Drugs are most frequently eliminated by biotransformation and/or elimination into urine or gall. The liver is the major organ for xenobiotic biotransformation and is thereby of import in qualifying the metamorphosis stableness, toxicology, and drug-drug interaction belongingss of drugs. Drug metamorphosis is achieved via two major enzyme reactions within the liver, Phase I and Phase II reactions. Phase I enzymes include the cytochrome-P450 ( CYP ) household of enzymes which are located in the smooth endoplasmic Reticulum. The basic procedures in stage I reactions are oxidization, decrease and/or hydrolysis many of which are catalyzed by the CYP system and necessitate NADPH as a cofactor. Phase II enzymes are located in the cytol and endoplasmic Reticulum and are characteristic of junction reactions including glucuronic acid, glutathione, sulphate, and glutamine junctions. Phase II reactions by and large inactivate the drug if it is non already therapeutically inactive following Phase I metabolism, and do the drug more H2O soluble to ease its riddance. Some drugs are metabolized by Phase I or Phase II enzymes entirely whereas others are metabolized by both Phase I and Phase II enzymes. ( Rodrigues, A.D 1994 )

Microsomal stableness assay

Metabolic stableness is defined as the susceptibleness of a chemical compound to biotransformation, and is expressed as in vitro half life ( t1/2 ) and intrinsic clearance ( CLin ) . By utilizing these values, in vivo pharmacokinetic parametric quantities like bioavailability and in vivo half life can be calculated. The drug metabolic enzymes possess wide substrate specificity and can metabolise multiple compounds. So the hazard for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions is ever a possible job during the drug development procedure. For this ground, suppression and initiation in vitro screens are used early, before choice of a candidate drug, to gauge the hazard for clinically important drug-drug interactions. ( BaranczewskiA paweA‚ 2006 )

Liver Microsomes

Microsomes are defined operationally as the particulate fraction obtained from a tissue homogenate by executing extremist centrifugation after the atomic and mitochondrial fractions have been removed at low revolutions per minute. Electron microscopy has shown that microsomes are composed chiefly of closed pouch of membrane called cysts. The cysts are copied from unsmooth and smooth endoplasmic Reticulum ( ER ) . Membrane cysts derived from the Golgi setup, peroxisomes, endosomes and other intermediate compartments consist of a minor constituent of microsomes. Liver microsomes contain unsmooth and smooth ER cysts ( 2:1 ) ratio, and, constituents held over in protein secretory tract are battalion of proteins which involves in lipid/lipoprotein biogenesis, and drug metamorphosis. The Endoplasmic Reticulum is the richest membrane in the active cells. About 2-3 milligram of microsomal protein is obtained from liver per gm of wet tissue. As such, microsomal readying is used to analyze the relationships between lipid -protein interaction, enzyme construction, protein and protein binding and the functional belongingss of membrane attached enzymes. Many of the most microsomal proteins have been studied extensively ; many are hanging about to be isolated and considered.

Preparation of microsomes

After the choice of tissue for survey, the composing of the homogenous buffer, the homogenisation method, and the low centrifugation velocity and clip are the of import variables in the readying of microsomes. The homogenous buffer is isosmotic and contains ( normally 10-100 mM Tris, HEPES, or Triethanolamine, pH 7.5-8.1 ) , a chelating agent, and a cut downing agent such as 1 millimeter dithiothreitol ( DTT ) . Depending on the tissue been selected and the protein or activity of involvement, it may be good to add Mg ( 1-5 millimeter ) , and/or peptidase inhibitor ( s ) to the homogenizing buffer. The nature and volume of tissue to be processed determines the pick of technique for homogenisation. Delicate tissues such as encephalon and liver are readily homogenized with Potter-Elvehjem tissue bombers. A big volume of tissue is homogenized in a Warring liquidizer. Microsomes are pelleted by centrifugation from the post-mitochondrial supernatant at about 200,000 g ( 45,000 RPM ) for 30-60 proceedingss in the Ultracentrifuge. Rabbit liver microsomes can be prepared by homogenising minced tissue from two animate beings ( combiningly the liver weight shoukd be about 160 g ) in 800 milliliters 100 millimeters Tris ethanoate, pH 7.5, 100 millimeter KCl, 1 millimeter EDTA, and 0.1 millimeter DTT in a Warring liquidizer. The livers are perfused with buffer prior to homogenisation and to restrict taint with hemoglobin and serum proteins. It is of import non to over-homogenize the suspension so as to avoid the formation of atomic and mitochondrial fragments. Differential centrifugation procedures are so applied in series to take unbroken cells, karyon, and chondriosomes. Consecutive centrifugation at 600 ten g and 10,000 ten g gives pellets designated the “ atomic ” and “ mitochondrial ” fractions. Centrifugation of the station mitochondrial supernatant at 105,000 g for 90 proceedingss yields the microsomes in a pelleted signifier. The stray microsomal fraction consists of smooth and unsmooth microsomes, the latter holding ribosomes attached on their outer surface. A denseness gradient deposit procedure can be used at this point to divide the rough and smooth microsomes. The w/w denseness concentrations can be made as follows 20 % , 30 % . 40 % and 50 % in 5 ml stairss for each concentration and 5 milliliter of the microsome pellet suspension can be layered on each four-step gradient. It was found that after centrifugation at 200,000 tens g for about 90 min the denseness of smooth microsomes and unsmooth microsomes were 30 % and 45 % scope. Slow acceleration and decelerate slowing plans for the extremist extractor should be used for the fixed angle rotor to forestall sample/gradient blending before or after the centrifugation tally. A subcutaneous syringe and long acerate leaf should be used to take the seeable microsome zones in the gradient ( F.S Heinemann and Juris Ozols, 1998 ) .

