Panic of 1893
Serious economic depression beginning in 1893. Began due to rail road companies over-extending themselves, causing bank failures. Was the worst economic collapse in the history of the country until that point, and, some say, as bad as the Great Depression of the 1930s.
a party organization that recruits its members by dispensing tangible incentives to get favors from government; only cares about winning
A leader in a political party who does favors for urban residents in return for their votes; controls votes and dictates appointments; associated with corruption and organized crime; do not necessarily hold public office.
Credit Mobilier Scandal
This scandal occurred in the 1870s when a railroad construction company’s stockholders used funds that were supposed to be used to build the Union Pacific Railroad for railroad construction for their own personal use. To avoid being convicted, stockholders even used stock to bribe congressional members and the vice president.
A group of people in New York City who worked with and for Burly “Boss” Tweed. He was a crooked politician and money maker. The ring supported all of his deeds. The New York Times finally found evidence to jail Tweed. Without Tweed the ring did not last. These people, the “Bosses” of the political machines, were very common in America for that time
In 1875 Whiskey manufacturers had to pay a heavy excise tax. Most avoided the tax, and soon tax collectors came to get their money. The collectors were bribed by the distillers. This had robbed the treasury of millions in excise-tax revenues. The scandal reached as high as the personal secretary to President Grant.
Railroad Strike of 1877
strike on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad quickly spread across 11 states and shut down 2/3rds of the country’s rail trackage; railroad workers were joined by an estimated 500000 workers from other industries in an escalating strike that was quickly becoming national in scale; Hayes used federal troops to end the labor violence
National Labor Union
founded by William Sylvis (1866); supported 8-hour workday, convict labor, federal department of labor, banking reform, immigration restrictions to increase wages, women; excluded blacks
Knights of Labor
one of the most important American labor organizations of the 19th century, demanded an end to child and convict labor, equal pay for women, a progressive income tax, and the cooperative employer-employee ownership of mines and factories
(1886)100,000 workers rioted in Chicago. After the police fired into the crowd, the workers met and rallied in Haymarket Square to protest police brutality. A bomb exploded, killing or injuring many of the police. The Chicago workers and the man who set the bomb were immigrants, so the incident promoted anti-immigrant feelings.
American Federation of Labor
a federation of North American labor unions that merged with the Congress of Industrial Organizations in 1955
He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.1886 to 1924 (1850-1924)
It was one of the most violent strikes in U.S. history. It was against the Homestead Steel Works, which was part of the Carnegie Steel Company, in Pennsylvania in retaliation against wage cuts. The riot was ultimately put down by Pinkerton Police and the state militia, and the violence further damaged the image of unions.
1894 – nonviolent strike (brought down the railway system in most of the West) at the Pullman Palace Car Co. over wages – Prez. Cleveland shut it down because it was interfering with mail delivery
Chinese Exclusion Act
(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate.
(1901 -1917)-Formed by Midwestern Farmers, Socialists, and Labor Organizers -attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as bimetallism, transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax
Investigative journalists. Ida Tarbell (History of Standard Oil), Sinclair Lewis (Shame of the Cities), Upton Sinclair (The Jungle) in order to bring about reform
An election where people directly elect their party’s candidates for office. Candidates had previously been selected by party caucuses that were considered elitist and undemocratic. This made elected official more accountable to the people.
Procedure whereby a certain number of voters may, by petition, propose a law or constitutional amendment and have it submitted to the voters
Procedure for submitting to popular vote measures passed by the legislature or proposed amendments to a state constitution
Recall (of officeholder)
Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.
Trusts (In Business)
Pure food and drug act (1906)
Legislation also passed in 1906 preventing the adulteration and mislabeling of foods, pharmaceuticals, and specifically patent medicines.
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
Made it so that meat would be inspected by the government from coral to can. It began a quality rating system as well as increased the sanitation requirements for meat producers.
Political parties formed in the unity of an international organization with a set beliefs inspired by the writings of Karl Marx. They desired economic and political philosophy favoring public or government control of property and income. Their goal was to end the capitalist system, distribute wealth more equally, and nationalize American industries
Bull Moose Party
The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was “fit as a bull moose…”). His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.
Amendment to the United States Constitution (1913) gave Congress the power to tax income.
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1920) extended the right to vote to women in federal or state elections.
Alfred T. Mahan
Imperialists rallied for a bigger navy to support expansion, with Captain Mahan leading the way. He said that foreign trade was a crucial part of the economy and thus a navy was necessary to protect ships. Also, navies required colonies for base ports. Roosevelt and Lodge were avid supporters of Mahan.
extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy
One of the causes of the Spanish-American War (1898) – this was when newspaper publishers like Hearst and Pulitzer sensationalized news events (like the sinking of the Maine) to anger American public towards Spain.
De Lome Letter
Spanish Ambassador’s letter that was illegally removed from the U.S. Mail and published by American newspapers. It criticized President McKinley in insulting terms. Used by war hawks as a pretext for war in 1898.
Ship that explodes off the coast of Cuba in Havana harbor and helps contribute to the start of the Spanish-American War
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
Anti Imperialist League
objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900
(1901)This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
Spheres of Influence
Open Door Policy
Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly (ex. Europe and U.S. in China)
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where TR mediated Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. TR won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, the 1st pres. to do so.
Treaty of Portsmouth
(1905) ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905). It was signed in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, after negotiations brokered by Theodore Roosevelt (for which he won the Nobel Peace Prize). Japan had dominated the war and received an indemnity, the Liaodong Peninsula in Manchuria, and half of Sakhalin Island, but the treaty was widely condemned in Japan because the public had expected more.
William Howard Taft
(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn’t appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson
Foreign policy created under President Taft that had the U.S. exchanging financial support ($) for the right to “help” countries make decisions about trade and other commercial ventures. Basically it was exchanging money for political influence in Latin America and the Caribbean.
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women’s suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize
Woodrow Wilson’s program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.
world war I alliance of Britian, France, and Russia, and later joined by Italy, the United States, and others.
World War I alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire
March 1917. Sent from German Foreign Secretary, addressed to German minister in Mexico City. Mexico should attack the US if US goes to war with Germany (needed that advantage due to Mexico’s promixity to the US). In return, Germany would give back Tex, NM, Arizona etc to Mexico.
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
Made it a crime to criticize the government or government officials. Opponents claimed that it violated citizens’ rights to freedom of speech and freedom of the press, gauranteed by the First Amednment.
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
American Expiditionary Force
the soldiers that were drafted into the war formed this. women were able to enlist for the first time
14 Point Plan
wilson’s plan for peace that included the league of nations, self-determined colonies, free trade, freedom of the seas, end to secret agreements, and a limit on arms
Treaty of Versailles
treaty that ended World War I and put all the blame on Germany. the treaty of versailes would not be enforced by Great Brittan or France
May 7, 1915 – British passenger ships were regularly sunk by German subs – had Americans aboard and brought the U.S. into the war. Germany promised to stop submarine warfare.
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations