I. The Persian Tradition
1. Describe the achievements and significance of the Persians.
550 B.C.E., Cyrus the Great= Persian Empire across northern Middle East & into n.w India. Persians tolerant of local cus¬toms; developed iron technology; new religion-Zoroastrianism; and lively artistic style. Persians =limited influence on Mediterranean coast> ulti¬mately defeated Alexander the Great, Persian language /culture survived periodically affecting developments in region into 20th century.
II. Patterns of Greek and Roman History
2. Describe the characteristics of Greek political development 800 – 600 B.C.E.
Political development in Greece based on city-states, rather than single political unit. Each city-state had its own government, typically a tyranny of one ruler or aristocratic coun¬cil. Penin¬sula was so divided by mountains that unified government would have been difficult to establish.
3. Describe the differences between Sparta and Athens and explain when Athens reached its greatest height.
Sparta=military aristocracy dominating a slave population; Athens= commercial state with extensive use of slaves. 500- 449 B.C.E., two states cooperated to defeat a huge Persian invasion. After Persian war period Athenian culture =highest point, developed more colonies in e. Mediterranean & s. Italy.
4. Describe the rule of Pericles in Athens.
Pericles leader of Athens during Golden Age Peloponnesian.
5. Explain the cause and long term effects of the Peloponnesian War. (Philip II of Macedon)
Athens & Sparta fought for control of Greece in Peloponnesian Wars. (431-404 B.C.E.) Sparta won, but war greatly weakened both sides. Philip II of Macedon invaded from north & conquered Greece 338 B.C.E.
6. Describe the extent of the empire of Alexander the Great.
Philip II’s son Alexander extended Macedon¬ian Empire through Middle East, across Persia to border of India& southward through Egypt.
7. Describe the characteristics of the Hellenistic period.
After Alexander’s death empire divided among 3 generals. Greek art/ culture merged with other Middle Eastern cultures in Hellenistic period. Trade flour¬ished & important scientific advancements were made in centers Alexandria in Egypt. Hellenistic =spread of Greek civilization even after its political decline.
8. Describe the establishment and spread of the Roman Republic.
(Punic Wars)Roman state began as local monarchy in central Italy 800 B.C.E. Roman aristocrats drove out monarchy 509 B.C.E. New Roman republic gradually extended its influence over rest of Italy & conquering Greek colonies in south. Roman conquest spread more widely during three Punic Wars 264 to 146 B.C.E., against armies of Phoenician city of Carthage on northern coast of Africa. After defeating Carthage Romans seized entire western Mediterranean & Greece & Egypt.
9. Describe the events that led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of the Roman Empire.
(Julius Caesar, Augustus Caesar) Civil wars between generals>vic¬tory by Julius Caesar, in 45 B.C.E. & end of traditional institutions of Roman Republic. Caesar’s grandnephew, later called Augustus Caesar, seized power in 27 B.C.E., following another period of rivalry after Julius Caesar’s assassination; Augustus established basic structures of Roman Empire.
10. Describe the extent of the Roman Empire by 180 B.C.E.
brought peace/ prosper¬ity to Mediterranean world from Spain/north Africa in west to eastern shores of Med.> moved northward conquering France & southern Britain& pushing into Germany.
11. Describe the decline and fall of the Roman Empire.
(Diocletian and Constantine) it suffered slow, decisive fall over 250 years; invaders from north conquered Rome in 476 C.E. Decline reflected in economic deterioration & population loss: trade & birth rate both fell. Govern¬ment =less effective. Emperors Diocletian &Constantine tried to reverse tide. Constantine in 313 recognized legality of Christianity; decline in west continued. Roman armies depended increasingly on non-Roman recruits, whose loyalty was suspect. Invasion of nomadic peoples from north= end of classical period of Mediterranean civi¬lization; like its counterparts in Gupta India & Han China it could no longer defend itself.