CYP: cytochrome P450, NQ01: NADPH: quinine oxidoreductase ( DT diaphorase ) ; DPD: dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase ; ADH: intoxicant dehydrogenase ; ALDH: aldehyde dehydrogenase

HMT: histamine methyltransferase ; TPMT: thiopurine methyltransferase ; COMT: catechol O-methyltransferase ; UGT: Uridine Glucuronosyl-S-Transferases ; ST: Sulfotransferase ; GST: Glutathione-S-Transferases.

Hepatic Clearance:

For certain drugs, the normal clearances can be assumed as equal to hepatic clearance ClH. It is given as:

ClH = ClT – ClR

An equation analogue to the above equation can besides be written for hepatic clearance:


Where QH = Hepatic blood flow ( about 1.5 litres/min ) and ERH = hepatic extraction ratio. The hepatic clearance of drugs can be divided into two groups: drugs with hepatic blood flow rate-limited clearance, and with intrinsic capacity-limited clearance.

1.Hepatic Blood Flow:

When ERH is one ClH approaches its maximal value i.e. hepatic blood flow. In such a state of affairs, hepatic clearance is said to be perfusion rate-limited or flow -dependent. Change in hepatic blood flew significantly affects the riddance of drugs with high ERH e.g. propranolol, Lidocaine, etc. Such drugs are removed from the blood every bit quickly as they are presented to the liver ( high first-pass hepatic metamorphosis ) . Indocyanine green is so quickly eliminated by the human liver that its clearance is frequently used as an, index of hepatic blood flow rate. First-pass hepatic extraction is suspected when there is deficiency of unchanged drug in systemic circulation alter unwritten disposal. An extension of the same equation is the non-compartmental method of gauging F:

F = I – ERH = AUC

On the contrary, hepatic blood flow has really small or no consequence on drugs with low ERH eg. Elixophyllin. For such drugs, whatever concentration of drug nowadays in the blood perfuses liver, is more than what the liver can extinguish ( low first-pass hepatic metamorphosis ) . Similar treatment can be extended to the influence of blood flow on nephritic clearance of drugs. This is illustrated in Table. Hepatic clearance of a retarding force with high ER is independent of protein binding.

2. Intrinsic Capacity Clearance:

Denoted as ClintH is defined as the built-in ability of an organ to irreversibly take a drug in the absence of any flow restriction, it depends, in this instance, upon the hepatic enzyme activity. Drugs with low ERH and with riddance chiefly by metamorphosis are greatly affected by changed in enzyme activity. Hepatic clearance of such drugs is said to be capacity limited. Eg, Theophylline the such drugs show great inter capable variableness. Hepatic clearance of drugs with low ER is independent of blood flow rate but sensitive to alterations in protein binding. ( Brahmankar and jaiswal 1995 )

In vitro measuring of intrinsic clearance ( Clin )

