World War I
(1914 – 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
Treaties of Versailles
Signed 28 June 1919. One of the peace treaties that ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
Woodrow Wilson/Fourteen Points
Summary of how President Wilson thought the war should be concluded; included the ideas of a just peace for Germany, self-determination for all nations, and the creation of a League of Nations
Great Depression
the economic crisis beginning with the stock market crash in 1929 and continuing through the 1930s
New Deal
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt’s economic policies were implemented
fascism
A political movement that promotes an extreme form of nationalism, a denial of individual rights, and a dictatorial one-party rule.
Mussolini
was an Italian politician who led the National Fascist Party and is credited with being one of the key figures in the creation of Fascism.
Nazi Germany/Hitler
German expression of European fascism taking shape as the Nazi Party under the leadership of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945).
Revolutionary Right (Japan)
racial nationalist group that promoted direct imperial rule, Also known as radical Nationalism, this was the movement in Japanese political life that was marked by extreme nationalism, a commitment to elite leadership focused around the emperor and dedication to foreign expansion.
World War II in Asia
A struggle essentially to halt Japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese against primarily Chinese and American foes.
World War II in Europe
A struggle essentially to halt German imperial expansion in Europe, fought by a coalition of allies that included Great Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States.
total war
The channeling of a nation’s entire resources into a war effort.
Holocaust
an act of great destruction and loss of life; the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
Marshall Plan
a United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe (1948-1952)
European Economic Community
an international organization of European countries formed after World War II to reduce trade barriers and increase cooperation among its members
NATO
an international organization created in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty for purposes of collective security