by identifying necessary qualifications and characteristics
by listing example of states in various regions
by describing ” quasi-states”
In the United States of America, the fifty states are a subdivision within a single state. Another way to define a state is by its boundary lines. Between the 1940’s and the late 80’s two superpowers existed: The United States and the Soviet Union. Now the United States is less dominant in political landscape, and the Soviet Union no longer exists.
quasi state: guilty of not functioning according to state statutes and thereby not spending the taxpayers’ money correctly
Today, globalization means more connections, among states created primarily for economic cooperation, despite greater global political cooperation, local diversity has increased in political affairs, as individual groups demand more control over the territory they inhabit.
Korea: Colony of Japan,
Divided into occupation zones(2), by the US and the Soviet Union after they defeated Japan in World War 2. North Korea and South Korea admitted into the UN as separate countries
Cyprus Green line boundary: Cyprus, the third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, contains two nationalities: Greek and Turkish. When Cyprus gained independence from Britain in 1960, its constitution guaranteed the Turkish minority a substantial share of elected offices and control over its own education, religion, and culture. But Cyprus never peacefully integrated the Greek and Turkish nationalities, in 1974 several Greek Cypriot military officers who favored unification of Cyprus with Greece seized control of the government. Turkey invaded Cyprus to protect the Turkish Cypriot minority. The Turkish sector declared itself the independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, but only Turkey recognizes it as a separate state. A wall was constructed as a buffer zone and is patrolled by the UN was delineated across the entire island, geographically isolating the two nationalities.
Stateless nations: Example would be the Kurdish people, who used to have their own state near Turkey but they were invaded and pushed out and were left without any territory to call a state. Also Roma people are scattered all across Europe, most of them that live in Belgium are not even recognized as a nationality most technically do not exists as citizens there. The children that go to school in Belgium have to go to “special classes” and are treated like primitive people because they speak a different language and have no official state.
There are two types of boundaries, physical and cultural
Physical boundaries: consists of three types of physical elements which serve as boundaries between states: Mountain, Desert, and Oceans.
Desert boundaries: hard to cross, and sparsely inhabited, common in Africa and Asia,
Mountain Boundaries: Effective for boundaries because they are difficult to cross because they are sparsely inhabited.
Water Boundaries: Which are rivers, lakes, and Oceans. are especially common in East Africa,
Two main, geometric( simple straight line drawn on a map), and ethnic( Language and religion).
Geometric: northern US boundary with Canada: 49 North Latitude. established in 1846, Also Alaska and the Yukon, territory at 14 West Longitude, and Chad and Libya,
Religious boundaries: religious differences often coincide with the boundaries between states.The most notable religious boundary is in South Asia, when the British partition India into two states on the basis of religion. Same with the island of Erie in Ireland. Language Boundary: Cyrpus Greece and Turkey
Mountain: they do not always provide amicable separation of neighbors( Argentina and Chile) Which agreed to divide by the crest of the Andes Mountains, but couldn’t come up with a precise location.
Water Boundaries: They may seem permanent, but the precise position of the water may change over time, rivers in particular. Ocean boundaries, cause problems because states usually claim that the boundary line is not usually on the coast line, but out at sea.( reason are for defense and for control of valuable fishing industries)
The colonial era began in the fourteen hundreds, Europeans lost most of their Western Hemisphere colonies, and then they turned their attention to Africa and Asia. The European colonization of Africa and Asia is called imperialism. Which is control of a territory that is already occupied and organized by an indigenous society. Colonialism is the control of uninhibited or sparsely inhibited land. Britain is the largest colonial empire, France is the second. primarily over West Africa and South East Asia. France attempted to assimilate their colonies into French culture. The British created different government structures and policies in their empire. Most African and Asian colonies became independent after World War 2. Now days, only a handful of colonies remain in the Pacific Ocean or the Carribean Sea. Puerto Rico which is the commonwealth of the US, 4 million are residents of the US. World’s least populated colony is Pitcairn Island, which was settled by British Mutineers.