Chapter 12 on biology and microbiology

C) Most fungi are pathogenic for humans.
Which of the following statements regarding fungi is FALSE?
A) Most fungi grow well in acidic culture condition. B) Fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs.
C) Most fungi are pathogenic for humans.
D) Fungi reproduce by forming asexual or sexual spores. E) Fungi tolerate low moisture conditions.
A) All are parasites.
Which of the following statements about helminths is FALSE? A) All are parasites.
B) They are multicellular animals.
C) They are heterotrophic.
D) Some have male and female reproductive organs in one animal. E) They have eukaryotic cells.
C) They have chlorophyll.
Which of the following statements about the oomycote algae is FALSE? 3) A) They form hyphae.
B) They produce zoospores in a sporangium. C) They have chlorophyll.
D) They reproduce sexually.
E) They cause plant diseases.
D) can tolerate low-moisture conditions
Seventeen patients in ten hospitals had cutaneous infections caused by Rhizopus. In all seventeen patients, Elastoplast bandages were placed over sterile gauze pads to cover wounds. Fourteen of
the patients had surgical wounds, two had venous line insertion sites, and one had a bite wound. Lesions present when the bandages were removed ranged from vesiculopustular eruptions to ulcerations and skin necrosis requiring debridement. Fungi are more likely than bacteria to
contaminate bandages because they
A) prefer a neutral environment (pH 7).
B) cannot tolerate high osmotic pressure. C) are aerobic.
D) can tolerate low-moisture conditions. E) have a fermentative metabolism.
C) Lichens are very tolerant to pollution
Which of the following statements regarding lichens is FALSE? A) The algal partner produces carbohydrates that are absorbed by the fungal partner.
B) Lichens represent a mutualistic relationship between a fungus and an alga.
C) Lichens are very tolerant to pollution.
D) Lichens are often the first life form to colonize rock or soil.
E) The fungal partner provides a means of attachment and protects the algal partner from
desiccation.
D) anamorphs — lack spores
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A) Ascomycota — conidiospores
B) microsporidia — lack mitochondria C) Zygomycota — sporangiospores
D) anamorphs — lack spores
E) Basidiomycota — basidiospores
2. Ascospore
6. Conidiospore
which of these spores are characteristic of Penicillium
1-Arthroconidium 2-Ascospore 3-Basidiospore 4-Blastoconidium
5-Chlamydoconidium 6-Conidiospore 7-Sporangiospore 8-Zygospore
7-Sporangiospore
8-Zygospore
which of these spores are characteristic of Rhizopus
1-Arthroconidium 2-Ascospore 3-Basidiospore 4-Blastoconidium
5-Chlamydoconidium 6-Conidiospore 7-Sporangiospore 8-Zygospore
5-Chlamydoconidium
which is a thick-walled spore formed as a segment within a hypha? A) 1
B) 5
C) 7
D) 3
E) None of the answers is correct.

1-Arthroconidium 2-Ascospore 3-Basidiospore 4-Blastoconidium
5-Chlamydoconidium 6-Conidiospore 7-Sporangiospore 8-Zygospore

1-Arthroconidium
4-Blastoconidium
5-Chlamydoconidium 6-Conidiospore 7-Sporangiospore
which of these spores are asexual spores? A) 1, 3, 5, 8
B) 1, 4, 5, 6, 7
C) 2, 3, 6, 8
D) 2, 4, 6, 7, 8
E) All of the spores are asexual.

1-Arthroconidium 2-Ascospore 3-Basidiospore 4-Blastoconidium
5-Chlamydoconidium 6-Conidiospore 7-Sporangiospore 8-Zygospore

C) coenocytic hyphae — hyphae with cross-walls
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) teleomorph — produces both sexual and asexual spores
B) systemic mycosis — fungal infection of body organs
C) coenocytic hyphae — hyphae with cross-walls
D) dermatomycosis — fungal infection of the skin
E) dimorphic fungus — grows as a yeast or a mold
B) Nearly all protozoa cause disease.
Which of the following statements regarding protozoa is FALSE? A) Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes.
B) Nearly all protozoa cause disease.
C) Most protozoa reproduce asexually.
D) Some protozoan pathogens are transmitted by arthropod vectors. E) Protozoa are common in water and soil.
C) dimorphic fungus.
In mid-December, a woman with insulin-dependent diabetes who had been on prednisone fell and received an abrasion on the dorsal side of her right hand. She was placed on penicillin. By the end
of January, the ulcer had not healed, and she was referred to a plastic surgeon. On January 30, a
swab of the wound was cultured at 35°C on blood agar. On the same day, a smear was made for
Gram staining. The Gram stain showed large (10 μm) cells. Brownish, waxy colonies grew on the blood agar. Slide cultures set up on February 1 and incubated at 25°C showed septate hyphae and single conidia. The most likely cause of the infection is a
A) parasitic alga.
B) protozoan.
C) dimorphic fungus.
D) gram-negative bacterium. E) yeast.
C) reproductive system
Which of the following tends to be more complex in a parasitic helminth than in free-living helminths?
A) digestive system
B) nervous system
C) reproductive system
D) digestive and nervous systems
E) digestive, reproductive, and nervous systems
B) Fungal spores are highly resistant to heat and chemical agents
Which of the following statements is FALSE? A) Fungi produce asexual spores.
B) Fungal spores are highly resistant to heat and chemical agents. C) Fungal spores are for asexual or sexual reproduction.
D) Fungal spores are used in identification of fungi.
E) Fungi produce sexual spores
D
2.sporangiospore – formed within
5.chlamydoconidium formed in a sac
Which of the following pairs are mismatched?