III. Greek and Roman Political Institutions
12. Describe the characteristics of politics in Mediterranean Civilization.
Political interests were part of life in Greece &Rome. The “good life” for upper-class Athenian or Roman = active par¬ticipation in politics. Citizens participated in military> sense of political interest/responsibility. In Roman Empire political concerns restricted by power of emperor, but local area retained some autonomy in Italy, Greece, eastern Mediter¬ranean;
13. Explain the similarities between Greco- Roman political values and Confucianism values of classical China and India.
Strong political ideals/ interests =similarities between Greco-Roman society & Confucian values of classical China; con¬cept of active citizenship was distinctive in Mediterranean cultures. Greece & Rome did not develop a single or cohesive set of political institutions to rival China’s divinely sanctioned emperor or its elaborate bureaucracy; in addition to political intensity & localism in Mediterranean civilization-also diver¬sity in political forms; comparison extends to India, where various political forms—including participation in governing councils—ran strong
14. Describe the types of political rule in the Mediterranean.
Roman republic & most Greek city-states had abolished early monarchies. Rule by individual strongmen=more common’ “tyranny” in classical Greece. Many tyrants= effective rulers in promoting public works & protect¬ing common people against abuses of aris¬tocracy. Some Roman generals who seized power in later days republic had similar characteristics, as did Hellenistic kings who suc¬ceeded Alexander.
15. Describe the characteristics of democracy in Athens.
5th-century Athens major decisions of made by general assemblies in which all citizens could participate= direct democracy, not rule through elected representatives. Executive officers chosen for brief terms to control their power & subject to review by assem¬bly: chosen by lot, not elected on principle any citizen could serve; only minority of Athenian population= citizens. Women=no rights of political participation; half of all adult males= slaves or foreigners; it> popular participation & included principles we would recog¬nize as truly democratic.
16. Describe the most widely preferred polit¬ical framework in the Mediterranean world.
centered on aristocratic assemblies, whose deliberations established guidelines for state policy & served as a check on executive power. Sparta governed by mil¬itaristic aristocracy determined to keep power overlarge slave population. Other Greek city-states also= aristocratic assem¬blies. Even democratic Athens found leadership in many aristocrats, including Pericles.
17. Describe the structure of government in the Roman Republic.
(assembly, Senate, consuls) All Roman citizens in republic could gather in periodic assemblies to elect officials to represent interests of common people. Aristocrats held almost all execu¬tive offices. Senate =mainly aristocrats; 2 consuls shared executive power, Senate could choose dictator to hold emergency authority in time of crisis. In Roman Senate, as in aristocratic assemblies of Greek city-states, ideal of public service, featuring elo¬quent public speaking and arguments that sought to identify general good, came closest to realization.
18. Why did a significant body of political theory develop in classical Mediterranean civilization?
The diversity of Greek and Roman political forms, as well as the importance ascribed to political participation, helped generate a significant body of political theory in classical Mediterranean civilization. True to the aristocratic tradition, much of this theory dealt with appropriate political ethics, the duties of citizens, the importance of incorruptible service, and key political skills such as oratory.
19. Describe the similarities between Greco-Roman society and Confucian values.
Some political writ¬ing resembled Confucianism, but less emphasis on hierarchy or bureaucratic virtues & more on participation in deliberative bodies to make laws & judge actions of executive officers. Classical Mediterranean writers also paid attention to structure of state itself, debating virtues & vices of various political forms. This expressed politi¬cal interests & diversity of Mediterranean world & served as key heritage to later societies.
20. Describe the political system in the Roman Empire.
Roman Empire=different polit¬ical system from earlier city-states, but it preserved some older institutions, such as Senate which> meaningless forum for debates. Empire developed organi¬zational capacities on a far larger scale than city-states; but considerable local autonomy was allowed in many regions. Only in rare cases, such as forced disso¬lution of Jewish state in 63 C.E. after a major local rebellion did Romans take over dis¬tant areas completely. Careful organization in hierarchy of Roman army whose officers wielded great political power.
