Abstraction– Solid waste direction ( SWM ) is a critical issue to cut down, manage, segregate, dispose off decently and it involves more direction, accomplishments, and techniques when it is being involved in so many types of septic waste stuffs. The paper in manus depicts the solid waste direction in Thammasat infirmary located in Pathumthani Municipality, Thailand. Hospital has the capacity of more than 600 beds and day-to-day about more than 1000 patients visit the infirmary. Waste coevals rate is 1200 kilogram per twenty-four hours about and the cost of waste aggregation is more than 3 1000000s about yearly. Waste disposing is the chief job for the infirmary and this survey attempted to propose appropriate engineering to decide this job. The consequences showed that two engineerings can be selected to dispose the waste i.e. incineration and healthful landfill.
Appropriate technology for solid waste management
Keywords– Hospital Waste Management, Hazardous Waste, Appropriate Technology, SHTEFIE Criteria, Sanitary Landfill
Environmental jobs are at top precedence since last few decennaries as these are straight vulnerable to human existences, animate beings, harvests and environing environment every bit good. These issues are so critical to discourse and are non ignorable at any cost. Hospitals are the topographic points of wellness attention and if waste will be non disposed off decently so most of the stakeholders may acquire infected particularly employees working in the infirmary, patients and environing communities besides which could do more problems than the original 1s. Infectious waste can be beginning of diseases like Hepatitis, AIDS, Typhoid and Boils etc.
Most of the infirmaries are topographic points to bring forth pathological, crisp and non crisp infective wastes ; among those 42.3 per centum infirmaries generate chemical wastes and major portion of the chemical wastes is generated by authorities infirmaries. So, it would be good to advert that 23.1 per centum private infirmaries and 53.8 percent authorities infirmaries generate radiological waste. Thammasat infirmary is the largest infirmary in Pathumthani state and it falls under the municipality of Pathumthani besides with the capacity of more than 600 beds and day-to-day 1000 patients about visit the infirmary. Measure of biomedical waste produced is 1200 kg per twenty-four hours about and the cost of waste aggregation is about more than 3 million per twelvemonth. Before come ining into item of solid/hazardous waste direction of infirmary, it is necessary to cognize about the different sort of medical wastes ; the infirmary waste has classified into different classs.
Biomedical waste needs spacial attention and concern to dispose it decently because it can non blend with family or other sorts of wastes. A separate and to the full equipped engineering is required to cover risky waste ; inappropriate engineering may take to different unwanted direct jobs non merely to worlds but environments as good [ . The aims of this instance survey were to place the current state of affairss of waste direction in Thammasat infirmary and to propose appropriate engineering ( s ) on sustainable footing and cost effectual every bit good to pull off the waste expeditiously and suitably. Currently, infirmary has no solid/hazardous waste solution on long tally and sustainable footing ; hospital waste is assorted with bio degradable and reclaimable waste without any deliberation to happen out its proper solution.
This research survey is descriptive and involved primary and secondary informations aggregations ; site studies, staff, managing governments and private company ‘s interviews are besides portion of this information aggregation techniques and methods. For the Thammasat infirmary risky waste direction SHTEFIE standard was used to propose appropriate engineering as long tally and cost effectual solution. For this intent SHTEFIE standards is best suited method to use because it covers the seven of import factors which are usually dealt to choose engineering ( s ) after analyzing the current state of affairs of the country under consideration. Technology choice is concerned with taking the best engineering from a figure of available options.
The standards for a ‘best ‘ engineering may differ depending on the specific demands. Technology choice involves garnering information from assorted beginnings about the options, and the rating of options against each other or some set of criteria.The best to take of this method is that, it considers and selects engineering which is best suited harmonizing to the local conditions and fortunes. This specific engineering choice standards gives new penetration to the determination shapers at the local every bit good as regional degree and it depends on the range and restrictions of the work and the intent behind to make the survey. In order to analyze and travel through the waste circle of Thammasat infirmary SHTIFIE standards largely consider following factors to look into sanely options so that determination must be made on the clear and desperate need footing.
