CCOT Expanded Core Points
If you earn Core Points 1-7, you are eligible to earn the final two expanded core points.

Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis.
• Has a clear, analytical, and comprehensive thesis.
• Analyzes all issues of the question (as relevant): global context, chronology, causation, change, continuity, effects, content.
• Provides ample historical evidence to substantiate thesis.
• Provides links with relevant ideas, events, and trends in an innovative way

CCOT essay: What you should NOT do
Don’t discuss events that are not related to the question.
Don’t include long sections of material outside the time span of the question .
Don’t focus only on changes and not on continuities. Don’t include continuities that apply to only one part of the time span
Terms to use when describing changes
previously, before, until that time, up to that time, formerly, ‘from that point forward’, ‘over time’, ‘as things evolved’, ‘in the [fill in the blank] century’, or ‘then comes the period of time when [such and such] happened’.
Terms to use when describing continuities
throughout this period, continued to, persistent, lasting, enduring, ongoing, constant, sustained, or maintained.
India: Change and Continuity 8000BCe to 1750
Japan: Change and Continuity 600-1914
Russia: Change and Continuity 600-1914
China: Change and Continuity 8000-1914
The continuity and change·over-time (CCOT) question asks what has changed and what has not. CCOT questions include a definite time span for analysis. Continuity refers to what remained the same during this time period. It means the opposite of the word change. Start by reading the question. Underline the parts that are most important. Next, think about breaks in this stretch of time that represented departures from what happened before. Also think about what has not changed.
Thesis previews the specific change and continuity addressed in this essay.
Core Point 1 out of the 7.
Each CCOT essay should starting date and an ending date. Make sure to describe the background situation for a given region at the time of the starting date to set up your later explanation of how things change. Your thesis is a good place to include the basic background information.

Thesis Hints …
a. Avoid thesis statements that lack the specificity required to set up the analysis in the essay. The phrase, “There are many” is a terrible way to start an essay; it indicates weak writing and weak analysis.

Both Change and Continuity must be addressed
Core Points 2 & 3 out of the 7.

If an essay neglects to analyze either change or continuity-almost always, continuity is the one left out-then it may not receive the full two points. To correctly analyze continuity, you must cover each time of the question.

Supporting Evidence Required
Core Points 4 & 5 out of the 7.

A strong CCOT essay must have facts. You must have at least five facts related to changes and continuities to earn 2 of the core 7 points. Six or more facts qualify you for an expanded points (8-9). Facts must relate to the topic of the question. In addition, the facts must be correct and within the chronological boundaries of the question. Names, dates, and events of history count as facts, as do specific informative statements relating to the question.

Analyzing the Reason For a Change or a Continuity
Core Point 6 out of the 7.

In the CCOT essay, analysis means discussing WHY CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES occurred. What a the reason for a change? What is the reason for the continuity?
This historical thinking skill involves a deeper kind of thinking than simply remembering facts to support a thesis. You are providing the historical context for a change or continuity.

Global Context (conclusion)
Core Point 7 out of the 7.

The CCOT essay is designed to focus on large global issues such as trade, technology, culture, social systems, and migrations. For the CCOT, you must explain how events in one region relate to the big picture; you need to discuss the global context of the changes and continuities.
The global context point can be earned by doing one of the following:
1. effectively showing comparisons to other regions;
2. effectively showing connections to global processes;
3. effectively discussing interactions among regions.

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