Art History, Online

aesthetics
the study of beauty or good taste; anything related to the study of beauty or good taste
composition
the way an artist organizes forms (lines, shapes, etc.) in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or by arranging forms in space
contour line
a perceived line that describes three-dimensional form
line
in art, a technique for defining shape, also used to create a sense of depth
oeuvre
(pronounced “uhvrr”) — a work of art; the sum of the lifework of an artist, writer, or composer
patron
generally a wealthy person who pays an artist to create a work of art; throughout much of history artists could not have survived without “patronage”
personification
giving human characteristics to something that is not human
perspective
a method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface
proportion
the relationship of one part of a person, building, or object to another; for example the size of a statue’s head in relationship to the rest of the body
symbol
an object or word or gesture that represents something else
We can agree that art is all of the following:
visual
tangible
consciously manufactured
An art historian does all of the following:
analyze all the information he can gather
draw conclusions about a work or time period
develop theories about a work or time period
Questions that an art history major would ask:
When was the work created?
How did the artist come to create the work?
What is the subject?
Was there a patron who commissioned the work?
Who were the artist’s teachers?
Who was the audience?
Who did the artist influence?
Was the artist’s oeuvre shaped by historical events or artistic movements?
What effect, if any, did the work have on artistic, political, and social events?
If you paid an artist to paint a picture of your dog for your living room wall, she might consider you her _____.
Patron
When an art historian looks at the formal elements, he is examining _____.
the individual design elements of the work
When we look at objects in a painting for their symbolic values, we are using which approach?
an iconographic approach
If an artist were trying to represent the concept of “liberty” through personification, the artist would paint _____.
a robed woman with a torch
The style of a particular work may tell us all of the following
the period the style is from;
the region;
the elements of the style that belong to an individual artist; and
the qualities of the work that do not fit into a particular category.
All of the following are examples of materials
pigments, clay, stone, marble, metals, canvas, papyrus
All of the following are examples of tools
flint, brushes, chisels, pens, charcoal
amulet
a small object worn to ward off evil, harm, or illness or to bring good fortune; protecting charm
bitumen
a tarlike substance
lintels
the horizontal beam or crosspiece over a door or window that carries the weight of the structure above it
megalithic
description of a structure made of large, roughly hewn stones
monoliths
a large single block or piece of stone
nomadic
a trait of people who do not live in one place but rather travel around, hunting and gathering food where they can find it
ochre
a hydrated (containing water) iron oxide compound
oolitic limestone
sedimentary rock consisting of tiny spherical concentric grains
relief sculptures
pictures carved in such a way that the figures stand out from the background
shaman
a person who acts as intermediary between the natural and supernatural worlds, using magic to cure illness, foretell the future, control spiritual forces, and so on
trilithons
a three-part construction of two monoliths topped by a lintel
twisted perspective
each part of the body is shown so that the image most easily represents the original
The paintings in the Lascaux cave were discovered by _____.
four teenage boys
The Venus of Willendorf and other similar statuettes have the following characteristics
fertility features
no specific identity
exaggerated anatomy
Paleolithic cave art predominantly features all of the following themes
animal images, handprints, geometric figures, and dots.
The work of the Paleolithic artists stands out today because
the artists had an understanding of depth and movement that was not seen again until many thousands of years later
The human figure found in Ain Ghazal is
of indeterminate gender
In the Neolithic period, art flourished because _____
people were able to settle into permanent villages
The caves at Lascaux were closed in 1963 because _____
the collective breath of the many visitors caused the paintings to corrode
All of the following are known to be true about Stonehenge
it is an accurate solar calendar
it was built in three phases
some stones weigh as much as fifty tons
It took approximately how many years for Stonehenge to be built?
1,400
Unit 1
Paleolithic art was created between 32000 BC and 9000 BC. and can be divided into two categories: portable art and cave art.
Portable art was usually small and made of limestone.
Cave art covered great expanses of walls and ceilings in underground chambers.
Paleolithic artists usually depicted animals or geometric designs. They rarely created likenesses of human beings with the exception of the “Venus” statuettes.
Neolithic art (9000 to 330 BC) brought artistic expression into everyday life. From the way the villages were constructed to the way shrines were decorated, art was an important part of the Neolithic world.
Statues and paintings found in excavated villages show an increased and more sophisticated depiction of human figures.
