Botany Study Guide

Vascular Plants
Plants with true vascular tissue.
Non-vascular Plants
Plants that do not have any tissues to transport water and nutrients.
Moss
Tiny leafy-stemmed flowerless plants.
Liverwort
A nonvascular plant that has simple leaflike, rootlike, and stemlike parts.
Hornwort
Liverworts with slender hornlike 2-valved capsules.
Ferns
Any of numerous flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and fronds and reproducing by spores.
Club Mosses
Seedless plants that look like tiny pine trees; grow in moist woodlands and near streams.
Horsetails
Seedless plants with jointed stems; needlelike branches.
Seeds
Structures that contain a young plant inside a protective covering.
Roots
Fibrous, Taproot, Storage Taproot
Stems
Carries substances between roots and leaves; provide support for plant; holds leaves up to sunlight.
Xylem
The vascular tissue through which water and nutrients move in some plants.
Phloem
The vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants.
Leaf Structures
Lobed, Serrated, and Smooth
Vein Patterns
Palmate, Pinnate, and Parallel
Gymnosperms
Seed plant that bears its seeds directly on the surfaces of cones.
Conifers
Cone-bearing plants.
Life Cycle of Gymnosperms
male and female cone – pollen and eggs – zygote – embryo – ovary becomes a seed – germinates – mitosis – sporophyte
Angiosperms
Flowering plants that produce seeds in fruit.
Life Cycle of Angiosperms
takes place in flowers; starts with mature sporophyte producing flowers; inside 4 cells becoming 4 pollen grains; pollen finds the stigma – pollen tube; fertilization
Flowers
The reproduction part of plant.
Sepals
Leaf-like parts that cover and protect the flower bud.
Petals
Modified leaves which are usually bright in color to attract pollinators.
Stamen
The male reproductive organ of a flower.
Filament
The stalk of a stamen.
Anther
The part of the stamen that contains pollen.
Pollen
Tiny structures that contain the cells that will later become sperm cells.
Pistil
The female ovule-bearing part of a flower composed of ovary and style and stigma.
Stigma
Sticky portion at the top of the style where pollen grains frequently land on.
Style
The narrow elongated part of the pistil between the ovary and the stigma.
Ovary
The organ that bears the ovules of a flower.
Ovule
A structure that contains an egg cell.
Tropisms – Light, Gravity, and Touch
Light – Attracts or not to light
Gravity – Falls down or lays straight up
Touch – Coils around other near objects or not
Seasonal Changes
When seasons change and plants grow at different seasons
Life Spans
When plants “die” and grow back.
Eukaryote
An organism whose cells contain nuclei.
Autotroph
An organism who makes its own food
Plant Cell
Contains a cell wall, chloroplast and large vacuole.
Sporophyte stage
Plant life cycle stage that begins when an egg is fertilized by a sperm.
Gametophyte stage
Spores develop into the plant’s other stage where sperm and egg are produced.
Photosynthesis
Process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and high-energy carbohydrates such as sugars and starches.

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