Chapter 1 – Psychology (questions)

People are described as biased if they
(1 point)
a) have strong, emotionally laden beliefs.

b) do not define their terms clearly.

c) fail to consider whether evidence comes from a reliable source.

d) have assumptions or beliefs that keep them from considering evidence fairly.

d
According to Edward de Bono, persecution, wars and lynching are all a result of

a) biased behaviour

b) emotional reasoning

c) legal action

d) political justification

b
Beliefs that are taken for granted are known as
(1 point)
stereotypes.

biases.

assumptions.

opinions.

assumptions
Making objective judgments based on evidence involves
(1 point)
science education.

emotion and anecdotes.

critical thinking.

criticism and negativity.

critical thinking
The birth of modern psychology is usually attributed to
(1 point)
John Locke.

Wilhelm Wundt.

Sigmund Freud.

Hippocrates.

Wilhelm Wundt
One of the strongest reasons that belief in psychobabble is difficult to eliminate is that
(1 point)
a) it validates and confirms existing beliefs.

b) true psychological findings are always counterintuitive.

c) empirical evidence is more difficult to obtain.

d) most people have not taken courses in psychology

a
The primary job of a counselling psychologist is to
(1 point)
a) diagnose and treat mental disorders.

b) conduct psychoanalysis for people who are troubled or unhappy.

c) help people with drug addictions, delinquency problems, or other severe social problems.

d) help people deal with problems of everyday life.

d
“Empirical” evidence refers to
(1 point)
a) evidence that supports unscientific principles.

b) evidence of thoughts, feelings, or behaviours.

c) evidence that shows the way things truly are.

d) evidence derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

d
The psychologist most likely to study how people grow and change over time is the
(1 point)
a) psychometric psychologist.

b) developmental psychologist.

c) experimental psychologist.

d) educational psychologist.

b
One contribution to psychology made by John Locke was
(1 point)
a. the theory of phrenology.

b. the inference that the brain is the source of our emotions.

c. the observation that people experience emotions not because of actual events but rather because of their explanations of those events.

d. the idea that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience.

d
Who created the idea that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience
John Locke
Social psychologists have taken an interest in the brain and have developed a new specialty called
(1 point)
social neuroscience.

social-cognitive physiology.

psychobiology.

neurosociology.

social neuroscience
Students who think critically about psychology are encouraged to
(1 point)
a. rely on common sense unless it’s contradicted by scientific evidence.

b. focus on the ideas that have been proven to be true.

c. dismiss claims that are printed in the newspaper or appear on television.

d. ask questions and challenge assumptions

d
Being open-minded requires that a person
(1 point)
a. evaluate both supporting and contradictory evidence.

b. believe that all opinions are equally valid.

c. recognize the difference between science and pseudoscience.

d. accept that two people with different beliefs are probably both correct.

a
Psychoanalysis differed from structuralism and functionalism in that it
(1 point)
a. focused on underlying causes of behaviours.

b. had a greater impact on the direction of the field of psychology.

c. was based in a clinical rather than an empirical approach to behaviour.

d. was embraced immediately and had wide appeal around the world.

b
Do models of intelligence include problem solving?
(1 point)
a. define key terms.

b. analyze assumptions and biases.

c. be willing to wonder.

d. check the reliability of the evidence.

a
People who hold strong feelings about a topic
(1 point)
a. tend to oversimplify the topic.

b. can use those emotions to motivate critical thinking.

c. cannot engage in critical thinking about the topic.

d. don’t define the topic clearly and scientifically.

a
When asked if he believed in the death penalty, Jon answered, “People have free will and are entirely responsible for any crimes they commit.” This statement is
(1 point)
a. a value.

b. a stereotype.

c. an assumption.

d. a norm.

c
Psychologists who take a behaviourist perspective focus on
(1 point)
a. environmental rewards and punishments that maintain or discourage specific behaviours.

b. how cultural rules and values influence people’s behaviour.

c. how genetically influenced behaviours that were adaptive in the past are reflected in current behaviours.

d. how people adapt their behaviours to the environment as they think about the events happening around them.

a
The “lazy thinker” is most likely to say
(1 point)
“I wonder if the evidence is reliable?”

“I just know it’s true.”

“I wonder how my own biases affect my thinking about this?”

“I don’t know what you mean; how are you defining that?”

