AP Psychology Chapter 12

A personality inventory that utilizes only those items that have been shown to differentiate particular groups of people is called a(n) _ test.
A) factor analytic
B) self-report
C) aptitude
D) projective
E) empirically derived
E) empirically derived
The average difference in intellectual aptitude scores of white and black college graduates has been observed to be greatest when these individuals were
A) eighth graders.
B) high school juniors.
C) college sophomores.
D) college seniors.
E) graduate students.
B) high school juniors.
Freud suggested that the superego develops through the process of
A) self-actualization.
B) fixation.
C) free association.
D) reciprocal determinism.
E) identification.
E) identification.
The tendency to accept more personal responsibility for ones’s successes than one’s failures best illustrates
A) reaction formation.
B) an external locus of control.
C) self-serving bias.
D) the self-reference phenomenon.
E) the spotlight effect.
C) self-serving bias.
Unconsciously motivated by miserliness, Mr. Rioja refused to send his son money to buy the books he needs for his college courses. In defending his actions, Mr. Rioja explained that “parental financial aid prevents teenagers from developing into mature, independent adults.” Mr. Rioja’s explanation is an example of
A) fixation.
B) rationalization.
C) projection.
D) displacement.
E) reaction formation.
B) rationalization.
Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children’s feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parent-child interaction was most explicitly recommended by
A) Bandura.
B) Allport.
C) Freud.
D) Rogers.
E) Jung.
D) Rogers. 1
Paula expects that diligent study will enable her to earn good grades on her tests. Paula’s belief best illustrates
A) self-serving bias.
B) the spotlight effect.
C) an Electra complex.
D) unconditional positive regard.
E) an internal locus on control.
E) an internal locus on control.
After repeatedly taking alcohol spiked with a nausea-producing drug, people with alcoholism may fail to develop an aversive reaction to alcohol because they blame their nausea on the drug. This illustrates the importance of _ in classical conditioning.
A) biological predispositions.
B) generalization.
C) negative reinforcement.
D) cognitive processes.
E) spontaneous recovery.
D) cognitive processes.
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
A) emotional stability.
B) extraversion.
C) openness.
D) agreeableness.
E) conscientiousness.
E) conscientiousness.
Mr. Carlson is a politician who credits his past election victories to his own effective communication and hard work; he attributes his past election losses to factors beyond his control. His assessments best illustrate
A) reciprocal determinism.
B) the Barnum effect.
C) reaction formation.
D) self-serving bias.
E) the spotlight effect.
D) self-serving bias.
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Inge is using the defense mechanism of
A) repression.
B) reaction formation.
C) rationalization.
D) regression.
E) displacement.
A) repression.
People who cheat on their taxes are especially likely to think many other do as well. This false consensus effect is most similar to Freud’s concept of
A) displacement.
B) reaction formation.
C) regression.
D) projection.
E) fixation.
D) projection.
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer?
A) applause for an excellent piano recital
B) a spanking for eating cookies before dinner
C) a cold root beer for mowing the lawn on a hot day
D) termination of shock after removing one’s finger from a live electric water
E) pudding for eating all your peas at supper
A) applause for an excellent piano recital
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of
A) latent learning.
B) shaping.
C) intermittent reinforcement.
D) discrimination.
E) spontaneous recovery.
D) discrimination.
When confronted by an armed robber, your emotional arousal is likely to be accompanied by
A) decreases in blood sugar levels.
B) slowing of digestion.
C) increases in salivation.
D) constriction of pupils to increase visual acuity.
E) decreases in respiration rate.
B) slowing of digestion.
Rush hour traffic is to upset stomach as _ is to _.
A) fight; flight
B) Type B; Type A
C) lymphocyte; macrophage
D) stressor; stress reaction
E) adaption; exhaustion
D) stressor; stress reaction
Which of the following statistical measures is most helpful for indicating the extent to which high school grades predict college grades?
A) standard deviation
B) mean
C) median
D) correlation coefficient
E) range
D) correlation coefficient
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basic
A) self-serving biases.
B) defense mechanisms.
C) personality traits.
D) psychosexual stages.
E) self-concepts.
C) personality traits.
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate’s performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual’s
A) current feelings of personal control.
B) specific political goals for the future.
C) general feelings of optimism about the future.
D) past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
E) personality traits as revealed by the MMPI.
D) past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective often are very likely using the defense mechanism of
A) projection.
B) regression.
C) rationalization.
D) reaction formation.
E) displacement.