1.arthroconidium -formed by fragmentation
2.sporangiospore – formed within
3.hyphae conidiospore- formed
in a chain
4.blastoconidium formed from a bud
5.chlamydoconidium formed in a sac

A) 1 and 2 B) 2 and 3 C) 4 and 5
D) 2 and 5
E) 3 and 4

E) green algae – prokaryotic
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) dinoflagellates -paralytic shellfish poisoning
B) red algae -agar
C) diatoms – petroleum
D) brown algae -algin
E) green algae – prokaryotic
C) gastrointestinal route.
Helminthic diseases are usually transmitted to humans by
A) respiratory route.
B) vectors.
C) gastrointestinal route. D) genitourinary route. E) aerosols.
C) gastrointestinal route.
All of the following are characteristic of the Platyhelminthes EXCEPT that they
A) are hermaphroditic.
B) have highly developed digestive and nervous systems. C) can be divided into flukes and tapeworms.
D) are dorsoventrally flattened. E) are multicellular animals.
E) humans are the intermediate host and mosquitoes are both the definitive host and the vector.
In the malaria parasite life cycle A) humans are the intermediate host.
B) mosquitoes are the definitive host.
C) mosquitoes are the vector.
D) humans are the intermediate host and mosquitos are the definitive host.
E) humans are the intermediate host and mosquitoes are both the definitive host and the vector.
D) humans are the definitive host and crayfish are the intermediate host
Three weeks after a river rafting trip, three family members experienced symptoms of coughing, fever, and chest pain. During the rafting trip, the family had consumed crayfish that they caught
along the river banks. An examination of the patients’ sputum revealed helminth eggs, and serum samples were positive for antibodies to Paragonimus. All of the family members recovered
following treatment with praziquantel. In the Paragonimus life cycle,
A) the crayfish are the definitive host and humans are the intermediate host.
B) both humans and crayfish are definitive hosts.
C) the source of the infection was the river water.
D) humans are the definitive host and crayfish are the intermediate host. E) both humans and crayfish are intermediate hosts.
E) cysticercus.
The encysted larva of the beef tapeworm is called a
A) cercaria.
B) metacercaria. C) proglottid. D) redia.
E) cysticercus.
D) houseflies
Which of the following arthropods does NOT transmit diseases by sucking blood from a human host?
A) lice
B) mosquitoes C) kissing bugs
D) houseflies E) fleas
A) All are unicellular
Which of the following statements about algae is FALSE? A) All are unicellular.
B) Some are capable of sexual reproduction. C) They use CO2 as their carbon source.
D) They produce oxygen from hydrolysis of water. E) They use light as their energy source.
B) mosquito :definitive host
Below are paired items referring to the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis. Which of the pairs is mismatched?
A) mosquito : vector
B) mosquito :definitive host
C) dog: definitive host
D) dog : sexual reproduction
E) None of the pairs is mismatched.
B) they are classified as plants.
All of the following are characteristic of algae EXCEPT A) they mostly live in aquatic habitats.
B) they are classified as plants.
C) some produce harmful toxins.
D) they may be unicellular or multicellular. E) most are photoautotrophs.
D) adult
A definitive host harbors which stage of a parasite?
A) miracidium
B) cyst
C) larva
D) adult
E) All of the answers are correct.
D) intestinal contents
What do tapeworms eat?
A) host tissues
B) plant matter
C) intestinal bacteria
D) intestinal contents E) red blood cells
E) lack mitochondria.
Giardia and Trichomonas are unusual eukaryotes because they A) lack nuclei.
B) are motile.
C) do produce cysts.
D) do not produce cysts. E) lack mitochondria.
B) cooking fish before eating
The life cycle of the fish tapeworm is similar to that of the beef tapeworm. Which of the following is the most effective preventive measure?
A) salting fish before eating
B) cooking fish before eating
C) wearing gloves while handling fish
D) refrigerating stored fish
E) not swimming in fish-infested waters
B) eliminate Anopheles
Which of the following is the most effective control for malaria? A) treating patients
B) eliminate Anopheles
C) eliminate the intermediate host
D) vaccination
E) None of these is an effective control.