In addition to these statues and paintings, megalithic structures such as Stonehenge were created by many generations of people, but the purpose of the structures and even the identity of the builders remains a mystery.
cuneiform script
writing typified by the use of wedge-shaped characters
metallurgy
the process of separating metals from their ores and preparing them for use; the technique or science of making and compounding alloys; the technique of working or heating metals to give them certain desired shapes or properties
stele
a large stone monument; plural is stelae
The first major city in Sumer was
Uruk
Ziggurats were made of
mud bricks
Babylonian culture was based on
Sumerian culture
Mesopotamia means
between two rivers
Assyrian artists primarily depicted
Hunting and battle
The purpose of the winged bull that guarded the king’s palaces was
To ward off evil
cornices
crowning projections
dynasty
a ruling family that covers more than one generation
friezes
any sculpted or painted band in a building
gabled
refers to having gable, a triangular section above your door or window
Which of the following leaders founded the Persian Empire?
Cyrus the Great
Sculptures that decorated buildings came in two styles. ones were carvings that had more of a three-dimensional effect while sculptures were very close to the original wall
Which city did Alexander the Great sack and burn?
Persepolis
The Second Persian Empire became famous for its prized
Carpets
Two major themes of Persian art were:
Fighting and War
adobe
sun-dried brick
axial
north-south orientation so that building doors open east to west, corresponding to the daily passage of the sun
codices
plural of codex — screen-fold books of paper produced from fiber or the bark of various plants or deerskin
corbel
one stone is extended above another to form an archlike shape
frescoes
paintings made on freshly spread moist lime plaster with water-based pigments
indigenous
the original inhabitants of an area
pictographs
a picture representing a word or idea
Mesoamerican lives were regulated by all of the following
life and death
natural phenomena
cycles of the sun and moon
All of the following are chronological divisions of pre-Columbian civilizations
the pre-Classic, or Formative, period (1500 BC to AD 300)
the Classic, or Florescent, period (300 to 900)
the post-Classic period (900 to 1540)
Early Mesoamerican cultures were based around:
agriculture
The oldest known pre-Columbian civilization was the:
Olmecs
What natural resources are available in the Andes mountains
gold
platinum
silver
copper
mercury
lead
iron
The earliest civilization known to exist in the Andes region was the:
Chavin
The ____________ were partially known for their massive pyramids, human sacrifices, and ornate body ornaments
Moche
Explain briefly how the Nazca decorated their pots compared to how the Moche did it.
The Nazca painted images directly onto their clay pots while the Moche created figures from the clay.
Sometimes referred to as the “Napoleon of the Andes” for his great expansion of the early Inca Empire.
Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui
The Incas were credited with creating:
rope suspension bridges
irrigation canals
aqueducts
large temples, palaces, fortresses, and public works
The Incas were known for all of the following
textiles colored with natural dyes
painted images on clay pots
small figurines made of metal
Andean
The ancient Andean civilizations can be divided into three categories: the pre-Classical, the Classical, and the post-Classical.
The Chavín people created stone temples and beautiful pottery. The Moche built adobe pyramids. Their artwork was designed to appease the gods.
The Incas were one of the great civilizations of all time. They built cities of precisely cut stone and left artifacts of pottery, metalwork and fabric.
Much of Inca artwork was motivated by their religion.
Machu Picchu, a sacred city high in the mountains, contains ruins that help us understand the Inca civilization. Vestiges of their culture survive today in their Peruvian descendents.
aromatic
good-smelling
dynasties
families that maintained political power for more than one generation
hieroglyphics
picture words
ka
spirit or soul
mastabas
large, flat pieces made of mud-brick
mummification
a technique for preserving bodies
sarcophagus
an outer coffin made of stone; for royalty it might be made of gold or silver
ushabti
small figures representing servants
What were the three purposes of the temples and tombs of ancient Egypt?
to ensure the continued success of a great people
to enable souls to live on into eternity
to honor the gods
Steps of mummification
First, the body was embalmed
The brains were then extracted through the nostrils piece by piece, and the nostrils were sealed with wax
The body was filled with natron, a natural salt, which helped it dry.
After seventy days, the body cavity was filled with various materials
Then they covered the body in aromatic oils
ready to be wrapped in strips of linen
the body was deposited into a coffin that was sometimes “nested” inside one or more other coffins
Ruins of what kinds of facilities for the pyramid workers have been found?
bakeries, breweries, granaries, houses, cemeteries, and probably even medical facilities
The architect, Senemut, built a great mortuary for which Egyptian leader?
Queen Hatshepsu
Which of the following individuals was not a leader of ancient Egypt?
Imhotep
deities
gods
Egyptologists
scientists who study the history of ancient Egypt
frontality
facing forward
macehead
polished spherical or solid oval stone with a cylindrical hollow right through for mounting the stone on a stick or shaft palettes: decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
palettes
decorated flat pieces of stone or metal with a surface for cosmetics
stylized
using artistic forms and conventions to create effects; not natural or spontaneous
What are some of the things that engravings of the first people of the Nile Valley depicted?
