A chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
Unequal sharing of electrons
Created when bonded atoms have unequal pull on the shared electron, so that the electron spends more time around one atom than the other
Polar Covalent Bond
Properties of Water
Water is less dense at 0°C compared to 4°C
Turgid pressure in plants
Water provides structural support due to its inability to be compressed
The charged ends of a water molecule allow it to surround a solute in solution
The temperature of water rises slowly due to its high specific heat; requiring a lot of energy to convert liquid water to water vapor
While hydrogen bonds are constantly breaking and reforming a large percentage of the hydrogen bonds between water molecules exist at all times.
Due to hydrogen bonding, water tends to adhere to surfaces, such as the lining of the digestive tract
The addition of water can break apart molecules into two smaller molecules
Water is formed when two molecules come together to form a large molecule
As water ___ from the pores of leaves, more water is pulled up from below resulting in a constant supply of water moving up through the vessels of a plant
The ____ of water molecules, resulting from the hydrogen bonds between water molecules, causes a movement of the water through the plant’s vessels, as it moves up form the roots
C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 –> H2O + C12H22O11
Alkaline; decreased H+ ions and increased OH-
Adding NH3 (ammonia) to water makes NH4+. What will be the general pH of this new solution, and what will happen to the ion concentrations?
Dehydration; bonds are made.
If the products in a chemical equation include H2O, what specific type of reaction is occuring? Are bonds made or broken in this equation?
When H2O is added to a compound in a chemical equation, a new compound can be formed via what type of reaction?
Amino acid functional groups
amino and carboxyl
carbohydrate functional group
hydrophilic heads; sticking out toward the interior and exterior of the cell
The plasma membrane is made up of a phospholipid bilayer, with the _____________ of the phospholipids_____________
Provides the instructions for the specific sequence of amino acids used to build a protein
Housed within the nucleus of an animal cell
Nitrogenous bases A,T,G,C
functions to convert a nucleotide sequence into an amino acid sequence
Ribose sugar with backbone
Nitrogenous bases A,U,G,C
Bonds that link individual amino acids
In the secondary structure of a protein, what bonds, other than peptide bonds, are formed?
In the stable form of protein, what is generally oriented to the interior of the protein molecule?
The correct structure of DNA nucleotides can be presented as
Ribosomes are the site of
Transports proteins between organelles
Instructions for protein synthesis and cell reproduction; contains genetic information
Intracellular compartment forms transport vesicles; participates in lipid synthesis and synthesis of membrane or secreted proteins
Packages proteins for export from cell; forms secretory vesicle
Digest worn-out organelles and cell debris; digest material taken up by endocytosis
“Power plants” of the cell; sites of oxidative metabolism
Sites of photosynthesis
Regulates water levels in plant cells
Used in break down of fats and contains the enzyme catalase
Sub organelle inside the Chloroplast
Space inside of the Chloroplast
A stack of Thylakoids
the sorting process in which the synthesis of certain eukaryotic proteins begins in the cytosol and then halts temporarily until the ribosome has become bound to the ER membrane
mRNA to proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and then moves to other organelles
Cotranslational sorting occurs when
1. Chaperone proteins keep proteins unfolded
2. Matrix-targeting sequence binds to receptor
3. Chaperones are released as protein is transferred to a channel in the outer membrane
4. Protein is transferred to a channel in the outer membrane
5. Chaperones bind to protein as it enters the matrix
6. Matrix-targeting sequence is cleaved by an enzyme in the matrix
7. Protein is completely threaded into matrix
8. Chaperones are released, and proteins fold into its 3D structure
The process by which mitochondrial proteins end up inside the mitochondrion
Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicles that arise from the
The lysosome contains ________ enzymes
Coat proteins form around the vesicle holding cargo receptor-bound proteins; the vesicle is then pinched off from the ER and transported to the Golgi for packaging
Transportation of proteins through the endomembrane system
Microfilaments that are the smallest cytoskeletal filaments but are important in cell shape and strength
25nm in diameter and composed of alpha and beta tubulin proteins. They exhibit polarity with a positive and negative end.
Tension-bearing fibers that are stable. Keratins provide mechanical strength in skin
This is not part of the cytoskeleton. It is a component that facilitates movement of a cell
Lysosomes will not form because they arise as vesicles from the trans end of the Golgi apparatus
A mutation has developed that has deleted a gene responsible for the formation of vesicles at the trans end of the Golgi apparatus. What effect will this have on the function of lysosomes?