21. Describe the role of laws in Greece and Rome.
(Twelve Tables) In addition to tolerance for local customs & religions & strong military organiza¬tion Romans emphasized laws as one factor that would hold their vast territories together. Greek &Roman republican leaders had developed an understanding of impor¬tance of codified, equitable law. Aristocratic leaders in 8th-century Athens sponsored legal codes designed to balance defense of private property with protection of poor citizens, includ¬ing access to courts of law administered by fellow cit¬izens. Early Roman republic introduced its first code of law,Twelve Tables, by 450 B.C.E. These early laws were intended to restrain upper classes from arbitrary action & to subject them & ordinary peo¬ple to some common legal principles. Roman Empire believed law should evolve to meet changing con¬ditions without fluctuating wildly. Idea of Roman law: rules, objectively judged, rather than personal whim should govern social relationships; law steadily took over matters of judgment earlier reserved for fathers of families or for landlords.
22. Describe the characteristics of Roman laws codes that spread widely through the empire.
Roman law codes spread widely through empire & idea of law as regulator of social life. Many non-Romans were given right of citizenship & full access to Rome-appointed judges & uniform laws. Imperial law codes also regulated property rights&commerce> economic unity in empire.
23. What was the key political achievement of the Roman Empire?
Idea of fair & reasoned law, comparable in importance, although quite different in nature, to Chinese elaboration of a complex bureaucratic structure.
24. Describe the functions of government in Rome and Greece.
Most concentrated on maintaining law courts & military forces. Rome put importance on military conquest. Mediter¬ranean govts. regulated some branches of commerce in interest of securing vital grain. Rome= vast pub¬lic works in form of roads/harbors to facili¬tate military transport & commerce. Roman empire built stadiums & public baths to entertain & distract its subjects. City of Rome=over million inhabitants, pro¬vided cheap food & gladiator contests & other entertainment for masses; designed to prevent popular disorder.
25. Describe the religious policies of the Romans.
Govts. supported an official religion, sponsoring public ceremonies to honor gods/ goddesses. Civic religious festivals=important events that expressed/encouraged wide-spread loyalty to state; little attempt to impose this religion on everyone; other religious practices tolerated if they didn’t conflict with loyalty to state. Even later Roman emperors who claimed emperor= god as means of strength¬ening authority, were usually tolerant of other reli¬gions. They attacked Christianity because of Christians’ refusal to place state first in their devotion.
26. What were the chief political legacies of the classical Mediterranean world?
localism & fervent political interests with sense of intense loyalty to state; diversity of political systems with preference for aris¬tocratic rule; importance of law & develop¬ment of elaborate/uniform set of legal principles
IV. Religion and Culture
27. Describe the characteristics of Greco-Roman religion and gods.
derived from belief in spirits of nature elevated into complex set of gods/goddesses who were seen as regulating human life. Greeks & Romans= dif¬ferent names for their pantheon, but objects of worship were same: A creator or father god, Zeus or Jupiter, presided over an unruly assem¬blage of gods /goddesses whose functions ranged from regulating daily passage of sun (Apollo) or oceans (Neptune) to inspiring war (Mars) or human love& beauty (Venus). Specific gods= patrons of other human activities such as metalworking, hunt, literature & his¬tory. Regular ceremonies to gods =political importance; many sought gods’ aid in foretelling future or ensuring good harvest or good health.
28. Compare and contrast the role of gods in Greco-Roman religion and Indian religion.
Activities of gods= good storytelling; like soap operas on superhuman scale >classical Mediterranean religion= important literary tradition, as in India> reflected common heritage of Indo-European invaders; gods often used to illustrate human passions/foibles =serving as symbols of serious inquiry into human nature. Unlike Indi¬ans Greeks/Romans became inter¬ested in their gods more in terms of what they could do for &reveal about humankind on this earth than principles that could elevate people toward higher planes of spirituality.
29. Describe the limitations in Roman religion.
lack of spiritual passion. “Mys¬tery” religions, often imported from Middle East, periodically swept through Greece/Rome, pro¬viding secret rituals & fellowship & greater sense of contact with divine powers. Even more than in China a considerable division arose between upper-class & popular belief.