Ordinary events, hunting wild game, boats, and herds of cattle
Kingdoms of Egyptian civilization
the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom
Egyptian
The Egyptian civilization rose out of a primitive predynastic civilization around 3000 BC and continued until 31 BC.
The artwork of the Egyptians retained certain characteristics throughout the period, though there were some modifications.
The art was generally in service of the gods, the pharaohs or the government and was often dedicated to ensuring a good afterlife for the nobility.
Artwork came in many forms — from giant statues to small pieces of jewelry and pottery and even writing.
Human figures were idealized; statues were fit homes for the gods and the wealthy adorned themselves with art in the form of jewelry and clothing.
amphora
vessel made for storing and transporting wine and foodstuffs
curvilinear
consisting of or bounded by curved lines
foreshortening
a technique used to create the illusion of an object receding into the background, large in front and smaller in the back
incised
carved or engraved
porticoes
porches or walkways with a roof supported by columns, often leading to the entrance of a building
rectilinear
characterized by straight lines
slip
a liquid used in the making of ceramic
Greece is known as the birthplace of Western
civilization
The prehistoric Aegeans created figurines representing females. Look at the statuette at the beginning of the lesson. The figure is portrayed using the ….. geometric shape.
triangular
Greek art is characterized by the representation of …. beings
human
The Greek geographer Pausanias visited the city of … and described the temple of Demeter and a statue of Poseidon.
Athens
Statues from the Archaic period are characterized by a facial expression known as the … smile.
Archaic
The Greeks developed styles of
columns … the Doric and Ionic.
Columns
axes
plural of axis, which means a straight line meeting certain conditions
contrapposto
a human pose captured in a painting or a sculpture in which the head and shoulders are turned in a different direction from the legs and hips
metopes
panels on the Doric frieze of a Greek temple.
myth
a story passed on through oral tradition that eventually is accepted as historical truth
taper
a thin cylindrical shape that narrows at one end
terra cotta
a brownish-orange earthenware clay
The Late Classical Greek art period saw a new, detailed characterization of … in the visual arts.
Figures
Most of the sculptures from the later Classical Greek art period are … because they were made from molds.
Hollow
To counteract the apparent distortions of perspective in the Parthenon, the architects who designed it actually created a(n) … illusion.
Optical
The Greeks designed and built the Parthenon in honor of which goddess?
Athena
The Classical period of Greek art and architecture ended with the war between Alexander the Great and the
Persians
The sculptor … oversaw building and decorating the Parthenon.
Phidias
In Greek mythology, the nine … were the patron-goddesses of the arts.
Muses
Classical Greek
The Classical period began with the defeat of the Persians under the tyrant, Xerxes.
Greek sculpture evolved from the stiff archaic figures to figures that were twisted and lifelike. Artists finally managed to achieve ideal proportions of the human figure.
The Parthenon is one of the great architectural achievements of all time.
The great statue of Athena within the Parthenon has disappeared, and many of the marble statues were taken to England by Lord Elgin where they remain today — to the consternation of many Greeks.
The Classical period ended with the rise of Alexander the Great, at which point the Hellenistic period began.
patina
a dull surface that develops on a metal over time
polychrome
many-colored
tufa
dark local limestone
tumulus
mound
votive
a gift of gratitude to a deity
Etruscans had a strong belief in _____.
fate
The Etruscans lived in the area known as _____.
Rome
The Etruscans made sculptures in all of the following materials
bronze
stone
terra cotta
The Etruscan civilization is considered to be the forerunner of _____.
Rome
Etruscan sculpture often incorporated mythological creatures.
True
The Etruscans, however, tended to flatten the lower part of the body and focus on the upper part with expressive faces and arms.
….
Etruscan painting was highly developed and used pigments created from stone and minerals.
….
The Etruscans, a great civilization that lasted approximately eight hundred years, lived in the area we now call Tuscany in the northwest of Italy.
Because of abundant mineral resources, they were a wealthy nation and created great art, especially bronze and terra cotta statues. They were dominated by their religion and believed strongly in fate.
Much of what we know about Etruscan art comes from their tomb art, including painted frescoes and carved reliefs. The human figures in these artworks tend to emphasize expressive faces and arms. The statues are shown with a smile similar to the Greek Archaic smile.
The Romans eventually conquered the Etruscans and adopted much of their culture.