“I just know its true”
Critical thinkers are reminded to define their terms so that
(1 point)
a. they don’t have misleading or incomplete answers.

b. they can reason without emotion.

c. they can engage in creative thinking.

d. they can reduce prejudice.

a
Researchers who study how biological events interact with events in the external environment to create perceptions, memories, and behaviours are known as
(1 point)
a. biological psychologists.

b. cultural psychologists.

c. neuroscientists.

d. cognitive psychologists.

a. biological psychologists
Television commercials that offer testimonials from people who claim rapid weight loss with no change in their diets usually rely on

a) pseudoscientific evidence

b) no evidence at all

c) correlational evidence

d) empirical evidence

a
“I’ve always believed that sugar makes people act a little crazy, but maybe that’s not really true” is an example of
(1 point)
a. analyzing one’s assumptions.

b. defining one’s terms.

c. considering other interpretations.

d. examining the evidence.

a
“I hate my school, and so does everyone else,” is an example of
(1 point)

a reinforced belief.

argument by anecdote.

rationalization.

Occam’s razor.

argument by anecdote
Of the following, the best example of psychobabble as defined in the text is
(1 point)
a) “I don’t believe the research. In my experience, children raised by gay parents are more likely to grow up to be gay.”

b) “I saw this great movie about multiple personality disorder on TV last night.”

c) “I hate to skip a day of exercise.”

d) “I had a dream last night about my ex-husband. I guess I am still angry with him about a lot of things.”

a
Which of the following statements best defines psychology?
(1 point)
a It is the study of how mental processes are affected by an organism’s environment and physical and mental states.

b It refers to the application of the art of healing to mental diseases and disorders.

c It refers to a neurotic mental state that is characterized by irrational phobias, obsessions, or compulsions.

d It is defined as the study of mental behaviour and functioning solely in relation to other biological processes.

a) It is the study of how mental processes are affected by an organism’s environment and physical and mental states.
Phrenology suggested that ________.
(1 point)
a specific characteristics and personality traits were controlled by the occipital lobe

b the central nervous system controlled our every thought and emotion

c a person’s personality traits were not related to the brain in any way

d different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits

d) different brain areas account for specific character and personality traits
Which of the following statements best defines critical thinking?
(1 point)
a It is defined as the study of mental behaviour and functioning solely in relation to other biological processes.

b It refers to the kind of thinking that looks beyond the facts to imagine what could be, what might have been, and what might be related.

c It is the study of how mental processes are affected by an organism’s environment and physical and mental states.

d It refers to the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence.

d) It refers to the ability and willingness to assess claims and make judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons and evidence.
Which of the following psychological approaches best defines the learning perspective?
(1 point)
a. The learning perspective emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behaviour.

b. The learning perspective emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts.

c. The learning perspective emphasizes evolutionary mechanisms that help explain human commonalities development, emotion, and social practices.

d. The learning perspective emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions.

d) The learning perspective emphasizes how the environment and experience affect a person’s or animal’s actions.
________ psychologists design and evaluate tests of mental abilities, aptitudes, interests, and personality.
(1 point)
a Developmental

b Educational

c Psychometric

d Organizational

d) psychometric
Abbey is a(n) ________________ psychologist because she is interested in how people and other organisms attend to, acquire, transform, store, and retrieve knowledge.
(1 point)
a processing

b cranial

c cognitive

d information

c
Anya became a(n) _______________ psychologist because she is very athletic and realizes the importance of mental health for individual athletes and for the team.
(1 point)
a athletic

b strength

c workout

d sports

d
Keith has completed a five-year residency to learn how to diagnose and treat mental disorders. He is also able to prescribe medication. Keith is a ______________.
(1 point)
a biological psychologist

b medicinal psychologist

c psychiatrist

d behaviourist

c
“Empirical” evidence refers to
(1 point)
a evidence derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement.

b evidence of thoughts, feelings, or behaviours.

c evidence that supports unscientific principles.

d evidence that shows the way things truly are.

a
One reason that intelligent people tend to cling to their unscientific misconceptions about behaviour is that
(1 point)
a psychobabble tends to confirm our biases and expectations.

b they have very little education in science.

c unscientific beliefs are rarely completely incorrect.

d scientific findings are usually surprising or counterintuitive.

a
What is one way of ensuring a student’s success in an introductory psychology course?
(1 point)
a focusing on common sense

b examining the scientific evidence for their beliefs

c standing by their beliefs

d taking two mid-term exams

b
The “lazy thinker” is most likely to say,
(1 point)
a “I wonder how my own biases affect my thinking about this?”