B) plasmodial slime mold
In the microscope, you observe multinucleated amoeboid cells with sporangia that form spores. This is a(n)
A) ascomycete.
B) plasmodial slime mold. C) Euglenozoa.
D) tapeworm.
E) cellular slime mold.
A) cellular slime mold
You observe a mass of amboeba-like cells that swarm together, form a stalk, and produce spores. 33) This is a
A) cellular slime mold.
B) ascomycete.
C) plasmodial slime mold.
D) Euglenozoa. E) tapeworm.
C) cestodes — all are free-living
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) trematodes — flukes
B) nematodes — many are free-living
C) cestodes — all are free-living
D) cestodes — segmented body made of proglottids E) nematodes — complete digestive tract
E) ascomycete
Which of the following is a nucleated, unicellular organism that, if you changed the incubation temperature, would form filaments with conidiospores?
A) tapeworm
B) euglenozoa
C) plasmodial slime mold
D) cellular slime mold
E) ascomycete
A) Euglena
Which of the following organisms is photoautotrophic protozoan?
A) Euglena
B) plasmodial slime mold
C) oomycote
D) cellular slime mold
E) Phytophthora
C) mosquito : Pneumocystis
Which of the following pairs is mismatched? A) tick :Rocky Mountain spotted fever
B) mosquito :encephalitis
C) mosquito : Pneumocystis
D) mosquito malaria
E) tick Lyme disease
A) green algae
Which of the following groups of algae does NOT produce compounds that are toxic to humans?
A) green algae
B) dinoflagellates
C) red algae
D) diatoms
E) None of the answers is correct; all of these groups of algae produce compounds toxic to
humans.
D) they distribute nutrients by cytoplasmic streaming
The cells of plasmodial slime molds can grow to several centimeters in diameter because
A) they form spores.
B) the large surface can absorb nutrients.
C) they have organelles.
D) they distribute nutrients by cytoplasmic streaming.
E) they have a mouth to ingest nutrients.
E) oomycote alga
Assume you have isolated a multicellular heterotrophic organism that produces coenocytic hyphae, motile zoospores, and cellulose cell walls. It is most likely a(n)
A) tapeworm.
B) green alga.
C) zygomycete fungus.
D) ascomycete fungus. E) oomycote alga
C) intermediate host.
If a larva of Echinococcus granulosus is found in humans, humans are the
A) reservoir.
B) infected host.
C) intermediate host.
D) definitive host.
E) None of the answers is correct.
A) fungus.
Ringworm is caused by a(n) A) fungus.
B) cestode. C) protozoan. D) trematode. E) nematode.
A) Candida albicans
Yeast infections are caused by A) Candida albicans.
B) Histoplasma.
C) Penicillium.
D) Saccharomyces cerevisiae. E) Aspergillus.
D) they are a symbiotic relationship of a fungus and a protozoan.
All of the following are characteristic of lichens EXCEPT
A) they are used as indicators of air pollution.
B) they are arranged in foliose, fruticose, or crustose morphologies. C) they are a major food source for tundra herbivores.
D) they are a symbiotic relationship of a fungus and a protozoan. E) they serve as primary producers in rocky ecosystems.
B) Cryptosporidium
You see acid-fast oocysts in a fecal sample from a patient who has diarrhea. What is the MOST
likely cause?
A) Taenia
B) Cryptosporidium
C) Entamoeba
D) diatoms E) Giardia
True
lasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis are stages of the fungal sexual life cycle.
True
Arthropod vectors are blood-sucking animals such as ticks, lice, and fleas that transmit microbial pathogens.
True
Cercariae, metacercaria, redia, and sporocysts are all life cycle stages of trematodes.
False
the Platyhelminthes group includes roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.
True
Some species of dinoflagellates produce neurotoxins that cause fish kills and red tides.
True
Both the cellular slime molds and the plasmodial slime molds are members of the phylum Amoebozoa.
False
In helminth life cycles, the organism that harbors the sexually reproductive phase of the parasite is called the intermediate host.
True
The sporozoite, merozoite, gametocyte, and ring stages are all part of the Plasmodium life cycle
False
The insect vectors have six legs and include ticks, mosquitoes, and lice.
False
Most cases of hookworm infection are acquired by ingestion of eggs in contaminated food or water

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