reverse transcriptase to reconstruct the gene from its mRNA.
A gene that contains introns can be made shorter (but remain functional) for genetic engineering purposes by using
A genomic library can be made using a restriction enzyme and DNA ligase only, whereas a cDNA library requires both of these as well as reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.
How does a genomic library differ from a cDNA library?
Which of the following best describes the complete sequence of steps occurring during every cycle of PCR?
1. The primers hybridize to the target DNA.
2. The mixture is heated to a high temperature to denature the double stranded target DNA.
3. Fresh DNA polymerase is added.
4. DNA polymerase extends the primers to make a copy of the target DNA.
a sequence that is found to have a particular function in the nematode is likely to have a closely related function in vertebrates.
Sequencing an entire genome, such as that of C. elegans, a nematode, is most important because
Which of the following produces multiple identical copies of a gene for basic research or for large-scale production of a gene product?
Which of the following seals the sticky ends of restriction fragments to make recombinant DNA?
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A) reverse transcriptase
B) gene cloning
C) DNA ligase
E) restriction enzymes
Which of the following is used to make complementary DNA (cDNA) from RNA?
Which of the following cuts DNA molecules at specific locations?
negative to positive
In gel electrophoresis DNA molecules migrate from _____ to _____ ends of the gel.
Which of the following separates molecules by movement due to size and electrical charge?
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Restriction fragments of DNA are typically separated from one another by which process?
to attach the DNA fragments to a permanent substrate
DNA fragments from a gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose paper during the procedure called Southern blotting. What is the purpose of transferring the DNA from a gel to a nitrocellulose paper?
restriction enzyme recognition sites between the alleles
RFLP analysis can be used to distinguish between alleles based on differences in which of the following?
A)the proteins expressed from the alleles
B)the ability of the alleles to be replicated in bacterial cells
C)the ability of nucleic acid probes to hybridize to the alleles
D)the amount of DNA amplified from the alleles during PCR
E)restriction enzyme recognition sites between the alleles
incubating DNA with restriction enzymes
Which of the following procedures would produce RFLPs?
A)incubating a mixture of single-stranded DNA from two closely related species
B)incubating DNA with restriction enzymes
C)incubating RNA with DNA nucleotides and reverse transcriptase
D)incubating DNA nucleotides with DNA polymerase
E)incubating DNA fragments with “sticky ends” with ligase
Dideoxyribonucleotide chain-termination is a method of
Which was developed by a British researcher and causes DNA sequences to be transferred to a membrane and identified with a probe?
fusion of an adult cell’s nucleus with an enucleated sheep egg, followed by incubation in a surrogate
In 1997, Dolly the sheep was cloned. Which of the following processes was used?
A)isolation of stem cells from a lamb embryo and production of a zygote equivalent
B)separation of an early stage sheep blastula into separate cells, one of which was incubated in a surrogate ewe
C)use of mitochondrial DNA from adult female cells of another ewe
D)replication and dedifferentiation of adult stem cells from sheep bone marrow
E)fusion of an adult cell’s nucleus with an enucleated sheep egg, followed by incubation in a surrogate
had apparent success in treating disorders involving bone marrow cells.
DNA ligase – enzyme that cuts DNA, creating the sticky ends of restriction fragments
Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is incorrectly paired with its use?
A)DNA polymerase – used in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify sections of DNA
B)electrophoresis – separation of DNA fragments
C)restriction enzyme – production of RFLPs
D)DNA ligase – enzyme that cuts DNA, creating the sticky ends of restriction fragments
E)reverse transcriptase – production of cDNA from mRNA
It could be used to create a complete genomic library.
Which of the following would NOT be true of cDNA produced using human brain tissue as the starting material?
A)It lacks the introns of the human genes.
B)It could be amplified by the polymerase chain reaction.
C)It is produced from mRNA using reverse transcriptase.
D)It could be used as a probe to detect genes expressed in the brain.
E)It could be used to create a complete genomic library.
