Bio Final Exam

d. innate behaviors
Fixed action patterns are examples of _____.

a.space-constrained movements
b. spontaneous behaviors that did not evolve
c. cost/benefit analyses
d. innate behaviors

a. minimizes fitness costs and maximizes fitness benefits
Optimal foraging ______.

a. minimizes fitness costs and maximizes fitness benefits
b. maximizes both fitness costs and benefits
c. avoids predation risks
d. selects areas with more abundant food resources

c. are expressed in most individuals
Which of the following is true of innate behaviors? Innate behaviors _____.

a.occur in invertebrates and some vertebrates but not mammals
b.are only weakly influenced by genes
c.are expressed in most individuals in a population
d.are limited to invertebrate animals

b. true navigation
Homing pigeons’ ability to always return to their home, no matter where they are released, is an excellent example of _____.

a.compass orientation
b.true navigation
c.piloting
d. an innate behavior

d. robins
Which of these species typically has a mortality rate that remains fairly constant over an individual’s life span?

a.humans
b.oysters
c. grasses
d.robins
e. elephants

d. adults
Oyster populations are primarily, if not exclusively, composed of _____.

a.juveniles
b.larvae
c. prereproductive oysters
d. adults
e. larval and juvenile oysters

e.grasses
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of oysters?

a.elephants
b.humans
c.cats
d.robins
e.grasses

c. elephants
Which of these organisms has a survivorship curve similar to that of humans?

a.oysters
b.grasses
c.elephants
d.robins
e.cats

d. predation
A human eats a deer. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the deer?

a.mutualism
b.competition
c.parasitism
d.predation
e.commensalism

d. competition
Humans and sharks both eat fish. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the human and the shark?

a.parasitism
b.mutualism
c.commensalism
d.competition
e.predation

a. mutualism
Humans who have pets tend to be healthier than humans who do not have pets. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a human and a pet?

a.mutualism
b.commensalism
c.predation
d.competition
e.parasitism

d. parasitism
Which of these terms applies to the relationship between a dog and a blood-sucking tick?

a.commensalism
b.predation
c.competition
d.parasitism
e.mutualism

d. commensalism
An egret eats insects stirred up by grazing animals. Which of these terms applies to the relationship between the egret and the grazing animal?

a.competition
b.parasitism
c.predation
d.commensalism
e.mutualism

c. producers
In an ecosystem, phytoplankton are _____.

a.detritivores
b.tertiary consumers
c.producers
d.secondary consumers
e.primary consumers

c. detritivore
An earthworm that feeds on the remains of plants and animals is acting as a _____.

a.producer
b.primary consumer
c.detritivore
d.tertiary consumer
e.secondary consumer

b. secondary consumer
When a human eats a steak, the human is acting as a _____.

a.producer
b.secondary consumer
c.tertiary consumer
d.detritivore
e.primary consumer

a. primary consumer
A cow eating grass is an example of a _____.

a.primary consumer
b.producer
c.secondary consumer
d.tertiary consumer
e.detritivore

d. tertiary consumer
A human who just ate a hamburger is eaten by a shark while swimming. The shark is acting as a _____.

a.secondary consumer
b.producer
c.detritivore
d.tertiary consumer
e.primary consumer

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