30. Describe the Greco-Roman search for an ethical model.
(Aristotle, Stoics) gods/goddesses of Greco-Roman= little basis for systematic inquiry into nature or human society or provide basis for ethical thought. Many thinkers sought separate model for ethical behav¬ior. Greek/ Roman moral philosophy issued by philosophers like Aristotle& Cicero stressed importance of moderation & balance in human behavior. Other ethical systems were devised dur¬ing Hellenistic period: Stoics emphasized inner moral independence, to be cultivated by strict discipline of body & by personal bravery. These ethical systems were major contributions in their own right & would also be blended with later religious thought under Christianity.
31. Identify/significance : Socrates In Athens,
Socrates encouraged pupils to question conventional wis¬dom; the government thought he was undermining political loyalty; given choice of suicide or exile, Socrates chose suicide. The Socratic principle of rational inquiry by skeptical questioning> recurrent strand in classical Greek thinking& in its heritage to later societies.
32. Identify/significance: Plato
Plato – Greek philosopher; philosophical tradition in Greece de-emphasized human spirituality in favor of cel¬ebration of human ability to think; result =some similarities to Confucianism but with greater emphasis on skeptical ques-tioning & abstract speculations about basic nature of humanity & the universe.
33. What were the practical results of the Greeks’ interest in rationality as a way to explain nature’s order?
many theories, some wrong, about motions of planets & organization of elemental principles of earth, fire, air, water. Also > interest in mathematics as a means of understanding nature’s patterns.
34. Describe the accomplishments of the Greeks in mathematics and science.
(Pythagoras, Euclid, Ptolemy) Greek&Hellenistic =geometry: theorems of Pythagoras. Hellenistic Scientists: empirical studies of anatomy; medical treatises by Galen not improved on in Western world for centuries. Euclid= world’s most widely used book of geometry. Hel¬lenistic astronomer Ptolemy incorrectly= theory of sun’s motion around stationary earth= it contradicted much ear¬lier Middle Eastern astronomy that recognized the earth’s rotation. Ptolemy’s theory was accepted in West until Copernicus’ work much later.
35. Describe the Roman genius for engineering.
Roman genius=more practical than Greek= engineering: roads & aqueducts that Roman arches= carry great structural weight. Rome= huge buildings. Greek/Hellenistic extension of human reason to nature’s princi-ples= their most impressive legacy.
36. Describe the characteristics of art and literature in Mediterranean civilization.
Official religion inspired themes for artistic expression/ justification for temples, statues,plays devoted to glories of gods. Artists empha¬sized beauty of realistic portrayals of human form & poets /playwrights reflected interest in human condition
37. Describe the characteristics of Greek drama.
com¬edy&tragedy; in contrast to India, Greeks= greatest emphasis on tragedy.
38. Describe the sculpture of the Greeks and Romans.
Athens’s t 5th century sculptors like Phidias created realistic/beautiful images of human form; subjects ranged from goddesses to muscled warriors/ athletes. Roman sculptors, less innovative, continued heroic-realistic tradition=scenes of Roman conquests on triumphal columns; captured power & human qualities of Augustus Caesar & successors on busts & full-figure statues.
39. Describe the characteristics of Greek architecture.
emphasized monumental construction; square or rectangular shape with columned porti¬coes; three embell¬ishments for tops of columns supporting buildings: Doric, Ionic & Corinthian. Greeks invented what Westerners still regard as “classical” archi¬tecture, (Greeks had been influenced by Egyptian models).
40. Describe the architecture of the Romans.
adopted Greek themes; engineering skill> buildings of greater size. Romans learned how to add domes to rectangular buildings= architectural diversity. Empire’s taste for massive, heavily adorned monuments & public buildings reflected Rome’s sense of power/achievement; move away from simple lines of early Greek temples.
41. How was classical Mediterranean art and architecture linked with society that produced them?
Greek and Roman structures were built to be used. Temples, marketplaces, public baths part of daily urban life. Classical art flexible, according to need. Vil¬las or small palaces—built for Roman upper classes built around open courtyard—had light, simple quality rather dif¬ferent from temple architecture. Thousands of people gathered in large hillside theaters of Athens/ other cities for perfor¬mance of plays, as music, poetry. Roman Empire known more for monumental athletic performances—chariot races/ gladiators—than for high-quality popular theater. Even in Rome, ele¬ments of classical art=part of daily urban life & pursuit of pleasure.
