome. This condition is most likely caused by _____.
1
is meosis 1 or 2 a reductional event
they reproduce asexually by binary fission
why does meoisis not occur in bacteria?
uncondensed chromosomes replicate in parents cell
what has to happen in interphase before either mitosis or meiosis can occur?
early prophase I, late prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, telophase I, cytokinesis
meosis 1 consists of these 6 stages
prophase 2, metphase 2, anaphase 2, telophase 2, cytokinesis
meosis consists of these stages (5)
early prophase 1
in meosis 1: chromosomes condense, spindle apparatus forms, nuclear envelope begins to break down. synapsis of homologous chromosomes
late prophase I
in meosis 1: chiasmata visible, nuclear envelope broken down
metaphase I
in meosis 1: migration of bivlents to ____ plate is complete
anaphase I
in meosis 1: homologs seperte and begin moving to opposite poles of the spindle apparatus
telophase I
in meosis 1: chromosomes move to opposite poles of the spindle apparatus, spindle apparatus disassembles
prophase II
in meosis 2: spindle appartaus forms
metaphase II
in meosis 2:chromosomes line up at middle of the spindle apparatus
anaphase II
in meosis 2: sister chromosomes seperate, begin moving to opposite poles of the spindle apparatus
telophase II
in meosis 2: chromosomes move to opposite poles of the spindle apparatus, spindle apparatus disassembles
2
number of cell divisions in meosis
4
a single diploid prent cell gives rise to ___ haploid daughter cells with unreplicated chromosomes
the apparance of new allele combinations is present
why is synapsis referred to as genetic recombination
no crossing over and the daughter cells would be diploid, not haploid. no reductional division
the consequences for meiosis if homologs do not pair

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