b “I wonder if the evidence is reliable?”

c “I just know it’s true.”

d “I don’t know what you mean; how are you defining that?”

c “I just know it’s true.”
People who hold strong feelings about a topic
(1 point)
a don’t define the topic clearly and scientifically.

b can use those emotions to motivate critical thinking.

c cannot engage in critical thinking about the topic.

d tend to oversimplify the topic.

b can use those emotions to motivate critical thinking.
The principle of Occam’s razor suggests that critical thinkers
(1 point)
a will always choose the explanation that is simplest and fits best with “common sense,” even if it is unverified.

b will generate many possible explanations for a phenomenon before selecting the best one.

c will recognize and accept uncertainty.

d should choose the explanation that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.

d should choose the explanation that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.
One contribution to psychology by Hippocrates was
(1 point)
the idea that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience.

the observation that people experience emotions not because of actual events but rather because of their explanations of those events.

the inference that the brain is the source of our emotions.

the theory of phrenology.

the inference that the brain is the source of our emotions.
The idea that psychological traits could be identified based on bumps on the skull was a basic belief of the
(1 point)
structuralists.

functionalists.

Stoic philosophers.

phrenologists.

phrenologists.
Among Wilhelm Wundt’s main contributions to the field of psychology was
(1 point)
the idea of the “stream of consciousness.”

the first psychology laboratory.

the “Mind Cure” movement.

the idea of the unconscious mind.

the first psychology laboratory.
Observing, analyzing, and reporting one’s own mental processes is known as
(1 point)
the stream of consciousness.

objective thinking.

subjective thinking.

introspection.

introspection.
Structuralism lost favour as a school of thought in part because
(1 point)
its proponents could not generate a program of research.

it was too broad in scope, attempting to address too many mental structures.

the method of introspection was not reliable.

it was seen as unscientific.

the method of introspection was not reliable.
Perhaps the most lasting contribution of the functionalist school of thought is its emphasis on
(1 point)
building blocks of experience.

causes and consequences of behaviour.

unconscious drives and motives.

the role of the brain in conscious awareness.

causes and consequences of behaviour.
The biological approach to modern psychology focuses on
(1 point)
how bodily events affect thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.

what happens inside a person’s mind.

unconscious dynamics within the individual.

how the environment and experience affect behaviour.

how bodily events affect thoughts, feelings, and behaviours.
The psychodynamic approach to modern psychology focuses on
(1 point)
how the environment and experience affect behaviour.

unconscious dynamics within the individual.

what happens inside a person’s mind.

social and cultural forces outside the individual.

unconscious dynamics within the individual.
Evolutionary psychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that takes a
(1 point)
learning perspective.

sociocultural perspective.

biological perspective.

psychodynamic perspective

biological perspective.
Researchers who study how people’s thoughts and explanations affect their perception, memory, and choices represent the
(1 point)
cognitive perspective.

learning perspective.

psychodynamic perspective.

social-cognitive perspective.

cognitive perspective.
A focus on free will is characteristic of the
(1 point)
psychodynamic theories of behaviour.

humanist perspective on behaviour.

sociocultural perspective on behaviour.

evolutionary theory of behaviour.

humanist perspective on behaviour.
A primary reason for the start of the feminist psychology movement was
(1 point)
biological studies showing genetic differences between men and women.

scientific research showing important differences between men’s and women’s behaviours.

the tendency of researchers to include only men as subjects of psychological studies.

new research methods that allowed psychologists to characterize gender differences empirically.

the tendency of researchers to include only men as subjects of psychological studies.
“Basic” psychological research is conducted primarily
(1 point)
to discover knowledge that has direct practical significance.

for the purpose of seeking knowledge for its own sake.

in industry or nonacademic institutions.

in hospitals or mental health clinics.

for the purpose of seeking knowledge for its own sake.
The psychologist most likely to conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, and cognition is the
(1 point)
psychometric psychologist.

developmental psychologist.

educational psychologist.

experimental psychologist.

experimental psychologist.
The psychologist most likely to work directly with parents, teachers, and students to enhance students’ performance and resolve any emotional difficulties is the
(1 point)
educational psychologist.

school psychologist.

clinical psychologist.

developmental psychologist.

school psychologist.
A doctorate in psychology degree is known by the abbreviation
(1 point)
Psy.D.