V. Economy and Society in Mediterranean
42. Explain the development and consequences of commercial agriculture in Greece and Rome.
First in Greece, then in central Italy, farmers increasingly tempted to shift to production of olives /grapes; this required substantial capital, because not bear fruit for at least five years> many farmers> debt. Large land-lords gained increasing advantage over independent farmers> they could enter into market production on a much larger scale with commercial estates because of greater access to capital.
43. How did the rise of commercial agriculture in Greece and Rome lead to efforts to establish an empire?
Greek city-states, developed colonies for grain production; traded olive oil, wine, manufactured goods, silver. Rome acquired Sicilian grain fields & used much of north Africa as granary>heavy cultivation > soil depletion>reduced agricultural fertility in later centuries
44. Describe the development and characteristics of trade in the Mediterranean.
commercial farming >concern with trade. Private merchants >ships carried agricultural products & goods. Greek/ Roman state supervised grain trade, promoted public works, storage facil¬ities. Luxury products from shops of urban artists /craftsmen= major role in lifestyle of upper classes. Some trade also beyond borders of Mediter¬ranean civilization , for goods from India & China, but Mediterranean peoples=at some disadvantage, for their manufactured products less sophisticated than those of eastern Asia; so, they typically exported animal skins, precious metals & exotic African animals for Asian zoos in return for spices /artistic products of east.
45. Describe the characteristics and role of merchants in the Mediterranean.
Athenian mer¬chants usually foreigners, mostly from trad¬ing peoples of Middle East. = higher status in Rome= 2ndunder landed patricians; aristocracy often disputed merchants’ rights. Merchants fared better in Med. than in China, in terms of official recognition, but worse than in India;.
46. Describe the characteristics and consequences of slavery in the Mediterranean.
Aristotle= justifications for slavery in society. Athenians :slaves as household ser¬vants, silver miners. Sparta used slaves for agricultural work. Slavery spread steadily in Rome from final centuries of republic. Most slaves came from conquered territories> slaves= element in military expan¬sion. = theme visible in earlier civilizations in eastern Mediterranean=helps explain greater importance of military forces/ expansion in these areas than in India or China. Roman slaves= household tasks, tutoring of upper-class children (for which cultured Greek slaves were highly valued) in mines for met¬als/ iron (mine work- brutal) Roman estate owners used large numbers of slaves for agricultural work, along with paid laborers & tenant farmers> pressure placed on free farmers who could not compete with unpaid forced labor.
47. Describe the development of technology in Greece and Rome and explain how it was affected by slavery.
neither interested in tech¬nological innovations for agriculture/manufacturing Greeks=shipbuilding/navigation=vital for trading economy. Romans=skills in engineering>greater urban amenities & good roads>movement of troops. Abundant slave labor discouraged concern for more effi¬cient production methods, so did sense that goals of humankind= artistic & political>Mediterranean society lagged behind India & China in production technology> unfavorable balance of trade with eastern Asia.
48. Describe the characteristics of family structure and the role of women in Greece and Rome.
importance of family structure=hus¬band & father in control. Women=vital economic functions in farming & arti¬san families. Upper class women often= influence/power in household; but in law & culture, women = inferior. Families with too many children sometimes put female infants to death. Early Roman law: gave life/death control over wife;(later= customs held in check by family courts with members of both families.>a case where Roman legal ideas modified traditional family con¬trols. Oppression probably less severe than in China. Many Greek/Roman women in busi¬ness & controlled minor portion of urban property
VI. Toward the Fall of Rome
49. Explain the impact of the fall of Rome and compare its fall to classical civilizations in China and India.
Unlike China, classical Med. Civilization was not simply disrupted only to revive. Unlike India,= no central religion derived from the civ. itself, to serve as link between classical period & what followed. Fall of Rome not uniform: it fell more in some parts others. Result: no single civilization rose to claim mantle of Greece/Rome; Greece/Rome would live on, but their heritage was more complex & selective than India or China.