Proteins can easily move laterally through membranes
Fluid Mosaic Model
molecules from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
Sugars, Salt, Protein
Substances that can cross a membrane via facilitated diffusion
Gases, Ethanol, Water
Substances that can cross a membrane via simple diffusion
Molecules move against their concentration gradient
Molecules move through a transport protein in the membrane
Transport proteins are specific for the structures of individual molecules
Molecules move down their concentration gradient
Molecules move through a transport protein in the membrane
Transport proteins are specific for the structures of individual molecules
Facilitated diffusion using a channel
Aquaporin allows water molecules to move very rapidly across a plasma membrane. What would be the best definition of this process?
The hormone insulin is a protein produced in the pancreas and then secreted into the blood stream after a meal to increase glucose uptake by tissues. Which of the following mechanisms would be used to secrete insulin from the pancreas?
Facilitated Diffusion requires
shrivel and become crenated
Red blood cells put in a hypertonic solution will
be destroyed by hemolysis
Red blood cells put in a hypotonic solution will
symport with Na+
Sugars can be transported into cells against their concentration gradient because of
hydrolysis of ATP
What is the source of energy used to power the sodium-potassium pump?
energy cannot be created or destroyed
An autotroph captures energy from other sources and does not actually produce energy because ____
every chemical reaction must increase the total entropy of the universe
2nd law of thermodynamics
A logical consequence of the second law of thermodynamics could be stated, ___
All of the following are a form of potential energy that can be used by a cell EXCEPT
The amount of available energy that can be used to do work is called
The reaction will yield energy and is spontaneous
What would you predict about a reaction that has a ΔG<0?
A chemical reaction that has a positive ΔG is correctly described as
Cells obtain energy by ________ food molecules such as glucose
It also gains an electron causing it to be reduced
What happens when the coenzyme NAD+ gains an H atom?
a proton and an electron
A hydrogen atom consists of
reduce the energy of activation and increase the rate of a reaction
The primary function of an enzyme or any biological catalyst is to
What binds to the active site of an enzyme
An enzyme may catalyze a reaction by stressing or destabilizing the bonds of the substrates. This point in the enzymatic reaction is known as the
Energetic molecules such as NADH and ATP are often PRODUCTS of ____ reactions
In the reaction Pyruvate+NADH —> Lactate+ NADH+, pyruvate is being ____ while NADH is being ____
Energetic molecules such as NADH and ATP are often REACTANTS of _____ reactions
our body needs amino acids to build new proteins encoded by your genes. Many of these amino acids come from your diet through the ____ of proteins you eat.
they function as co-enzymes
What function do many B vitamins serve in the production of energy?
the final product of the biochemical pathway
In feedback inhibition, the inhibitor of the biochemical pathway is often
a decrease in proline production
Consider the biochemical pathway used to synthesize the amino acid proline. A large increase in the level of proline will most likely lead to
glucose + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy intermediates + heat
equation for aerobic cellular respiration
In cellular respiration, carbon dioxide is formed from the oxidation of
Which of the following is a product of glycolysis?
If glycolysis was blocked in yeast, which of the following would decrease in concentration?
During oxidative phosphorylation, ____ and FADH2 are oxidized to power ATP production
The electron transport chain is located in the inner membrane of the _____
The final electron acceptor of the electron transport chain is
NADH and FADH2 ____ at different points in the electron transport chain
ATP synthase uses an electrochemical gradient of _______ to produce ATP
Glycolysis produces ___ ATP in Cellular Respiration
The Citric Acid Cycle produces __ ATP in Cellular Respiration
The breakdown of pyruvate produces __ ATP in Cellular Respiration
ATP synthase produces __ ATP in Cellular Respiration
To regenerate NAD+ from NADH and keep glycolysis functioning
oxidation of NADH
Why is pyruvate converted to lactate in anaerobic conditions?
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor in ____ respiration
The breakdown of organic molecules without oxygen is called
During fermentation, yeast breakdown pyruvate into ___ and acetaldehyde
Aerobic Respiration produces ____ molecules
Anaerobic Respiration produces ____ molecules
In glycolysis, glucose is converted to
2 NADH and 2 ATP
The NET result of a single round of glycolysis is the formation of
Under anaerobic conditions, the end-product of glycolysis is converted to
In order to create a high energy molecule that will spontaneously split into two 3-carbon molecules
Why are two ATP required during the first phase of glycolysis?
Before entering the Krebs cycle, pyruvate is converted to
1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2
A single “turn” of the Krebs cycle will yield
2-carbon molecule to a 4-carbon molecule
The initial reaction of the Krebs cycle involves the addition of a
NADH and FADH2
Electrons are brought to the electron transport system by the oxidation of
Intermembrane space to the matrix
The movement of protons through ATP synthase occurs from the
Creation of a proton gradient by the electron transport chain represents
Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which creates the proton gradient necessary to power ATP synthase
Why is formation of ATP by ATP synthase in the mitochondria known as oxidative phosphorylation?
Synthesis of ATP via a proton gradient is called
During aerobic respiration, the last carrier protein transfers a pair of electrons to
utilize the energy of the proton motive force to convert ADP to ATP
The function of the enzyme ATP synthase is to
By the oxidation of NADH
How do electrons enter the electron transport chain?
So that protons can be compartmentalized and form a gradient
Why must the electron transport chain proteins and molecules be embedded in a membrane?
Energy Investment –> Cleavage –> Energy Liberation
Phases of Glycolysis:
The wood in a match is made up of cellulose, which is a polymer of glucose molecules. When you light the match, heat and light are given off, indicating that a ________ reaction is occurring
Electrons in chemical bonds, proton gradient, ATP
Examples of potential energy:
Electrons moving through the electron transport chain, and protons moving through ATPase
Examples of kinetic energy:
When NADH donates electrons to the electron transport chain NADH is:
6 CO2 + 12 H2O + Light energy → C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
Equation for photosynthesis
Takes in CO2
Converts H2O to O2
Produces organic molecules
Found only in photoautotrophs
O2 exists as H2O
absorb light energy
The role of plant pigments in photosynthesis is to
A green pigment likely ____ green light
Chlorophyll a ___ best in red and blue light
A 430 nm pigment likely absorbs ____ light
Carotenoids absorb light in the blue and ___ regions of the spectrum
Oxidation and reduction
The light reactions synthesize ATP, NADPH, and O2 using the following processes:
ATP is produced
NADPH is a product
Oxidation of water
ATP is consumed
Reduction of carbon compounds
Reduction of NADPH
The incorporation of CO2 into organic molecules
An example of carbon fixation
As a catalyst to add CO2 onto RuBP
Role of rubisco in the Calvin cycle
Photosynthesis uses ___ to produce ATP, NADPH, and O2
_____ captures the light energy for photosynthesis
ATP and NADPH drive the _____
The Calvin Cycle performs ______ during photosynthesis
Water is converted to oxygen and releases electrons in the _____
The use of light to provide electrons for oxidation and reduction reactions
The energy for producing organic molecules in plants is directly driven by:
ATP and NADPH
Atrazine is an herbicide that competes with Q (plastoquinone) for the electrons that are released from Photosystem II after it is struck by light. Which of the following products of the light reaction would atrazine prevent from forming?
Paraquat is an herbicide that competes with FD (Ferredoxin) for the electrons that are released from Photosystem I after it is struck by light. Which of the following products of the light reaction would paraquat prevent from forming?
The Calvin Cycle takes place in the ________ of chloroplasts.
ATP and NADPH
The Calvin Cycle uses ________, which are products of the light reactions of photosynthesis
How many times must the Calvin cycle turn to produce 10 glucose molecules?
O2 and carbohydrates
The products of photosynthesis are
Resonance energy was transferred to P680 causing it to become positively charged after losing a electron
How when the light-harvesting complex absorbs light energy it is eventually passed to P680 which emits an electron
Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Purple
Energy of wavelengths of light (highest to lowest)
Cyclic photophosphorylation produces
In noncyclic photophosphorylation, the electrons passed down through the electron transport system are obtained from
photosystem II -> ATP production -> photosystem I -> NADPH production
The correct sequence of events during noncyclic photophosphorylation is
Increased levels of NADP+.
In organisms that use photosystem II and I during photosynthesis, what would be the most likely outcome of a mutation that prevented noncyclic photophosphorylation?
First Gap Phase (G1)
In the 4 phases of the life cycle, the ____ phase is when most cell growth will occur; DNA is unreplicated
In the 4 phases of the life cycle, during ____ phase, the genetic material undergoes replication
Second Gap Phase (G2)
In the 4 phases of the life cycle, the second ______ phase occurs between chromosome replication and mitosis
In the 4 phases of the life cycle, during ___ phase, the shortest phase, the cell undergoes both nuclear division (mitosis) followed by cell division (cytokinesis)
grow, replicate its DNA, and prepare for mitosis
During interphase, a eukaryotic cell would be expected to
The activity of a _____ depends on the interaction with a cyclin
Just before mitosis, a ______ interacts with an appropriate cdk to start M phase
After the cell enters the S phase, the G1 _____ will be degraded
The point in the cell cycle at which conditions are assessed before continuing is called
all the genetic material is duplicated then segregated equally to the daughter cells.
Mitosis results in the formation of two genetically identical daughter cells. This is because
the mother cell is diploid, but the products of the first division are haploid
The first division of meiosis is called a reduction division. This is because
G1 -> S -> G2 -> M
correct order of the phases of the cell cycle
prophase -> metaphase -> anaphase -> telophase
correct order of the phases of mitosis
tubulin, the microtubule protein
During the G2 phase, the cell is preparing for mitosis. Using your knowledge of cellular organelles and molecules, Which molecule is produced in the highest quantity during the G2 phase?