Etruscans
cella
inner room or sanctuary of an ancient Greek or Roman temple, in which the statue of the god was situated
consul
Roman magistrate, comparable with a prime minister or a president
eclectic
made up of or combining elements from a variety of sources
republic
a political order whose head of state is not a king or queen; government is elected by at least some portion of the citizens
stoic
indifferent to pain or pleasure
The ancestors of the Roman portrait bust can be traced to the stylized heads on _____ funerary jars and urns.
Maybe: Etruscan
Egyptian
Persian
Early Roman temples followed the floor plans from which civilization
Etruscan
Mosaics were rare, but murals were fairly common. Four Pompeian styles of mural painting have been identified.
The First Style (popular between about 120 and 80 BC) — based on Greek interior decoration, sometimes called the Incrustation Style. Painted plaster relief is used to imitate the appearance of the lavish marble-riveted walls of the very wealthy.
The Second Style (80 to 15 BC) — used perspective to create the illusion of vast spaces beyond the surface of the wall. Colonnades, gardens, theatrical stages, and round temples were popular motifs.
The Third Style (20-10 BC) — was more ornate and less reliant on illusion.
The Fourth Style (60-63 BC) — was a synthesis of the second and third styles.
The Roman republic’s primary ruling body was the:
senate
The Roman adoption of many Etruscan and Greek styles of art
The eclectic style of Roman art and the creation of the Roman style
Roman preservation of Greek art
Specific examples of the early empire and the Roman Republic recovered within the ruins of Pompeii
aqueduct
a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
barrel vault
an extension of the simple arch that forms a tunnel-like structure; a pipe or channel that carries water over a great distance
basilica
a public building for assemblies, rectangular in plan and with a columned aisle on each side
circus
a building for the exhibition of horse and chariot races, equestrian shows, staged battles, and displays featuring trained animals, jugglers, and acrobats
The first emperor of the Roman Empire was:
Julius Caesar
The Roman civilization is credited with constructing all of the following
circuses
aqueducts
theaters
The following was built by the Romans
Pantheon
Column of Trajan
Colosseum
Following were Roman architectural innovations
barrel vaults
concrete
windows that let in light
After the Roman Empire was divided, there were two capitals. What were they?
Rome
Constantinople
the extraordinary public works of the Roman Empire, including the Colosseum, aqueducts, and temples
the role Roman ingenuity had in promoting a higher quality of living
the much fabled arches and monuments that typify the glory of Rome
the synthesis of beauty and utility found in Roman innovations such as the rounded arch, the barrel vault, the dome, concrete, and glass
ambulatory
an aisle circling the site of the choir or altar in a cathedral
apse
a large niche, semicircular or polygonal in shape and usually vaulted, protruding from the end wall of a building in a Christian Church; it contains the altar
atrium
an enclosed area in the front of a house or building that allows the sunlight to permeate the space. Sometimes it can be open and sometimes covered by a skylight.
baptistery
building used for baptismal rites and containing the baptismal font; sometimes merely a bay or chapel reserved for baptisms
catacombs
underground burial sites
nave
the central approach to the high altar. (from Latin navis meaning “ship,” suggested by the keel shape of its vaulting)
porphyry
an igneous rock distinguished by the a groundmass of minerals embedded with crystals
martyria
shrines dedicated to those killed for their religion
mausoleum
a large burial chamber, usually above ground
The Christians in Jerusalem met in the catacombs for their worship services.
True
The early Christians all used the sign of the cross from the very beginning.
False
What is the most basic reason Christians began to build church buildings, or have them built?
They needed a public place of worship.
What are some of the items of metalwork made for the Christian altar?
goblets
wine vessels
candlesticks
chalices
early Christian art as it was first practiced in the catacombs
Christian funerary art
the two styles of the Christian basilica
the Christian tendency to decorate manuscripts and altar pieces
abstraction
a concept that is open to many interpretations due to its lack of specific or concrete information
arcade
a line of arches and their supporting columns
crusaders
knights who went to the holy land from Europe on what they saw as a quest to free Jerusalem from Islam and to find holy relics
niche
a recess in a wall meant to house a statue
pendentives
a triangular curved surface between two arches and beneath a dome
Diocletian restored order to Rome and instituted important reforms.
True
Byzantium looked to the west for cultural inspiration.
False
Constantinople became a religious center and a melting pot of eastern and western cultures.
True
Constantinople was located on the site of the ancient city Byzantium.
True
Mosaics were well adapted to express the mystic character of Orthodox Christianity.
