APUSH America’s History Henretta Chapter 18

Plessy v Ferugson
Supreme court upholds segregation of schools and public facilities (1896).
“Separate but equal”
Negro Leagues
Sports leagues created that were only Blacks and some Latin Americans in opposition to the white only sport leagues.
Sierra Club
founded in 1892, it dedicated itself to preserving the wildness of the western landscape.
National Park Service
Service created in 1916; made to help supervise the parks and monuments
National Audubon Society
Joint of state organizations. Women were vital and promotes boycotts of hats with plumage.
Comstock Act
Prohibited circulation of almost any information about sex and birth control
liberal arts
Liberal Arts Pioneered by Charles W. Eliot. Classes that developed each young man’s “individual reality and creative power.”
Atlanta “Compromise”
Atlanta Compromise Address by Booker T. Washington. Seen as approval of racial segregation, Washington urged that whites join him in working for “the highest intelligence and development of all.” Well received by whites. But leaders of black civil rights saw this as too weak and subservient.
Maternalism Appealing to their special role as mothers. An intermediate step between domesticity and modern arguments for women’s equality.
Women’s Christian Temperance Union
Founded in 1874 and led by Frances Willard. First organization to fight domestic violence particularly in regards to alcohol consumption. Prompted leaders to think about industrialization’s other negative effects on society. Backed up the Prohibition Party. Encouraged women to join the national debate over poverty and inequality of wealth.
National Association of Colored Women
Founded in 1816 by African American Women. Arranged for the care of orphans, founded homes for the elderly, promoted temperance, and took on public health campaigns. They founded it as the National American Woman Suffrage Association promoted racist sentiment.
National American Women Suffrage Association
The two separate woman parties reunited again. Won full ballots for women in Colorado (1893), Idaho (1896), and Utah (1896, reestablished as Utah gained statehood).
Women’s full political, economic, and social equality.
natural selection
Survival of the fittest
Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Applied Darwin’s theory of natural selection and “survival of the fittest” to human society — the poor are poor because they are not as fit to survive. Used as an argument against social reforms to help the poor., A social application of Charles Darwin’s biological theory of evolution by natural selection, this late-nineteenth century theory encouraged the notion of human competition and opposed intervention in the natural human order. Social Darwinists justified the increasing inequality of late-nineteeth-century industrial American society as natural.
The idea that a “bad” genetic traits could be bred out and good traits could promoted in order to improve society. Some Americans believed that the society could be improved by controlled breeding. They accomplished this by sterilizing many criminals and the mentally handicapped.
Realism Artistic age that was a reaction against Romanticism. 1850-1900. Reflected a desire to depict reality as it is. The Civil War coincided with this movement as did the invention of photography. Thomas Eakins. Thomas Whistler. Mark Twain. Stephen Crane.
A literary movement that took place from the 1880s to the 1940s that used realism to suggest that social conditions, heredity, and environment had an inescapable force in shaping human character. Whereas realism seeks only to describe subjects as they really are, naturalism also attempts to determine “scientifically” the underlying forces (e.g. the environment or heredity) influencing the actions of its subjects. (Wikipedia)
First half of the 20th century. Modernism focused on the human ability to create, improve and reshape the world. Often abstract, modern art was very diverse. Georgia O’Keefe. Marcel Duchamp. John Marin.
American Protective Association
American Protective Association A nativist society founded in 1887 that gained its greatest strength during the 1890s before withering away by 1910. It was an openly anti-Catholic organization.
Social Gospel
Movement that taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization.
Fundamentalism a movement in American Protestantism that arose in the early part of the 20th century in reaction to modernism and that stresses the infallibility of the Bible not only in matters of faith and morals but also as a literal historical record, holding as essential to Christian faith belief in such doctrines as the creation of the world, the virgin birth, physical resurrection, atonement by the sacrificial death of Christ, and the Second Coming.
Thomas Edison
A deaf Edison invented the phonograph and by 1900 it was used in over 150,000 homes. His invention made going to the symphony obsolete. He also invented the light bulb. This invention changed the way of life for thousands of Americans.
John Muir
John Muir a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to save the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas.
Booker T Washington
An ex-slave founded the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama in 1881. He stressed patience, manual training and hard work for blacks. Made the Atlanta Compromise speech.
Frances Willard
Frances Willard an American educator, temperance reformer, and women’s suffragist. Her influence was instrumental in the passage of the Eighteenth (Prohibition) and Nineteenth (Women Suffrage) Amendments to the United States Constitution. Willard became the national president of the World Woman’s Christian Temperance Union, or World WCTU, in 1879, and remained president for 19 years. She developed the slogan “Do everything” for the women of the WCTU to incite lobbying, petitioning, preaching, publication, and education.
Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
Mark Twain
He was America’s most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the “Gilded Age”. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.
Billy Sunday
Billy Sunday American fundamentalist minister; he used colorful language and powerful sermons to drive home the message of salvation through Jesus and to oppose radical and progressive groups.

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