A paleontologist has recovered a bit of tissue from the 400-year-old preserved skin of an extinct dodo (a bird). The researcher would like to compare a specific region of the DNA from the sample with DNA from living birds. Which of the following would be most useful for increasing the amount of dodo DNA available for testing?
B)polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
a plasmid used to transfer DNA into a living cell.
In recombinant DNA methods, the term vector can refer to
be cut by the same restriction enzyme
In order to insert a human gene into a plasmid, both must _____
What enzyme forms covalent bonds between restriction fragments?
lack of growth hormone
What defect causes pituitary dwarfism?
a method to produce many copies of a gene
What is genetic cloning?
True or false? The use of growth hormone isolated from cadavers was banned mainly because there were not enough cadavers to supply the hormone.
It makes complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA.
Which of the following statements best describes the function of reverse transcriptase?
A)It cuts DNA strands at specific sequences.
B)It makes complementary DNA (cDNA) from mRNA.
C)It synthesizes double-stranded DNA molecules from single-stranded DNA molecules.
D)It seals DNA fragments together.
Match the region of radioactivity on the filter with the corresponding plate.
Which of the following steps would be performed last when screening a cDNA library?
A)Spread bacterial cells containing the library on a plate to form colonies.
B)Match the region of radioactivity on the filter with the corresponding plate.
C)Treat DNA on the filter to make it single-stranded.
D)Incubate the filters with a gene-specific probe.
Put a cDNA encoding the protein into a plasmid with a bacterial promoter sequence.
How can large quantities of protein be produced from a bacterial colony containing the gene of interest?
True or false? The term “sticky ends” refers to the overhanging ends on DNA that are generated by restriction enzymes, which can base pair with any DNA molecules that contain complementary sticky ends.
The unpaired nucleotides produced by the action of restriction enzymes are referred to as _____.
whether a gene is methylated
What information can not be obtained from the sequence of a gene?
A)Whether the gene is methylated.
B)Relationship between two species.
C)Amino acid sequence of the protein.
D)Effects of mutation on gene function.
a method to amplify a fragment of DNA
What is the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)?
True or false? Comparison of the sequences of the same gene across species can give some insight into the existence of a common ancestor with that gene.
True or false? The Taq enzyme is a type of DNA polymerase that allows researchers to separate the DNA strands during the annealing step of the PCR cycle without destroying the polymerase.
How many DNA molecules would there be after four rounds of PCR if the initial reaction mixture contained two molecules?
During which step in the PCR cycle are nucleotides used?
During which step in the PCR cycle do primers form bonds with a single-stranded template?
cut the DNA again with restriction enzyme Y and insert these fragments into the plasmid cut with the same enzyme.
Assume that you are trying to insert a gene into a plasmid. Someone gives you a preparation of genomic DNA that has been cut with restriction enzyme X. The gene you wish to insert has sites on both ends for cutting by restriction enzyme Y. You have a plasmid with a single site for Y, but not for X. Your strategy should be to
to cleave nucleic acids at specific sites
What is the enzymatic function of restriction enzymes?
III, II, IV, V, I
What is the most logical sequence of steps for splicing foreign DNA into a plasmid and inserting the plasmid into a bacterium?
I. Transform bacteria with recombinant DNA molecule.
II. Cut the plasmid DNA using restriction enzymes.
III. Extract plasmid DNA from bacterial cells.
IV. Hydrogen-bond the plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA fragments.
V. Use ligase to seal plasmid DNA to nonplasmid DNA.
bacteria cannot remove eukaryotic introns
A principal problem with inserting an unmodified mammalian gene into a bacterial plasmid, and then getting that gene expressed in bacteria, is that
recombinant plasmids of bacteria
The DNA fragments making up a genomic library are generally contained in
post transcriptional processing
Expression of a cloned eukaryotic gene in a bacterial cell involves many challenges. The use of mRNA and reverse transcriptase is part of a strategy to solve the problem of