Biology – Cell Division & Reproduction Notes

-they do not contain chromosomes
Why don’t cyanobacteria and bacteria reproduce by mitosis?
Damaged cells of an organism are usually ___ by mitosis.
Matched pairs of chromosomes are called:
All the chromosomes in a diploid cell are paired.
-double the original
How many chromosomes are produced by the first division during meiosis?
-one gene fora particular trait
Each chromosome usually contains:
The proteins which are required to reproduce DNA during interphase are:
-a mistake in the DNA “ladder”
-a copy error in the chromosomes
Which statement(s) correspond(s) correctly to a mutation?
The phase during mitosis when DNA separates into pairs of chromosomes is:
1. forms the pole of the spindle apparatus
2. The membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
3. having chromosomes which occur singly, not in matched sets or pairs
4. matched units of DNA containing genetic information
5. produces daughter cells with fewer chromosomes than the parent cell
6. a system of fibers which go from one end of the cell to the other
7. period of mitosis in which chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell
8. method of cytokinesis in animals
9. threadlike substance in nucleus which carries genetic information
10. period when the cell is not engaged in division
1. centriole
2. nuclear envelope
3. haploid
4. homologous chromosomes
5. meiosis
6. spindle apparatus
7. anaphase
8. furrowing
9. chromatin
10. interphase
-S phase
Chromatin or chromosomes are duplicated during:
-bacterial cell
Which of the following cells would not divide using mitosis:
The nuclear envelope disintegrates during:
-production of gametes
Which of the following expressions is not a function of mitosis:
The cell plate is formed during:
The number of daughter cells produced by meiosis is:
-sperm cell
Which of the following would be produced by meiosis:
-first division of meiosis
Genetic recombination results from events during:
The chromosomes separate and move in opposite directions during:
The kind of cell division associated with an increase in size and weight of an organism is called ___.
Gametes have ___ the chromosome number of the parent cell.
-spindle fibers
Chromosomes are attached to the ___ during the metaphase of mitosis.
The spindle apparatus disintegrates during the ___ of mitosis.
-Plant cells divide by means of a cell plate.
-Animal cells undergo furrowing.
How does mitosis in animal cells differ from mitosis in higher plant cells?
-to maintain chromosome number through generations
-cause genetic variations by recombination
The two basic functions of meiosis are:
Quiz #2
Occasionally asexual reproduction can cause undesirable proliferation of an organism.
Nearly all plants can be reproduced asexually.
The new plant produced by the technique of layering must remain attached to the stem of the original plant.
A successful scion will produce the product of the rootstock with greater quality.
An adventitious bud would be formed on a:
-binary fission
A protozoan that divides to form two daughter cells just like itself would be undergoing:
Which of the following methods of asexual reproduction cannot occur in a unicellular organism:
Which of the following group of organisms would produce conidia:
-genetic variation of offspring
Which of the following is not an advantage of asexual reproduction:
-multiple fission
Which of the following methods of asexual reproduction is usually associated with the production of spores:
Which of the following structures contains a great deal of leaf tissue:
The area or kind of community that would have the highest portion of the species reproducing by asexual means is a:
A fleshy, enlarged end of a stolon is called a:
The technique of growing plants in which a section of the stem is covered with soil and a partial cut is made between the parent plant and the buried part of the stem is called:
The technique of asexual reproduction most commonly used in the production of fruit trees is ___.
The vigor of a rootstock is usually ___ than that of the root system produced by the scion.
Asexual reproduction is most common in plants growing in ___ climates.
An elongated, horizontal stem that grows at the surface of the ground or just below it is called a rhizome.
Animals have more mechanisms for asexual reproduction than plants.
The stock is inserted into the scion during grafting.
The most commonly used method of asexual reproduction used in gardening is the cutting.
Root cuttings are more commonly used than stem cuttings.
A ___ is a plant structure with enlarged leaf bases containing stored food surrounding a central bit of fleshy, stem tissue.
-They can reproduce in harsh climates
-They produce genetically identical offspring
-They reproduce at a rapid rate
What advantages are given to animals and plants by asexual reproduction?
-Plants are uniform and more vigorous
-Some plants may survive generations only by grafting
-Size of plants is controlled by grafting
-Valuable fruits and flowers can be grown on strong stock
Why is grafting used in agriculture?
Quiz #3
The genetic information in a gamete is identical to one of the original separated sets of chromosomes in the parent.
Successful breeding is limited to the gametes of the same created “kinds” of organisms.
The genetic requirement for ___ to operate is the acquiring of new genetic information during reproduction.
The condition common to protozoa whereby the cell of the organism acts as a gamete is ___.
All the gametes of isogamous organisms are genetically identical.
Gametangia are produced by gametes.
It is possible for some microorganisms to have two sexes.
Eggs are motile.
Oogamy always involves fertilization from gametes of differing sizes.
A generalized term for organs in animals which produce sex cells is:
A fertilized egg cell is called the:
A condition in which the gametes are the same shape and size would be called:
Organisms having eggs and sperm are said to be:
In flowering plants the egg occurs inside the:
Which of the following would always contain an egg cell?
The maximum number of sperm that can fertilize one egg is one, in order to yield a ___ chromosome condition.
-sexual reproduction
Genetic variability, or the uniqueness of individual offspring, for many animals and plants is the result of a process called ___.
The condition in which gametes of the same species have the same shape, but different sizes is called ___.
Conjugation occurs in ___ protists and involves the transfer of genetic information between organisms.
-produces genetic variations
-produces resistance to unfavorable conditions
-produces disease-free seed plants
What are three advantages to sexual reproduction?
Quiz #4
A zygote will develop into an ___ during the early stages.
Some cells of the body like neurons and brain cells do not reproduce themselves.
1. meiosis occurs shortly after fertilization
2. a fertilized egg
3. first part of life in an organism which undergoes metamorphosis
4. meiosis produces eggs and sperm
5. composed of one or more kinds of tissue
6. the male has some means to transfer sperm into the reproductive system of the female
7. lives on land
8. inactive stage of change from juvenile phase to adult in many insects
9. a mass or group of cells which have the same function
10. lives in water
1. haplontic life cycle
2. zygote
3. larva
4. diplontic life cycle
5. organ
6. internal fertilization
7. terrestrial
8. pupa
9. tissue
10. aquatic
Organisms having a haplontic life cycle would probably be:
-when gametes are produced
Meiosis takes place in an animal with a diplontic life cycle:
-alfalfa weevil
Which of the following undergoes complete metamorphosis?
Which of the following cells would have a different genetic composition than the other three in an animal with a diplontic life cycle?
Human beings have a ___ kind of life cycle.
Mammals have ___ fertilization.
The majority of aquatic animals have ___ fertilization.
A group of tissues which form a body part with a definite function or purpose is called a(n) ___.
Animals that change greatly from the juvenile to the adult phases of life are said to undergo ___.
A drastic change from the juvenile stage to adult in one basic step which produces adults very different from the juveniles is called ___ metamorphosis.
-The effects that cell differentiation has is that it involves a partial or complete loss of ability to divide to produce more cells and when they do divide, they usually produce another cell of the same kind. Another implication is that since cells differentiate, an organism with different types of tissues and organs is able to form.
What effects does cell differentiation have?
Quiz #5

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