P.D.

Ph.D.

Ed.D.

Psy.D.
The primary difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist is that
(1 point)
only the psychiatrist has to undergo a licensing procedure.

the clinical psychologist typically has received less education about mental health issues.

only the psychiatrist can conduct research on severe psychological disorders.

the clinical psychologist typically has not gone to medical school.

the clinical psychologist typically has not gone to medical school.
To become a licensed clinical social worker, an individual must typically
(1 point)
have at least a master’s degree in psychology or social work.

undergo extensive therapy himself/herself as part of an internship.

have no family history of psychological disorders.

have a Ph.D., Psy.D., or an Ed.D. in psychology or social work

have at least a master’s degree in psychology or social work.
Which of the following is a textbook-recommended guideline for evaluating psychological findings?
(1 point)
Consider other interpretations.

There is always a “right” answer – search for it.

Simplify things as much as possible.

Engage in emotional reasoning.

Consider other interpretations
_____________ was an early psychological approach that emphasized the purpose of behaviour and consciousness.
(1 point)
Psychoanalysis

Functionalism

Phrenology

Structuralism

functionalism
The psychological approach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behaviour is the ___________ perspective.
(1 point)
learning

sociocultural

biological

cognitive

sociocultural
The study of psychological issues in order to seek knowledge for its own sake rather than for its practical application is known as _________ psychology.
(1 point)
basic

applied

practical

clinical

basic
______________ are not required to have any degree at all, since the term is not usually legally regulated.
(1 point)
Psychotherapists

Psychoanalysts

Psychiatrists

Psychologists

Psychotherapists
Psychology is best defined as
(1 point)
the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.

the discipline concerned with the functions of behaviour and how it allows an organism to adapt to its environment.

the discipline concerned with the physical, mental, and social developmental changes which take place in humans from infancy until old age.

the discipline concerned with the analysis of the mind as well as the elements of the various states of consciousness.

the discipline concerned with behaviour and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism’s physical state, mental state, and external environment.
Psychologists who help people deal with problems of everyday life, such as test anxiety, family or marital problems, or low job motivation, are called __________ psychologists.
(1 point)
school

counselling

clinical

psychometric

counselling
Psychobabble is defined as
(1 point)
the prediction of behaviour by a “past-lives” channeller based on experiences in a former life.

attempts to explain and predict human behaviour through a person’s astrological sign.

pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological language.

the tendency of television news shows to misinterpret significant psychological findings.

pseudoscience and quackery covered by a veneer of psychological language.
Dr. Abee is helping teachers, students, and parents know how to use the Ace Accelerated Academic Achievement Program at his school. He is a(n) __________ psychologist.
(1 point)
industrial

developmental

educational

experimental

educational
You are interested in creating a test to distinguish introverts from extroverts. You would be best to consult a(n) ______________ psychologist.
(1 point)
cognitive

industrial/organizational

educational

psychometric

psychometric
__________ relates to how outgoing someone is.
Extroversion
_________ is the same as being shy
Introversion
Developed in reaction to Freudian pessimism and behaviouristic “mindlessness,” __________ was based on the notion that human beings had free will.
(1 point)
social-cognitive learning theory

humanist psychology

feminist psychology

sociocultural psychology

humanist psychology
Psychologists who conduct laboratory studies of learning, motivation, emotion, sensation and perception, physiology, and cognition are called ___________ psychologists.
(1 point)
developmental

social

experimental

educational

experimental
Who would be least likely to invoke the mind or mental states to explain behaviour?
(1 point)
a behaviourist

a psychoanalyst

a social-cognitive learning theorist

an evolutionary psychologist

a behaviourist
______________ was an early psychological approach that stressed analysis of immediate experience into basic elements.
(1 point)
Functionalism

Structuralism

Phrenology

Psychoanalysis

Structuralism
Proponents of the __________ perspective believe that to understand the mind one must study the nervous system, because all actions, feelings, and thoughts are associated with bodily events.
(1 point)
biological

behavioural

cognitive

psychodynamic

biological
Which of the following statements is most accurate?
(1 point)
Behaviour should be studied from both scientific and nonscientific perspectives.

Common sense and popular opinion are often reliable guides to understanding human behaviour.

Our initial beliefs about psychological concepts are often shaped by pseudoscience and popular opinion, but these do not reflect real psychology.

Approaches such as astrology, numerology, and graphology are reliable methods used to explain problems and predict behaviour.