Overview of bing state of affairs
Current scenario of the infirmary waste direction is rather simple and consecutive in footings of direction. As discussed above every bit good that measure of biomedical waste produced in the infirmary is 1200 kg per twenty-four hours about and the cost of waste aggregation is about more than 3 million yearly ; really the waste aggregation contract has been given to two private companies at the same clip i.e. Peerapat company and attention & A ; clean company of Thailand. Peerapat company is located in Bang-pa-in, Ayutthaya state. Peerapat company deals with the biomedical waste merely while attention & A ; clean company responsible for all sort of wastes along with cleansing and sweeping of infirmary as good. Peerapat workers come to roll up the waste from the infirmary twenty-four hours after tomorrow in the whole weak and until their arrival waste is stored in the storage house located one kilometre off from the chief infirmary edifice. The waste is collected and stored in different bags to divide waste harmonizing to the company instructions to the aggregators and sweepers. There are three types of bags used for the separation of waste during cleaning i.e. black, ruddy and green bags ; farther description of bags and waste aggregations is following:
Black bag is used to roll up general waste like nutrient, bottles, tins, glass, fictile etc.
Green bag is used to roll up and hive away the reclaimable waste generated within the infirmary.
Red bag contains all the biomedical and septic waste such as acerate leafs, panpipes, blades, used baseball mitts, cotton swabs, drains tubings and besides infected patients ‘ apparels etc.
The infirmary had its ain incineration unit about 2-3 old ages before installed with the intent to dispose the waste and by ain infirmary waste direction unit but after the ailments from environing countries and maintaining in position the environmental debasement issues it was stopped to run ; the works is still present at its original topographic point but mutely.
To concentrate on the risky waste direction of the infirmary some possible options were considered to choose best engineering ( s ) ; those included incinerator, healthful landfill, steam autoclaving, chemical intervention, microwave radiation and control dumping etc. These picks were considered maintaining in head the SHTEFIE standards at the mean clip which explains the factors impacting the local, current and outstanding characteristics and showed clear image of current scenario. Many restraints were identified and brought on forepart by this set of standards utilizing specific factors. Analysis has showed that fiscal and environmental factors are dominant for the choice of best engineering ; site studies, community and infirmary concerns helped sufficient to detect the demands and precedences closely. Sanitary landfill ( for the general and radioactive types of waste ) and incineration ( for all types of risky waste ) are declared best being cost effectual and less pollutant.
Incinerator has already been present in the infirmary district and needs small care to be in working status once more but healthful landfill is large trade as it is labour intensive and need immense investing every bit good. The healthful landfill is an stray country of land, where waste is dumped in excavated trenches and covered daily with a dirt screen. The chief intent of landfill is for storage and containment of the waste deposited into it. The landfills for infirmary waste are supposed to be divided into two parts, one for seting general waste and the other, biomedical waste. Landfills should be decently secured and decently designed.
So, incineration could be considered best among these two so far. Under ideal conditions, there should be no fume but merely colourless exhaust into the ambiance. Therefore, temperature must be sufficient plenty to pulverize the waste accurately, back up the self-sufficient conditions of burning and let the reaction to happen in a moderately short clip. Furthermore, a decently designed incinerator should wholly fire waste go forthing a lower limit of residuary in the signifier of ashes and should be equipped with scrubbers to pin down toxic air pollutants emitted. The polyethylene bags made of chlorinated plastics should non be incinerated. Fictile stuffs as portion of the waste promote the release of dioxins when incinerating them. This is because plastics contain chlorine byproducts such as polyvinyl chlorides ( PVCs ) .
Environment and wellness are two chief concerns of each infirmary required to be in flow precisely so that each common may non be affected by these jobs. Waste itself is a large host to damage environment and wellness ; particularly patients of infirmaries are sensitive being at that place. The survey has tried to happen the best solution for Thammasat infirmary waste and concluded that healthful landfill and incineration are two best appropriate engineerings to accommodate. Furthermore, incinerations is declared best being cost effectual, less pollutant and most executable as compared to sanitary landfill which is entirely non a sustainable solution of waste direction in infirmary. Infact, the emanations from the incinerator lead to major wellness and environmental jobs to the environing country. These can be mitigated by accommodating simple engineering. Precipitators are available to catch the dust atoms from fume and gas by adding this tool to the system ; it is possible to cut down the dust job expeditiously on sustainable footing. Most of the contaminated gases will vanish if the temperature set at more than 1200 degree Celsius. It is necessary to modulate system to the temperature more than 1200 degree Celsius to incinerate the infective infirmary wastes.
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