D) reaction formation.
According to Freud, the unconscious is
A) the part of personality that cannot process information.
B) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
C) a set of universal concepts acquired by all human from our common past.
D) a reservoir of deeply repressed memories that does not affect behavior.
E) the personality structure that abides by the reality principle.
B) the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware.
Evidence that visual input is evoked from the thalamus directly to the amygdala had been used to support the claim that
A) the cortex sends more neural projections in the amygdala than it receives back.
B) emotion tends to distort our perceptions of the word.
C) a visual stimulus always triggers a stronger emotional response than does an auditory stimulus.
D) some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking.
E) blind people must learn expressions of emotion.
D) some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking.
Brenda has never cheated on a psychology test, but she often does so on chemistry test. She recently stole some merchandise from a local store, but she also returned a lost billfold along with $28 to its rightful owner. Walter Mischel would have suggested that this pattern of behavior should make psychologists more more cautious about emphasizing the consistency of
A) personality traits.
B) personal control.
C) defense mechanism.
D) reciprocal determinism.
E) unconditional positive regard.
A) personality traits.
The humanistic perspective is to Maslow as the social-cognitive perspective is to
A) Allport.
B) Rogers.
C) Adler.
D) Bandura.
E) Jung.
D) Bandura.
According to Bandura, reciprocal determinism involves multidirectional influences among
A) mind, body, behavior.
B) thoughts, emotions, actions.
C) behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
D) id, ego, and superego.
E) learned helplessness, loss of control, and oppression
C) behaviors, internal personal factors, and environmental events.
Which of the following techniques did Freud use to discover the latent content of his patients’ dreams?
A) fixation
B) factor analysis
C) projective feeling
D) free association
E) the Barnum effect
D) free association
Abraham Lincoln studied the lives of Abraham Lincoln, Theodore Jefferson, and Eleanor Roosevelt in order to understand the nature of
A) reciprocal determinism.
B) an internal locus of control.
C) self-actualization.
D) the false conscious effect.
E) defense mechanism.
C) self-actualization.
Humanistic psychologists would most likely be criticized for underestimating the value of
A) an internal locus of control.
B) self-serving bias.
C) social influence.
D) the spotlight effect.
E) individualism.
C) social influence.
The most foolproof way of testing the true effectiveness of a newly introduced method of psychological therapy is by means of
A) survey research.
B) case study research.
C) naturalistic observation.
D) correlational research.
E) experimental research.
E) experimental research.
Carl Jung emphasized the importance of _ is personality functioning.
A) social interest.
B) inferiority feelings.
C) psychosexual stages.
D) the collective unconscious.
E) unconditional positive regard.
D) the collective unconscious.
People are more vulnerable to obesity if they experience
A) anorexia nervosa.
B) sleep deprivation.
C) refractory periods.
D) neophobia.
E) homeostasis.
B) sleep deprivation.
After experiencing indescribable experiences as a prisoner as a Nazi concentration camp, Mr. Sternberg become apathetic, stooped eating, and gave up all efforts to physically survive the ordeal. Mr. Sternberg’s reaction most clearly illustrates
A) an inferiority complex.
B) the self-reference phenomenon.
C) learned helplessness.
D) an internal locus of control.
E) reaction formation.
C) learned helplessness.
Because she is often rejected by her parents, Sally mistreats other people and treat them with hostility, which leads to their rejection of her.
A) an external locus of control.
B) the spotlight effect.
C) the self-serving phenomenon.
D) reaction formation.
E) reciprocal determinism.
E) reciprocal determinism.
No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feels she hasn’t studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologist would suggest that Lerae shows signs of a
A) weak id.
B) weak ego.
C) weak superego.
D) strong id.
E) strong superego.
E) strong superego.
Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as “75 percent lean” than to ground beef described as “25 percent fat.” This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by
A) the representativeness heuristic.
B) the belief perseverance phenomenon.
C) confirmation bias.
D) the availability heuristic.
E) framing.
E) framing.
Katrinka habitually makes nasty, hostile comments about her teachers, Freud would have suggested that her behavior illustrates the powerful influence of the
A) collective unconscious.
B) superego.
C) ego.
D) id.
E) Oedipus complex.
D) id.
B. F. Skinner’s work elaborated what E.I. Thorndike had called
A) shaping.
B) behaviorism.
C) observational learning.
D) the law of effect.
E) latent learning.
D) the law of effect.
Which neo-Freudian theorist emphasized the influence of the collective unconscious in personality development?
