Biology – Cell Division & Reproduction Notes

-they do not contain chromosomes
Why don’t cyanobacteria and bacteria reproduce by mitosis?
-replaced
Damaged cells of an organism are usually ___ by mitosis.
-homologous
Matched pairs of chromosomes are called:
-true
All the chromosomes in a diploid cell are paired.
-double the original
How many chromosomes are produced by the first division during meiosis?
-one gene fora particular trait
Each chromosome usually contains:
-enzymes
The proteins which are required to reproduce DNA during interphase are:
-a mistake in the DNA “ladder”
-a copy error in the chromosomes
Which statement(s) correspond(s) correctly to a mutation?
-prophase
The phase during mitosis when DNA separates into pairs of chromosomes is:
1. forms the pole of the spindle apparatus
2. The membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
3. having chromosomes which occur singly, not in matched sets or pairs
4. matched units of DNA containing genetic information
5. produces daughter cells with fewer chromosomes than the parent cell
6. a system of fibers which go from one end of the cell to the other
7. period of mitosis in which chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell
8. method of cytokinesis in animals
9. threadlike substance in nucleus which carries genetic information
10. period when the cell is not engaged in division
1. centriole
2. nuclear envelope
3. haploid
4. homologous chromosomes
5. meiosis
6. spindle apparatus
7. anaphase
8. furrowing
9. chromatin
10. interphase
-S phase
Chromatin or chromosomes are duplicated during:
-gamete
-bacterial cell
Which of the following cells would not divide using mitosis:
-prophase
The nuclear envelope disintegrates during:
-production of gametes
Which of the following expressions is not a function of mitosis:
-telophase
The cell plate is formed during:
-four
The number of daughter cells produced by meiosis is:
-sperm cell
Which of the following would be produced by meiosis:
-first division of meiosis
-fertilization
Genetic recombination results from events during:
-anaphase
The chromosomes separate and move in opposite directions during:
-mitosis
The kind of cell division associated with an increase in size and weight of an organism is called ___.
-half
Gametes have ___ the chromosome number of the parent cell.
-spindle fibers
Chromosomes are attached to the ___ during the metaphase of mitosis.
-telophase
The spindle apparatus disintegrates during the ___ of mitosis.
-Plant cells divide by means of a cell plate.
-Animal cells undergo furrowing.
How does mitosis in animal cells differ from mitosis in higher plant cells?
-to maintain chromosome number through generations
-cause genetic variations by recombination
The two basic functions of meiosis are:
Quiz #2
-true
Occasionally asexual reproduction can cause undesirable proliferation of an organism.
-true
Nearly all plants can be reproduced asexually.
-false
The new plant produced by the technique of layering must remain attached to the stem of the original plant.
-false
A successful scion will produce the product of the rootstock with greater quality.
-root
An adventitious bud would be formed on a:
-binary fission
A protozoan that divides to form two daughter cells just like itself would be undergoing:
-regeneration
Which of the following methods of asexual reproduction cannot occur in a unicellular organism:
-fungi
Which of the following group of organisms would produce conidia:
-genetic variation of offspring
Which of the following is not an advantage of asexual reproduction:
-multiple fission
Which of the following methods of asexual reproduction is usually associated with the production of spores:
-bulb
Which of the following structures contains a great deal of leaf tissue:
-tundra
The area or kind of community that would have the highest portion of the species reproducing by asexual means is a:
-tuber
A fleshy, enlarged end of a stolon is called a:
-layering
The technique of growing plants in which a section of the stem is covered with soil and a partial cut is made between the parent plant and the buried part of the stem is called:
-budding
The technique of asexual reproduction most commonly used in the production of fruit trees is ___.
-stronger
The vigor of a rootstock is usually ___ than that of the root system produced by the scion.
-harsh
Asexual reproduction is most common in plants growing in ___ climates.
-true
An elongated, horizontal stem that grows at the surface of the ground or just below it is called a rhizome.
-false
Animals have more mechanisms for asexual reproduction than plants.
-false
The stock is inserted into the scion during grafting.
-true
The most commonly used method of asexual reproduction used in gardening is the cutting.
-false
Root cuttings are more commonly used than stem cuttings.
-bulb
A ___ is a plant structure with enlarged leaf bases containing stored food surrounding a central bit of fleshy, stem tissue.
-They can reproduce in harsh climates
-They produce genetically identical offspring
-They reproduce at a rapid rate
What advantages are given to animals and plants by asexual reproduction?
-Plants are uniform and more vigorous
-Some plants may survive generations only by grafting
-Size of plants is controlled by grafting
-Valuable fruits and flowers can be grown on strong stock
Why is grafting used in agriculture?
Quiz #3
-false
The genetic information in a gamete is identical to one of the original separated sets of chromosomes in the parent.
-true
Successful breeding is limited to the gametes of the same created “kinds” of organisms.
-evolution
The genetic requirement for ___ to operate is the acquiring of new genetic information during reproduction.
-isogamy
The condition common to protozoa whereby the cell of the organism acts as a gamete is ___.
-false
All the gametes of isogamous organisms are genetically identical.
-false
Gametangia are produced by gametes.
-true
It is possible for some microorganisms to have two sexes.
-false
Eggs are motile.
-true
Oogamy always involves fertilization from gametes of differing sizes.
-gonad
A generalized term for organs in animals which produce sex cells is:
-zygote
A fertilized egg cell is called the:
-isogamy
A condition in which the gametes are the same shape and size would be called:
-oogamous
Organisms having eggs and sperm are said to be:
-ovary
In flowering plants the egg occurs inside the:
-archegonium
Which of the following would always contain an egg cell?
-diploid
The maximum number of sperm that can fertilize one egg is one, in order to yield a ___ chromosome condition.
-sexual reproduction
Genetic variability, or the uniqueness of individual offspring, for many animals and plants is the result of a process called ___.
-anisogamy
The condition in which gametes of the same species have the same shape, but different sizes is called ___.
-isogamous
Conjugation occurs in ___ protists and involves the transfer of genetic information between organisms.
-produces genetic variations
-produces resistance to unfavorable conditions
-produces disease-free seed plants
What are three advantages to sexual reproduction?
Quiz #4
-embryo
A zygote will develop into an ___ during the early stages.
-true
Some cells of the body like neurons and brain cells do not reproduce themselves.
1. meiosis occurs shortly after fertilization
2. a fertilized egg
3. first part of life in an organism which undergoes metamorphosis
4. meiosis produces eggs and sperm
5. composed of one or more kinds of tissue
6. the male has some means to transfer sperm into the reproductive system of the female
7. lives on land
8. inactive stage of change from juvenile phase to adult in many insects
9. a mass or group of cells which have the same function
10. lives in water
1. haplontic life cycle
2. zygote
3. larva
4. diplontic life cycle
5. organ
6. internal fertilization
7. terrestrial
8. pupa
9. tissue
10. aquatic
-isogamous
Organisms having a haplontic life cycle would probably be:
-when gametes are produced
Meiosis takes place in an animal with a diplontic life cycle:
-alfalfa weevil
Which of the following undergoes complete metamorphosis?
-gamete
Which of the following cells would have a different genetic composition than the other three in an animal with a diplontic life cycle?
-diplontic
Human beings have a ___ kind of life cycle.
-internal
Mammals have ___ fertilization.
-external
The majority of aquatic animals have ___ fertilization.
-organ
A group of tissues which form a body part with a definite function or purpose is called a(n) ___.
-metamorphosis
Animals that change greatly from the juvenile to the adult phases of life are said to undergo ___.
-complete
A drastic change from the juvenile stage to adult in one basic step which produces adults very different from the juveniles is called ___ metamorphosis.
-The effects that cell differentiation has is that it involves a partial or complete loss of ability to divide to produce more cells and when they do divide, they usually produce another cell of the same kind. Another implication is that since cells differentiate, an organism with different types of tissues and organs is able to form.
What effects does cell differentiation have?
Quiz #5

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