Our initial beliefs about psychological concepts are often shaped by pseudoscience and popular opinion, but these do not reflect real psychology.
Critical thinking is best defined as
(1 point)
an open-minded approach to evaluating claims made by others where each is given equal value and consideration.

an approach to evaluating information that focuses on finding faults and errors with reasoning in order to solve a problem.

the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of empirical evidence.

relying on insight and intuition to assess claims made by researchers.

the ability and willingness to assess claims and make objective judgments on the basis of empirical evidence.
__________ established the first psychology lab in 1879 and is considered the founder of scientific psychology.
(1 point)
William James

E. B. Titchener

B. F. Skinner

Wilhelm Wundt

Wilhelm Wundt
“Psychological distress is a result of inner forces, specifically unresolved unconscious conflicts.” This statement reflects the position of the __________ perspective.
(1 point)
biological

psychodynamic

behavioural

cognitive

psychodynamic
_________ combines behaviourism with research on thoughts, values, expectations, and intentions. This perspective argues that people learn by imitating others.
(1 point)
Biological theory

Psychodynamic theory

Humanism

Social-cognitive learning theory

Social-cognitive learning theory
Guidelines to Critical Thinking Critically About Psychological Issues

1. Ask Questions, be willing to wonder

2. Define Your Terms

3. Examine The Evidence

4. Analyse Assumptions and Biases

5. Don’t Oversimplify

6. Avoid emotional reasoning

7. Tolerate Uncertainty

8. Consider Other Interpretations

Founder of Modern Medicine
Hippocrates
Argued that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience
John Locke
Psychoanalysis is the school of thought that focused on
(1 point)
analyzing sensations, images, and feelings into basic elements.

the mental causes of depression, nervousness, and obsessions.

where traits and behaviours are located in the brain.

how and why an organism does something.

the mental causes of depression, nervousness, and obsessions.
Individuals who want to practice psychoanalysis are typically required to
(1 point)
be medical doctors before undergoing training in psychoanalysis.

complete a Ph.D. in psychology.

undergo extensive psychoanalysis themselves.

have a license to practice clinical psychology.

undergo extensive psychoanalysis themselves.
The primary difference between a psychiatrist and a clinical psychologist is
(1 point)
the clinical psychologist has typically received less education about mental health issues.

the clinical psychologist has typically not gone to medical school.

only the psychiatrist has to undergo a licensing procedure.

only the psychiatrist can conduct research on severe psychological disorders.

the clinical psychologist has typically not gone to medical school.
One contribution to psychology made by Hippocrates was
(1 point)
the observation that people experience emotions not because of actual events but rather because of their explanations of those events.

the theory of phrenology.

the inference that the brain is the source of our emotions.

the idea that the mind works by associating ideas arising from experience.

the inference that the brain is the source of our emotions.
Among Wilhelm Wundt’s main contribution to the field of psychology was
(1 point)
the first psychology laboratory.

the idea of the “stream of consciousness.”

the “Mind Cure” movement.

the idea of the unconscious mind.

the first psychology laboratory.
Which of the following statements about critical thinking is true?
(1 point)
Critical thinkers are unwilling to accept uncertainty.

It is very easy to become a perfect critical thinker.

Critical thinking is a once-and-for-all accomplishment.

Thinking critically teaches us how to live with uncertainty.

thinking critically teaches us how to live with uncertainty
“Basic” psychological research is conducted primarily
(1 point)
in hospitals or mental health clinics.

to discover knowledge that has direct practical significance.

in industry or nonacademic institutions.

for the purpose of seeking knowledge for its own sake.

for the purpose of seeking knowledge for its own sake.
Freud argued that many psychological symptoms and disorders result from
(1 point)
false ideas that make people anxious and unhappy.

fantasies that are expressed only in dreams.

neurological damage that occurred during childhood and affected the development of the brain.

conflicts and emotional traumas that occurred in childhood and are too threatening to be remembered consciously.

conflicts and emotional traumas that occurred in childhood and are too threatening to be remembered consciously.
Observing, analyzing, and reporting one’s own mental processes is known as
(1 point)
the stream of consciousness.

introspection.

objective thinking.

subjective thinking.

introspection.
Phrenologists believed that
(1 point)
people could observe, analyze, and describe their own sensations and emotions, if trained properly.

people have both conscious and unconscious thoughts and feelings.

the study of evolutionary and environmental reasons for behaviours was most important.