A) Jung
B) Alder
C) Horney
D) Maslow
E) Bandura
A) Jung
The tendency to estimate that the letter “k” appears more often as the first letter of words than as the third letter best illustrates our use of
A) the representativeness heuristic.
B) the availability heuristic.
C) prototypes
D) algorithms.
E) semantics.
B) the availability heuristic.
Christine, who is opposed to capital punishment, was extremely surprised to learn that the results of a survey indicated that the majority of the population approved of capital punishment, Christine’s surprise best illustrates the power of
A) the false consensus effect.
B) the placebo effect.
C) random assignment.
D) the double-blind procedure.
E) the hindsight bias.
A) the false consensus effect.
Low self-esteem is associated with
A) an internal locus of control.
B) self-serving bias.
C) unhappiness.
D) unconditional positive regard.
E) extraversion.
C) unhappiness.
Word meaning is to world order as _ is to _.
A) concept; prototype
B) phoneme; grammar
C) morpheme; phoneme
D) semantics; syntax
E) nomenclature; semantics
D) semantics; syntax
In a study of the effect of alcohol consumption, some participants drink a nonalcoholic beverage that actually smelled and tasted like alcohol. This nonalcoholic drink was a
A) dependent variable.
B) replication.
C) placebo.
D) random sample.
E) double blind.
C) placebo.
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator labels a person who is sympathetic, appreciative, and tactful as a(n) _ type.
A) thinking
B) judging
C) feeling
D) intuitive
E) perceiving
C) feeling
Destruction of the ventromedial hypothalamus of a rat is more likely to
A) lower its set point for body weight.
B) cause it to stop eating.
C) lower its blood insulin level.
D) cause the rat to become extremely fat.
E) raise orexin and ghrelin levels.
D) cause the rat to become extremely fat.
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as
A) reaction formation.
B) projection.
C) fixation.
D) displacement.
E) repression.
C) fixation.
According to Maslow, our sequence of needs would be our need for
A) love must be met before our need for food.
B) self-esteem must be met before our need for economic security.
C) self-actualization must be met before our need for economic security.
D) political freedom must be met before our need for economic security.
E) religious fulfillment must be met before our need for adequate housing.
A) love must be met before our need for food.
After taking two years of college economics courses, Lionel thinks he knows enough about business become a millionaire. Lionel should become aware of
A) the representativeness heuristic.
B) functional fixedness.
C) the belief perseverance phenomenon.
D) overconfidence.
E) the framing effect.
D) overconfidence.
Tests that present ambiguous stimuli designed to uncover hidden personality dynamics are called _ tests.
A) empirical
B) projective
C) multiphasic personality
D) factor analytic
E) aptitude
B) projective
Conditioning is the process of
A) discrimination.
B) spontaneous recovery.
C) learning associations.
D) observational learning.
E) generalization.
C) learning associations.
Researchers have observed that the experience of repeated uncontrollable traumatic events contributes to
A) the false consensus effect.
B) learned helplessness.
C) the self-reference phenomenon.
D) an internal locus of control
E) reaction formation.
B) learned helplessness.
Reaction formation refers to the process by which people
A) disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.
B) consciously express feeling that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
C) retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development.
D) offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action
E) banish anxiety-producing wishes from our conscious mind.
B) consciously express feeling that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
A) disguise unacceptable unconscious impulses by attributing them to others.
B) consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
C) retreat to behavior patterns characteristic of an earlier stage of development
D) offer self-justifying explanations in place of the real but unacceptable unconscious reasons for action.
E) banish anxiety-producing wishes from our conscious mind.
B) consciously express feelings that are the opposite of unacceptable unconscious impulses.
A person whose self-esteem is momentarily threatened is especially likely to
A) demonstrate an independence from social pressure to conform.
B) criticize the shortcoming of others.
C) lack a clear sense of gender identity.
D) experience an internal locus of control.
E) be motivated by a desire for self-actualization.
B) criticize the shortcoming of others.
While Professor Gomez was going through a painful divorce, he tended to create unnecessarily difficult test and give his students unusually low grades. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to view the professor’s treatment of students as an example of
A) reaction formation.
B) rationalization.
C) displacement.
D) projection.
E) regression.
C) displacement.
Freud suggested that orally fixated adults are especially likely to exhibit
A) passive dependence.
B) an inferiority complex.
C) an Electra complex.
D) the self-reference phenomenon.
E) messiness and disorganization.
A) passive dependence.
Analena’s refusal to purchase fattening snacks at the grocery store is both a cause and a consequence of her superior dietary self-control. This best illustrates the importance of
A) the spotlight effect.
B) reciprocal determinism.
C) an external locus of control
D) the self-reference phenomenon.
E) an optimistic personality.
B) reciprocal determinism.
A 6-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 8-year-old was said to have an IQ of
A) 75.
B) 85.
C) 115.
D) 125.
E) 133.
E) 133.
When a person’s test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be
A) reliable
B) standardized.
C) valid.
D) normally distributed.
E) internally consistent.
B) standardized.
Which of the following tests was empirically derived?
A) TAT
B) Rorschach inkblot test.
C) MMPI
D) Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
E) Hierarchy of Needs
C) MMPI
People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
A) experience an internal locus of control.
B) overestimate the accuracy of their beliefs.
C) manifest self-serving bias.
D) succumb to conformity pressures.
E) have a strong ego.
D) succumb to conformity pressures.
Ego is to id as _ is to _.
A) unconscious; conscious
B) biology; morality
C) reality principle; pleasure principle
D) regression; repression
E) self-serving bias; self-esteem
C) reality principle; pleasure principle
After receiving an unexpected “A” on his psychology test, Jordan was easily persuaded to baby-sit his little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the
A) catharsis hypothesis.
B) adaption-level principle.
C) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
D) relative deprivation principle.
E) facial feedback effect.
C) feel-good, do-good phenomenon.
Freud believed that _ were the “royal road to the unconscious.”
A) projective tests
B) dreams
C) erogenous zones
D) psychosexual stages
E) hypnotic trances
B) dreams
Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the _ stage.
A) one-word
B) telegraphic
C) babbling
D) syntactic
E) grammar
C) babbling
A psychotherapists suggests that Theresa can effectively reduce the anger she feels toward her ex-boyfriend by tearing pictures of him into little pieces. This therapeutic technique is based on the
A) catharsis hypothesis.
B) adaption-level principle.
C) James-Lange theory.
D) two-factor theory.
E) relative deprivation principle.
A) catharsis hypothesis.
When Professor McKay nervously began teaching a university class for the first time, he overestimated the extent to which his students would notice that he was anxious. His reaction best illustrates
A) self-serving bias.
B) an Electra complex.
C) the spotlight effect.
D) the self-reference phenomenon.
E) reciprocal determinism.
C) the spotlight effect.
To accurately infer cause and effect, experimenters should use
A) random assignment.
B) naturalistic observation.
C) standard deviations.
D) correlation coefficients.
E) scatterplots.
A) random assignment.
A drive refers to
A) a rigidly patterned and unlearned behavior characteristic of a species.
B) anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.
C) an aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
D) the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure.
E) an unconscious, repressed desire for pleasure.
C) an aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
Maslow most clearly interjected his own personal values into his study of self-actualized individuals by
A) selectively studying people with qualities to be admired.
B) interpreting their flattering self-descriptions as a self-serving bias.
C) overemphasizing the value of their loyalty to cultural norms.
D) using projective tests to assess their motives.
E) using free association and dream analysis.
A) selectively studying people with qualities to be admired.
If pregnant sheep are injected with _ during a critical gestation period, their female offspring will show homosexual behavior.
A) estrogen
B) insulin
C) PYY
D) orexin
E) testosterone
E) testosterone
One night after he heard his parents arguing, 4-year-old Wei had a vivid dream in which he saved his mother from being bitten by a large snake. A psychoanalyst would most likely suspect that Wei’s dream reflects a(n)
A) oral fixation.
B) reaction formation.
C) self-serving bias.
D) Oedipus complex.
E) external locus of control.
D) Oedipus complex.
Melissa is unconsciously fearful that her husband is a better cook than she. Recently, she refused his offer to prepare dinner because, said she “You could better spend the time playing with our kids.” Melissa’s comment best illustrates
A) regression.
B) projection.
C) rationalization.
D) displacement.
E) reaction formation.
C) rationalization.
The intelligence test scores of adopted children are least likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during
A) middle childhood.
B) early adolescence.
C) middle adolescence.
D) early adulthood.
E) retirement age.
D) early adulthood.
In very stressful or embarrassing situations, Sanura is able to maintain her poise and help others to feel comfortable. Sanura’s ability best illustrates the value of
A) extrinsic motivation.
B) heritability.
C) divergent thinking.
D) savant syndrome.
E) emotional intelligence.
E) emotional intelligence.

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