The main difference between economists and economic anthropologists is that economists
try to understand and predict economic patterns
Which of the following is NOT true of economic anthropology?
it assumes that free market capitalism will take over the world
Anthropologist Ashraf Ghani’s successes as a finance minister and presidential candidate in Afghanistan can be attributed to what?
his attentiveness to local social norms and priorities
From an anthropological perspective, the main reason Wall Street banks are not the bastions of individualism and cold rationalism many think they are is that
personal relationships and local knowledge are critical to successful transactions
A substantivist would be most likely to explain the Kula cycle as
closely tied to important social institutions, such as kin networks, trading ties, and political structure.
A Marxist approach to the cultural processes Karen Ho studied of Wall Street would be most focused on
the tendency to lay off employees on a regular basis as the bank suffers through financial crises caused by its own activities.
In Malaysia capitalist entrepreneurship is
respectful of Islamic and Malay obligations and values
A formalist anthropologist doing fieldwork in a supermarket would be most interested in
how shoppers decide which cat food to buy when they have fifteen varieties to choose from
Which of the following is a theoretical approach to how economics create value used in society?
Which economic theory studies how people make decisions to allocate resources like time, labor, and money in order to maximize their personal satisfaction?
According to Marshall Sahlins, when production is organized by families it is
the domestic mode of production
Gift exchange for Marcel Mauss is based in
When you are consuming an object, the process of taking procession of it is called
The central point of the concept of spheres of exchange is to make a distinction between general- and limited-purpose money.
Although Russians do use money to buy things, they also rely on bartering when money is scarce.
Gift exchanges are important because people everywhere invest symbolic meaning in the things they give, receive, and consume
To follow political action one must be familiar with society’s rules and codes about who gets to exercise power and under what conditions
In some hunter-gather groups relations are egalitarian and women can become leaders of a band.
A key feature of political anthropologist Maxwell Owusu’s perspective on democracy in Ghana is that the state will work better if village chiefs play a role in decision-making
In some societies witchcraft accusations can work as an informal method of social control
The exercise of political power requires
In many societies people resolve disputes by restoring harmony, although people are not always satisfied with this resolution. Why?
because of a preference for justice, fairness, and the rule of law
For anthropologist, political power refers to
how power is used to attain goals for the good of the community
Which English philosophers were concerned with the problem of disorder and argued that chaos is avoidable by creating strong government?
Hobbes and Locke
Which of the following explanations of political relationships among the !Kung would be least likely to come from a traditional political anthropologist?
the !Kung have to navigate complex politics as ethnic minorities in states that dont want them
The importance of structural functionalism is that it
showed that non-Western societies have order without formal government
Violence between ethnic groups is not inevitable, but the idea that it is persists. Which of the following is NOT a reason for its persistence?
ethnic groups actually do fight with each other all the time
Which branch of cultural anthropology looks at the way that people handle disputes?
Power that transcends individuals, operating in settings and orchestrating settings in which social and individual actions take place, is
The !Kung people of southern Africa are an example what kind of society?
Which theory was used to explain how stateless societies maintained social order and equilibrium?
Which government agency’s activities might you focus on if you wanted to understand structural power?
a census office
In Latin America, “blackness” and “whiteness” are based on
A good illustration of the naturalization of race is
the processes involved in approving BiDil for use among African Americans
Which of the following is NOT true about ethnicity?
anthropologists agree on the theory to explain it
A good example of disguised discrimination is
when the police do racial profiling
The most important thing about “the invisible knapsack” idea is that
these privileges exist whether or not the person carries racial supremacist ideas
The “natural” order represented in social hierarchies of any society is supported by
A major problem with the approach to race that defines race as reproductively isolated breeding populations is that
every breeding population qualifies as race
What social distinction classifies people according to descent?
The social, economic, and political processes of transforming populations into races and creating racial meanings is called
A key difference between caste and social class is
caste divided people in terms of moral purity, class in socioeconomic terms
Anthropologists are interested in a situation like the way the new heart drug BiDil was created and approved because
it shows how cultural, political, and economic processes can work together to promote the idea that race is biologically based
An anthropologist who studies unearned privilege would be most interested in which of the following?
a situation in which an upper-class man gets accepted at an Ivy League university because his father and grandfather went there
A preformed, usually unfavorable, opinion about people who are different is
If you wanted to study ongoing racialization processes in the United States, you would most likely focus on
new patterns in which people are dropping ethnic identification in favor of whiteness
What is an important factor in making race real?
Why would English colonial leaders portray Africans as uncivilized heathens?
to justify African slavery
An anthropologist who uses instrumentalist theories of ethnicity would explain the rise of “Latino” food distributor Goya as
the creation of a special market segment by a food company to enhance its profitability
The social processes that make race part of the natural order of things- by producing theories, schemes, and typologies about human differences is
the naturalization of race
Genetically speaking, humans are a remarkably homogeneous species: there is far greater variation within human groups than there is between them
Race can become biology, by shaping people’s biological outcomes due to disparities in access to certain kinds of healthcare and diets, exposure to certain kinds of diseases, and other factors that can make people either sick or healthy
Anthropologists agree that, in addition to prejudice and discrimination, unearned privilege upholds social inequality.
Cross-dressing rebel soldiers in Liberia is an excellent illustration of what?
the fact that gender identities are rooted in local concepts and practices
A biocultural perspective on gender variance would emphasize all of the following EXCEPT
the relative allocation of sex-specific hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen, that influence whether a person is male or female
The early anthropologist who wrote the book Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies and was the first to distinguish between biological sex and gender roles was
A key finding of anthropologist Matthew Gutmann’s fieldwork on masculinity in Mexico is that
women challenge men’s domination over them by arguing and issuing ultimatums
A number of societies have the notion that men are ___ and women are ___.
Which of the following observations would be least likely to come from an anthropologist who shares Simone de Beauvoir’s notion of “second sex”?
Western models of male-female relations cannot be universalized
Anthropologists understand that in order to understand gender/sex inequalities one must study
both men and women
What is the main implication of Don Kulick’s story about “coming out in the field” for other anthropologists who do not necessarily study in a gay community?
developing a rapport sometimes relies on sharing a lot in common with your subjects
Sherry Ortner, a feminist anthropologist, observed that the roots of female subordination lay in the distinction all societies make between
nature and culture
Sex-assignment surgery is important because it
shows that “sex” is constructed upon cultural assumption
People everywhere establish their gender/sex identities, including normative categories like “man” or “woman,” through
One of the reasons it is important to develop culturally sensitive campaigns to address a health crisis like HIV/AIDS is that
what some people think is gay sex is not considered to be the case by others
French existentialist philosopher Simone de Beauvoir argued in her book The Second Sex that
throughout history women have been treated as inferior
Which of the following is a dilemma facing an ethnographer of transgender people in the United States?
how one’s research or advocacy can reinforce social inequalities and suffering
Individuals who diverge from the male-female norm and exhibit sexual organs and functions somewhere between, including both male and female, are called
Indiana University biologist Dr. Alfred Kinsey conducted a series of sexuality studies during the 1940s and found that
sexuality exists on a continuum
In nearly all societies with any degree of social stratification, more men are in leadership roles than women, not only in political roles but also in economic and social roles involving trade, exchange, kinship relations, ritual participation, and dispute resolution.
The notion of “ritualized homosexuality” developed by Gilbert Herdt was problematic because Western notions of homosexuality do not easily apply cross-culturally.
In many societies, some people live their lives as neither male not female
The dichotomy between males and females is not two distinct categories but a continuum of sexual possibilities in the human species