The success of DNA replication is assessed during the ______ phase.
G1, G2, and M
The cell cycle is regulated by checkpoints during the _______ phases.
move into the S phase and continue the cell cycle
A eukaryotic cell that receives a “go-ahead” signal at the G1 checkpoint of the cell cycle will
The mitotic spindle fibers attach to chromosomes via special structures termed
non-sister chromatids of homologous chromosomes
A crossover in meiosis is an exchange of genetic material between
two homologous chromosomes, each consisting of two chromatids
A tetrad is made up of
breakdown of nuclear envelope, condensation of chromosomes, and movement of centrosomes
Occurs during prophase I
How many bivalents are formed in a cell with 20 chromosomes at the beginning of meiosis I?
separation of homologous chromosomes
Occurs during anaphase 1
Formation of bivalents lead to spindle fibers from opposite poles attaching to homologous chromosomes.
What event in meiosis I leads to the cell becoming haploid rather than the separation of sister chromatids?
Random orientation of homologous chromosomes occurs in ________ of meiosis.
Crossing over between homologous chromosomes
Random orientation of chromosomes during meiosis increases the amount of variation in the next generation. What other process during meiosis leads to an increase in variation in the next generation?
synapsis, homologous recombination, and reduction division
What feature is unique to meiosis
one of each pair of chromosomes found in the parent cell.
The four daughter cells produced in meiosis have
Crossing over is possible due to what event that occurs in meiosis I but not mitosis?
In humans, the allele for freckles is dominant (F) and the allele for no freckles is recessive (f). An individual who is heterozygous for freckles would have which of the following GENOTYPES?
In humans, the allele for freckles is dominant (F) and the allele for no freckles is recessive (f). An individual who is heterozygous for freckles would have which of the following PHENOTYPES?
two alleles of a gene separate during gamete formation such that every gamete receives only one allele
Mendel’s Principle of Segregation states that
Law of Independent Assortment
The fact that maternal and paternal chromosome pairs align and orient randomly during metaphase of meiosis supports Mendel’s Law
Alleles for genes would tend to be inherited together because chromosome pairs would align non-randomly
hat would be a likely outcome if the alignment of maternal and paternal chromosomes during metaphase of meiosis did not adhere to Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment?
DNA replication is said to be
3′ ATCTG 5′
Which of the following DNA sequences is complementary to 5′ TAGAC 3′?
A = T and C = G and A + G = C + T
According to Chargaff’s rule
Because the structure of both G and A are similar in that they have a double ring
Based on your knowledge of the structure of DNA, why is it more likely for a G to mutate to an A than to a C or a T?
The genetic material in bacteria is
single origin and proceeds in both directions
DNA replication in bacteria begins at
Bacterial DNA replication takes place from a single origin of replication, while eukaryotes have multiple origins of replication
How is bacterial DNA replication different from eukaryotic DNA replication?
The enzyme that unwinds a segment of the DNA molecule is
The enzyme that travels along the leading strand assembling new nucleotides on a growing new strand of DNA is
RNA primase constructs a short RNA primer
Before the lagging strand can begin assembling new DNA nucleotides, which of the following must occur?
DNA Polymerase III synthesizes the majority of the DNA, while DNA Polymerase I synthesizes DNA in the regions where the RNA primers were laid down on the lagging strand
How do DNA polymerase I and DNA Polymerase III differ?
DNA pol I.
RNA primers are removed by the action of the enzyme
an RNA molecule
Telomerase is unique because it contains
It adds new DNA to the longer strand of the telomere overhang
What best describes the function of telomerase at the telomere?
The organism would have shorter chromosomes with every round of mitosis, which would eventually result in cancer or cells that were unable to properly function and it would die earlier than normal
What might be the consequence of an organism that was born without functional telomerase?
The molecule that carries information from the DNA specifying a polypeptide to ribosomes
The synthesis of an RNA copy of a gene
The synthesis of a specific sequence of amino acids on a ribosome
A molecule found in the nucleus of cell that contains the cell’s genome
A molecule made of amino acids that correspond to the genetic information in a structural gene
mRNA interacts with ribosomes in the cytoplasm
During the process of translation in a eukaryote
1. RNA polymerase binds to promoter
2. DNA is unwound, forming an open complex
3. RNA is synthesized in the 5′ –> 3′ direction
4. RNA polymerase reaches the terminator
5. The new mRNA is released
the nucleus, where the chromosomal DNA is found
In eukaryotes, transcription to produce an mRNA must occur in
DNA -> RNA
Enzyme: RNA polymerase
Termination: Terminator sequence