True
Fresco painting was preferred in Byzantine art
True
Church architecture dominant in Byzantine period
basilica
The conglomeration of the buildings of the Hagia Sophia seem to rise in this shape
pyramid
In 1453, the Hagia Sophia was turned into
a mosque
Muslims added these to the exterior of the Hagia Sophia
minarets
A sacred image representation is called
an icon
Exterior walls of Hagia Sophia are this
plain
Pendentives in the Hagia Sophia are this shape
triangular
Mosaics were created with small cubes of this
painted glass
Artist uses this in the mosaic of Empress Theodora to create the effect of drapery
light and dark
Fresco painting eventually replaced this type of art, due to its cost
mosaics
In “Raising of Lazarus,” the gap between Lazarus’s corpse and the living Savior represents this
death
He overthrew Constantinople in 1453
Mehmed II
Byzantine Orthodox Christian art and its religious purposes
the fusion of Greco-Roman and Oriental styles to create the unique Byzantine style
the high level of organization and decoration used for Byzantine churches
the far reach of the Byzantine artistic legacy
Byzantine
caliphs
an Islamic supreme leader, considered a successor to Muhammad
calligraphy
the use of line in a flowing, flamboyant manner
idolatrous
engaged in the worship of images or idols
mihrab
niche
qibla
the direction in which Muslims pray (facing toward the Kaaba, a holy place in Mecca)
riwaqs
arcades
sahn
an enclosed courtyard
zulla
a rough portico
Minarets and domes are common features of mosques.
True
The architectural feature of the Islamic artists that came from the Romans was _____.
the horseshoe arch…?
The Shrine of the Dome of the Rock is located in _____.
the atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque
The atrium of Al-Aqsa Mosque is _____.
an oasis of peace and tranquility with trees, lawns, and fountains
Pottery was an important and innovative art form in Islamic art.
True
The favored metal of Islamic artists is _____.
bronze
the influence of earlier civilizations on Islamic art — notably Greece, Persia, and Byzantine
the adoption of Christian basilicas into mosques
the work of the great Islamic architect Sinan
the depiction of elaborate geometric and floral designs
Islamic pottery, glass, manuscript illumination, bronze and rugs
Islamic
chalice
a large cup used to hold the wine believed to become the blood of Christ in the ritual of the Catholic Mass
cloister
covered walk within a monastery or nunnery often looking onto a courtyard
filigree
delicate gold or silver ornaments commonly made of twisted wire
reliquaries
containers or shrines for relics; these may be the physical remains of saints
Name the three elements that blend to make early Medieval art.
Christianity
Greek/Roman remnants
Celtic-Germanic culture
Name two items found in the Anglo-Saxon burial mounds at Sutton Hoo.
A viking ship with treasure
cloisonné shoulder clasps
When Patrick returned to Ireland in 433 AD, he set about to evangelize the _____.
Druids
acanthus
a plant from the Mediterranean that is used the decorate paintings within manuscripts
choir
the area of a church where the singers stand
clerestory
a row of windows on top of the wall
egg-and-dart
a sequence of decorative figures that are in the shape of an egg
masonry
the art of building something with stones and/or bricks
pier
a support used in masonry that is larger than a column
tribune
an upper story over an aisle, opening on to the nave; also called a gallery
triforium
passage with arcade
tympanum
a triangle-shaped decorative region that is located between an arch and the bar of a window
People living during the Middle Ages were:
active in pilgrimages
very superstitious
Paintings and sculpture were often used in houses of worship for what purposes?
Beautify and instruct
The following are characteristics of Romanesque churches
massive structure
bays
clerestory windows
round arches capping doors and windows
pointed arches
decorations of moldings, carvings and sculptures
The leaning tower of Pisa was begun in _____.
1173
The design plan known as a chevet included a long choir with _____ side aisles.
semicircular
The prevalence of Romanesque architecture during the Medieval period is also evident in England.
True
The Basilica … of presents the evils of Lust and Despair.
Saint Mary Magladene
Romanesque art is often characterized by:
long, angular, flat figures
the influence of the classical Roman period on Romanesque art and architecture
the incorporation of relief carvings, vaults, arches and domes in the churches and monasteries of Medieval Europe
the introduction of Romanesque architecture in England by the Normans
the resurgence of stone sculpture
Romanesque
abbot-the superior of an abbey of monks
laity-in Christianity, members of a religious community who do not have the priestly responsibilities of ordained clergy
medallion-circular panel of several pieces of glass leaded together
monochromatic-consisting of one color
opaque-does not reflect light
rood screen-a screen that separates the nave and the choir in a churchl
tracery-the bars of a Gothic window; these bars create a matrix or decorative pattern
transept-the north and south projections or “arms” of the cross
transverse-lying across; imagine lying a stick lying across the tracks
vellum-animal skin used for art and writing
Vocab for
Which of the following cities was the intellectual center of Europe at the end of the eleventh century?