they could learn about people’s personality traits from bumps on the skull

they could learn about people’s personality traits from bumps on the skull
The psychological approach that emphasizes perception, memory, language, and problem solving, is called the
(1 point)
cognitive perspective.

psychobabble perspective.

developmental perspective.

psychoanalytic perspective.

cognitive perspective.
Psychologists who take a sociocultural perspective focus on
(1 point)
how genetically influenced behaviours that were adaptive in the past are reflected in current behaviours.

how cultural forces and values influence people’s development, behaviour, and feelings.

environmental rewards and punishments that maintain or discourage specific behaviours.

how people adapt their behaviours to the environment as they think about the events happening around them.

how cultural forces and values influence people’s development, behaviour, and feelings.
Most Freudian concepts are
(1 point)
considered totally invalid by all psychologists today.

embraced by behaviourists, but not structuralists.

still considered valid today.

rejected by most empirically oriented psychologists

rejected by most empirically oriented psychologists
One reason that intelligent people tend to cling to their unscientific misconceptions about behaviour is that
(1 point)
psychobabble tends to confirm our beliefs and prejudices.

unscientific beliefs are rarely completely incorrect.

they have very little education in science.

scientific findings are usually surprising or counterintuitive.

psychobabble tends to confirm our beliefs and prejudices.
The learning perspective on modern psychology focuses on
(1 point)
unconscious dynamics within the individual.

social and cultural forces outside the individual.

how the environment and experience affects behaviour.

what happens inside a person’s mind.

how the environment and experience affects behaviour.
The principle of Occam’s razor suggests that critical thinkers
(1 point)
should choose the explanation that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.

will always choose the explanation that is simplest and fits best with “common sense,” even if it is unverified.

will generate many possible explanations for a phenomenon before selecting the best one.

will recognize and accept uncertainty.

should choose the explanation that accounts for the most evidence while making the fewest unverified assumptions.
An employee who states, “I’m not exactly sure what is meant by efficiency” is following the critical-thinking guideline to
(1 point)
define key terms.

analyze assumptions and biases.

be willing to wonder.

check the reliability of the evidence.

define key terms
Structuralism lost favour as a school of thought in part because
(1 point)
it was seen as unscientific.

it was too broad in scope, attempting to address too many mental structures.

its proponents could not generate a program of research.

the method of introspection was not reliable.

the method of introspection was not reliable.
A primary reason for the start of the feminist psychology movement was
(1 point)
scientific research showing important differences between men’s and women’s behaviours.

the tendency of researchers to include only men as subjects of psychological studies.

biological studies showing genetic differences between men and women.

new research methods that allowed psychologists to characterize gender differences empirically.

the tendency of researchers to include only men as subjects of psychological studies.
Making a generalization based on personal experience is
(1 point)
refusing to accept uncertainty.

using psychobabble to make the argument.

arguing by anecdote.

arguing based on emotion.

arguing by anecdote
Resisting claims that have no support requires
(1 point)
role models that share the same beliefs as you.

recognizing one’s own biases.

critical thinking.

empirical evidence.

critical thinking
Which of the following behaviours is an effective critical thinker MOST likely to engage in?
(1 point)
not tolerating uncertainty

settling on the best explanation and refuting all others

avoiding any emotional response when a belief is challenged

accepting that some questions have multiple answers

avoiding any emotional response when a belief is challenged
When talking about young children, Lauren clearly stated that any child who goes to daycare will experience attachment difficulties with their parents. This statement is
(1 point)
a value.

a stereotype.

an assumption.

a norm.

an assumption.
Students beginning an introductory psychology course generally hold beliefs about human behaviour that are based on
(1 point)
scientific evidence.

astrology and other superstitions.

“common sense” and personal experience.

a previous psychology class.

“common sense” and personal experience.
Another student comments, “I didn’t learn anything new in psychology class today! The ‘research’ just proves what we already know.” You can best respond by saying,
(1 point)
“Usually students ‘already know’ only about a third of the material presented in class.”

“Sometimes findings confirm our existing beliefs and prejudices, even when those beliefs are incorrect.”

“You’re still hanging on to some misconceptions; if you think critically you’ll realize you have more to learn.”

“Findings that are not surprising are still important because they can confirm, extend, or explain established beliefs.”

“Findings that are not surprising are still important because they can confirm, extend, or explain established beliefs.”

Related Post

You may also like...

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *