Alfred Thayer Mahan
A United States Navy officer, geostrategist, and educator. His ideas on the importance of sea power influenced navies around the world, and helped prompt naval buildups before World War I. Several ships were named USS Mahan, including the lead vessel of a class of destroyers. His research into naval History led to his most important work, The Influence of Seapower Upon History,1660-1783, published in 1890
Valeriano Weyler
He was a Spanish General referred to as the “Butcher.” He undertook to crush the Cuban rebellion by herding many civilians into barbed-wire reconcentration camps, where they could not give assistance to the armed insurrectionists. The civilians died in deadly pestholes. “Butcher” was removed in 1897.
Dupuy de Lóme
He was a Spanish minister in Washington who wrote a private letter to a friend concerning President McKinley (called him basically usless and indecisive) The discovery of his letter strained Spanish-American relations, which helped initiate the Spanish-American War.
Theodore Roosevelt
26th president, known for: conservationism, trust-busting, Hepburn Act, safe food regulations, “Square Deal,” Panama Canal, Great White Fleet, Nobel Peace Prize for negotiation of peace in Russo-Japanese War.
George Dewey
A United States naval officer remembered for his victory at Manila Bay in the Spanish-American War, U.S. naval commander who led the American attack on the Philippines.
Emilio Aguinaldo
Leader of the Filipino independence movement against Spain (1895-1898). He proclaimed the independence of the Philippines in 1899, but his movement was crushed and he was captured by the United States Army in 1901.
William Howard Taft
(1908-1912), was endorsed by Roosevelt because he pledged to carry on progressive program, then he didn’t appoint any Progressives to the Cabinet, actively pursued anti-trust law suits, appoints Richard Ballinger as Secretary of the Interior, Ballinger opposed conservation and favored business interests, Taft fires Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. forestry), ran for re-election in 1912 but lost to Wilson.
Policy of moving Cubans to detention camps so that they could not aid rebels.
Extreme, chauvinistic patriotism, often favoring an aggressive, warlike foreign policy.
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically.
guerrilla warfare
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes.
spheres of influence
Areas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly.
yellow peril
What California feared from the influx of JP laborers: being drowned into an Asian sea.
Pan-American Conference
Meetings of the Pan-American Union, an international organization for cooperation on trade and other issues. They were first introduced by James G. Blaine of Maine in order to establish closer ties between the United States and its southern neighbors, specifically Latin America. Blaine hoped that ties between the USA and its southern counterparts would open Latin American markets to U.S. trade.
Teller Amendment
Legislation that promised the US would not annex Cuba after winning the Spanish-American war.
Treaty of Paris
Signed by the United States and Spain in December 1898, this treaty ended the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence and assumed the Cuban debt; it also ceded Puerto Rico and Guam to the United States. At the insistence of the U.S. representatives, Spain also ceded the Phillipines. The Senate ratified the treaty on February 6, 1899.
Anti-Imperialist League
Group objected to the annexation of the Philippines and the building of an American empire. Idealism, self-interest, racism, constitutionalism, and other reasons motivated them, but they failed to make their case; the Philippines were annexed in 1900.
Philippine insurrection
Before the Philippines were annexed by the U.S. there existed tension between U.S. troops and Filippinos. eventually we entered into a war with the Philippines.
Boxer Rebellion
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops.
Rough Riders
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
big-stick diplomacy
Diplomatic policy developed by T.R symbolizing his power and readiness to use military force if necessary. It is a way of intimidating countries without actually harming them and was the basis of U.S. imperialistic foreign policy.
Panama Canal
Ship canal cut across the isthmus of Panama by United States Army engineers; it opened in 1915. It greatly shortened the sea voyage between the east and west coasts of North America. The United States turned the canal over to Panama on Jan 1, 2000.
Roosevelt Corollary
Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force.
Gentlemen’s Agreement
Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them.
Great White Fleet
1907-1909 – Roosevelt sent the Navy on a world tour to show the world the U.S. naval power. Also to pressure Japan into the “Gentlemen’s Agreement.”
Russo-Japanese War
Russia and Japan were fighting over Korea, Manchuria, etc. Began in 1904, but neither side could gain a clear advantage and win. Both sent reps to Portsmouth, NH where Roosevlet mediated the Treaty of New Hampshire in 1905. Roosevlet won the nobel peace prize for his efforts, becoming the first president to do so.
Someone who attempts to convert others to a particular doctrine or program.
White Man’s Burden
A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.
Cuban insurgents who used a scorched earth policy to try to drive out the Spanish landlords.
The doctrine of expanding the territory or the economic influence of a country.