Paris
Following are characteristics of Gothic architecture
pointed arches
flying buttresses (see description below)
the altar at the far east end (cut off from the laity)
rood screen and long choir
pointed transverse arches
thin intersecting arches
light masonry cells
Gothic stained glass windows
rose windows — large medallion, located high in the west end and the transept.
storytelling windows — subject matter includes Biblical stories as well as stories from the lives of Christ and the saints.
monochromatic panes of white glass — admitted more light and were less expensive.
illustrations of guild craftsmen at their work. The stained glass “light painting” in the cathedral at Chartres, above, is believed to be the masterpiece of the 13th century. With 176 windows shooting beams of colored light into the interior, the cathedral attains a jewel-like quality.
The Rayonnant style of Gothic architecture was known for its:
radiating patterns of rose windows
All of the following are characteristics of the Strasbourg style
emphasis on emotion
draping effect of stone clothing
emphasis on dramatic gestures
the towering cathedrals of the Gothic age
the use of innovations like flying buttresses, pointed arches, and ribbed vaults in cathedrals
the elaborate stone work used to adorn cathedral façade
the careful use of stained glass in strategic locations around cathedrals
the naturalistic sculptures that decorated the interior and exteriors of cathedrals
French Gothic
animated- full of life
expressionistic -from Expressionism, a style that often has an emotional dimension
lancet-long, narrow window with pointed head
lyricism-characterized by emotion, subjectivity, and imagination.
Vocab Gothic Dissemination
A main difference between English Gothic and French Gothic is _____.
the English were not as concerned with height
The Perpendicular style is characterized by all
vertical lines in the tracery and paneling
elaborate traceried fan vaulting
roofs of complex open-timber
Spanish architects borrowed heavily from the French “flamboyant” style, a term derived from _____.
s-curved flamelike tracery
German and French Gothic cathedrals are similar in all what ways
soaring heights
lack of breadth and openness
not possessing a strongly projecting transept
Nicola Pisano’s carvings at Pisa emphasize the individuality of the human figure.
True
The Italians rejected Gothic architecture
True
Giotto is considered the “Father of Western art.”
True
the adoption of French Gothic architecture by several other European countries
the evolution of French Gothic architecture when absorbed by other cultures, e.g., the Perpendicular style in England
the synthesis of the French Gothic and classical Roman styles demonstrated in Italy
the role of Italian painter Giotto in setting the stage for Renaissance art
Gothic Dissemnation
altarpiece- a decorative piece such as a painting or sculpture that is used to ornament the church altar. It is the table where Mass is performed.
genre- a style of painting that depicts scenes from everyday life
glazes- thin, semi-transparent layers put over color
polyptych- characterized by four or more sections or panels
print – a picture or design printed from an engraving
surreal- dreamlike; resembling a dream
virtuoso- performer of exceptional technical skill
NORTHERN EUROPEAN RENAISSANCE
What are three themes that became important during the Renaissance?
fame
feasting
fashion
The most important thing that happened in the Renaissance era was the sudden concern with _____.
perspective
Explain briefly in what way Jan van Eyck’s artwork is well-known.
Jan van Eyck’s artwork is most well-known for realism and the use of light, as well as his unidealized realism portraits, which is much different than classical antiquity or Greco-Roman art.
Brueghel the Elder adapted the early style of _____
Flemish
the innovations in painting and print-making during the Renaissance in Northern Europe
Jan van Eyck’s role in the introduction of oil painting
early examples of symbolism in painting
the emotional qualities of Hugo van der Goes’ work
the first Protestant painter, Albrecht Dürer
the attention paid to perspective and proportion by painters.
Northern European
patronage- a system whereby wealthy persons funded artists by commissioning artworks
trompe l’oeil- a painting that fools the eye
Italian Renaissance
Cosimo Medici hired Brunelleschi to build a _____ for a cathedral in Florence.
dome
Masaccio is responsible for ushering in a new approach to painting that was naturalistic. This approach was less about details and decoration and more focused on simplicity and unity. It was concerned more with illusion of three-dimensionality.
True
While Renaissance artists preferred to glorify the body; in the Middle ages, the body was seen as _____.
an obstacle
In the painting The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian, the human figures are _____.
lifelike
The Early Renaissance period in Italy and how it related to architecture, sculpture, and painting
Ghiberti and Donatello’s roles in introducing Renaissance ideals of realistic human figures in sculpture
The refinement of earlier techniques by Botticelli and Mantegna
Italian Ren
atmospheric perspective- sequentially using lighter colors for each region of the painting. This technique creates a sense of distance for objects that are distant in the painting
chiaroscuro- using light and shadow to define forms
codex- book composed of folded sheets sewn along one edge
optics- the branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light
sfumato- (from the Italian for smoke) an imperceptible, subtle transition from light to dark, without any clear break or line
Vocab for Leonardo da Vinci
While in Milan, da Vinci created _____ for the Milan Cathedral dome. Select all that apply.
paintings
sketches
drawings
theatre designs
prototypes
pieta- picture or sculpture of Mary mourning with her dead son Jesus Christ across her lap
Michelangelo
Michelangelo’s name
Michelangelo Di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni
Why did Michelangelo sculpt the mother figure in his Pieta as a young woman?
Mary, the mother in the painting, was depicted as a young woman to symbolize the purity of the soul
Which of the following is NOT one of the stories depicted in the Sistine Chapel?
God Separating Light from Darkness
Creation of Adam, the Creation of Eve
Temptation and Fall of Adam and Eve
The Flood
The Last Judgement (along the back wall)
Michelangelo restored and enhanced the design of ______, while he was the chief architect of St. Peter’s Basilica.
Bramante
Where is the original wooden model of the dome of Saint Peter’s Basilica (created by Michelangelo) located?
The Vatican
Michelangelo’s preferred art form was _____.
sculpture
For the dome’s exterior, Michelangelo used a ribbed design from what city?
Florence
Michelangelo’s life and famous works, such as:

Pieta
David
Sistine Chapel
Saint Peter’s Basilica

.,..
devotional imagery- artwork produced for the purposes of worship, prayer or religious instruction or inspiration
lyrical- expressing deep emotion
stanze- rooms
symmetrical- a mirror-image (though not exact) balance
tone- the feeling created by the picture
Great Ren Painters
Raphael was an assistant and student under the painter
Perugino
Which of the following is not one of Raphael’s paintings?
Venus of Urbino
How did the Catholic Church pay for the many religious works of art?
Indulgences
Which of the following artists is responsible for painting on canvas and helping to make this a common practice?
Titian
Titian’s paintings can be characterized by which of the following?
vibrant color
free brushwork
atmospheric tone
monumental figures
idealized landscapes
Raphael’s three-dimensionality in his paintings
Raphael’s use of chiaroscuro
harmony within Raphael’s work
the poetic qualities of Titian’s work
the symbols used by Titian in his work, often portrayed by vibrant colors and free brushstrokes, which are considered poetic
ambiguity- open to two or more interpretations
artifice- made by intention and not nature, skillful and clever, sometimes tricky
calligraphic- using flowing, decorative lines
mysticism- immediate consciousness of the transcendent or ultimate reality or God
Mannerism
The following are characteristics of Mannerist painting?
imbalanced composition (often circular rather than pyramid)
visual complexity and ambiguity
unusual depictions of traditional themes
themes of courtly behavior and sophistication
All of the following were Mannerist artists
Fiorentino
Parmigianino
Tintoretto
El Greco’s work
Saint Dominic in Prayer
The Holy Family
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz
… was the most influential architect of the Mannerist period.
Palladio
the hallmarks of the Renaissance — centralization and harmony
mannerism as a reaction against harmony
the distorted proportions of the human figure in Mannerism
Pontormo as the first significant Mannerist painter
Mannerism ideas
baldachin a- pillared canopy
luminosity- having the quality of light
verisimilitude- possessing the quality of truth
Italian Baroque art
If a painting has verisimilitude, it is _____.
Truthful
A person in the Baroque period would most likely _____.
be more open-minded about religion and science than previous people
Qualities of the Baroque era include all of the following
sense of movement
energy
tension
realism
feeling of infinite space In painting and sculpture, light and shadow contrast to create a dramatic effect
Italian Baroque architecture is typified by all of the following except _____.
simple, unadorned facades
Caravaggio’s work was shocking because of _____.
Realism
The intended effect of Bernini’s colonnade at Saint Peter’s Church is _____.
to embrace people in the “arms” of the Catholic Church
Who was the patron of Velázquez?
Phillip IV
the contradiction and conflict of the Baroque period
the beginnings of the scientific revolution, as defined by the prominence of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton
the flourishing of religious art despite enhanced secularization
motion, energy, and drama in Baroque art
Caravaggio’s extreme realism
….
carravesque- in the style of Caravaggio
sensuous- appealing to the senses; taking delight in beauty
still lifes- arrangements of non-human objects in an artful manner
voluptuous- having a large bosom and pleasing curves; having strong sexual appeal
Northern European Baroque Art
When the Dutch Protestants rebelled against the Roman Catholic church, the Spanish king quelled the uprising.
True
Dutch merchants were interested in what kind of artwork?
landscapes
portraits
still lifes
genre painting
Peter Paul Rubens’s artistic style can be characterized by all of the following
animated, exuberant, and sensuous.
The famous Dutch painter whose qualities included glowing light against dark backgrounds and truthful rendering of his subjects was:
Rembrandt
Some called Rembrandt’s technique
One contemporary painter called Rembrandt’s paintings a mess of this:
He had tremendous control over this:
The result seems like this
Every coincidence adds to the effect of the perfect
wizardly, smudges, medium, coincidence, illusion
Dutch painter Jan Vermeer was famous for his _____.
Composition and use of space
the characteristics of Italian Baroque art were whole-heartedly adopted and transformed by artists in Northern Europe.
Flanders and the Dutch Republic produced three of the greatest artists of all time: Peter Paul Rubens, who painted sensuous pictures featuring voluptuous women (female figures who inspired the term “Rubenesque”); Rembrandt, whose dazzling virtuosity in chiaroscuro and in “coarse” realism set a new standard; and Vermeer, who used light in a dramatic way.
in France, the Palace of Versailles provided an example of quintessential Baroque architecture.
….
arabesque- an ornament that interlaces simulated foliage in an intricate design
grotto- a small cave; an artificial cavern-like retreat
iridescent having- a play of lustrous rainbow colors
opulence- rich showiness; overabundance
satirize- to ridicule or mock
The Swing by Jean Honoré Fragonard embodies the spirit of the French Revolution.
False
Hogarth’s Marriage A-la-Mode paintings correspond to, and sometimes deliberately evoke, French art and Rococo design.
True
The eighteenth-century in France and England was a time of great changes
The middle class grew richer and stronger
The printing press meant that many more people were literate
While the aristocracy promoted an opulent art style in France, the English were exploring the idea of liberty in art, landscape and society
Painters such as Watteau and Fragonard in France emphasized love and sex. In England, painters such as Gainsborough and Hogarth painted portraits that both romanticized and satirized the aristocracy.
….
diffused- a light that spreads soft shadows, may be filtered through translucent material
empiricism- the doctrine that says sense experience is the only source of knowledge
intelligentsia- the intellectuals of a particular time and place
salon- a gathering of people for the purposes of discussion
treatise- a written work on a particular subject
tyranny- dictatorship: a government that is ruled by one dictator, who is usually brutal
The Enlightenment and Neuroclassicism
Denis Didero once stated that all of the following were means to acquiring knowledge
observation of nature, reflection, and experimentation
Which of the following men was an outspoken critic in regards to the perceived tyranny of church and state?
Voltaire
The following correctly describe the ideals of Enlightenment thinkers?
noble simplicity
perfection
harmony
logic
solemnity
morality
Thomas Jefferson’s home in Virginia is call Monticello, which in Italian means _____.
little mountain
All of the following describe Jacques-Louis David’s painting, Oath of the Horatii, except for:
simple palette
The eighteenth century was a time of major political upheaval, when the middle class grew larger, becoming richer and better educated, and demanded freedom from oppressive policies of the church and state
In the United States of America, the Constitution also demanded a separation of church and state
The ideals of the Enlightenment took root in Neoclassical art; artists working in the Neoclassical style looked to ancient Greece and Rome for their inspiration
They abandoned the ornate opulence of the Baroque and Rococo periods and instead focused on creating clean, balanced compositions
The figures in these artworks tended to be heroic, and the work typically carried a moral meaning.
Enlight Neo
lucid- transparently clear; easily understandable
sublime- the quality of greatness or vast magnitude, whether physical, moral, intellectual, metaphysical, or artistic
value- relative darkness or lightness of a color
Romanticism
Select all the qualities that are typical of Romantic art.
nature
death
destruction
freedom
individuality
The sensibility of Romanticism is feeling.
True
We consider Goya’s painting The Third of May to be “Romantic” because _____.
it conveys strong emotions
Death of Saranapalus by Delacroix demonstates all of the following except _____.
a balanced and harmonious composition
Modern artists have rejected Romanticism and are more influenced by Classical works.
False
Romanticism was set into motion by the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, a French philosopher and writer
Romantics were inspired by emotions rather than reason and they had a desire for freedom and individuality
Such painters as Fuseli, Goya, Gericault, Delacroix and Friedrich employed dramatic subjects, severe light and dark contrasts, and violent compositions to create an emotional charge in their work
English and American painters such as Turner and Cole took these same qualities and applied them to landscapes

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