The in vitro measuring of intrinsic clearance ( CLin ) utilizing hepatic microsomes and/or hepatocytes is often used to gauge the in vivo metabolic stableness of new drug entities in both rat and homo ( Houston, 1994 ; Obach, 1999 ; McGinnity and Riley, 2001 ) , for long clip metabolite formation method has been used for measuring of in vitro CLin, where the initial rate of metabolite production utilizing hepatic microsomes or hepatocytes is measured over a scope of substrate concentrations under additive conditions with regard to protein concentration/cell denseness and clip ( Madan et al 2002 ; Houston et al 2003 ) . Short incubation times and low enzyme ( protein ) concentrations are used in these surveies, in ordert to be in conformity with the Michaelis-Menten equation assumes less than 10 % substrate ingestion. Therefore, issues such as the stableness of the enzyme readying ( ensuing from long incubation times ) , nonspecific binding ( ensuing from high enzyme concentrations ) , and stop merchandise suppression ( ensuing from the accretion of the phase-I hydroxylated metabolite in the microsomal incubation ) are non by and large restrictions. However, the chief disadvantage demand of anterior cognition of the peculiar metabolic tract under survey and its importance to the overall metabolic destiny of the drug to guarantee a true and accurate anticipation of clearance. This may be debatable if multiple metabolic tracts are involved. For many drugs, particularly new drug campaigners, this information is non known ; hence, the usage of this attack is limited. More late, the substrate depletion attack has been used, where the ingestion of parent drug is monitored over clip. This method is peculiarly popular in the pharmaceutical industry because formal kinetic word picture and metabolite quantification are non required, leting the rapid showing of compounds ( LaveA? et al. 1997 ; Obach, 2001 ) . However, compared with the metabolite formation attack, this method has been ill defined. Although CLint is expressed per unit clip and per unit enzyme ( protein ) , initial one-dimensionality surveies are normally non performed and arbitrary values for enzyme concentration and incubation clip are used. Linearity is a necessary demand when scaling CLin from in vitro incubations to the whole liver ( Houston, 1994 ) . In contrast to the metabolite formation method, for analytical/sensitivity grounds, usually at least 20 % of the substrate must be metabolized within the incubation period, so that any substrate depletion can be distinguished from baseline variableness. Consequently, longer incubation times and higher protein concentrations are used than for metabolite formation surveies ( e.g. , substrate depletion incubation conditions of up to 90 min and 10 mg/ml have been reported by Austin et al. , 2002, and Obach, 1999, severally ) . For these grounds, the stableness of the enzyme readying, nonspecific binding, and end-product suppression ( ensuing from the more extended metamorphosis ) must be considered. . CLin was calculated harmonizing to

Where dosage is the initial sum of drug in the incubation mixture ( unit of mol/mg microsomal protein ) and AUCa?z is the country under the concentration versus clip curve, extrapolated to eternity. The unit for CLin is l/h/mg protein. ( Claudio Giulino, 2005 ) .


Formation of a protein drug composite is termed as drug-protein binding. Drug protein binding may be a reversible or an irreversible procedure. Irreversible drug protein binding is normally as a consequence of chemical activation of drug, when so attaches strongly to the protein or supermolecule by covalent chemical bonding. Reversible drug protein adhering implies that the drug binds the protein with weaker chemical bonds such as H bonds or vanderwaals forces. The amino acids that compose the protein concatenation have hydroxyl, carboxyl or other sites available for reversible drug interaction.

Drugs may adhere to assorted macromolecular constituents in the blood including albumen, I±1 acid glycoprotein, lipoproteins, Igs ( IgG ) and erythrocytes ( RBC ) .Albumin is a protein synthesised by the liver with a molecular weight of 65,000 to 69,000d.Albumin is the major constituent of plasma proteins responsible for reversible drug binding. In the organic structure, albumen is distributed in the plasma and in the excess cellular fluids of tegument, musculus and assorted other tissues.

Albumin is responsible for keeping osmotic force per unit area of the blood and for the conveyance of endogenous and exogenic substances. Lipoproteins are macromolecular composites of lipoids and proteins. Lipoproteins are responsible for the conveyance of plasma lipoids and may be responsible for binding of the drugs if the albumen sites become concentrated.

Reversible drug-protein binding is of major involvement in pharmacokinetics. The protein bound drug is a big composite that can non easy traverse cell membranes and therefore has a restricted distribution. The protein bound drug is normally pharmacologically inactive. In contrast, the free or unbound drug crosses cell membranes and is therapeutically active.

Drug protein binding is influenced by a figure of factors like: –

The drug


Affinity between drug and protein

Drug interactions

The pathophysiologic status of patient. ( Brahmankar and jaiswal 1995 )


The dynamicss of reversible drug-protein binding site can be described by jurisprudence of mass action as follows.

Protein + drug a†’ Drug-Protein composite

+ a†’ — — — — — — — 1

From this equation and jurisprudence of mass action, an association invariable, Ka can be expressed as the ratio of molar concentration of the merchandises and molar concentrations of the reactants. It assumes merely one adhering site per protein molecule.

Ka = — — — — — — — 2

To analyze the adhering behavior of drugs, a determinable ratio, R is defined as follows.

R =

R = — — — — — — — — -3

Harmonizing to eqn 2 =Ka by permutation into eqn 3.

R =

R = — — — — — — — — — — 4

The eqn describes 1mole of drug binds to 1 mole of protein in a 1:1 composite. Therefore this assumes merely one independent adhering site for each molecule of drug.

If there are “ n ” independent indistinguishable binding sites the equation 4 becomes

R = — — — — — — — — — — -5

In footings of Kd =1/Ka eqn 5 reduces to

R =

Since protein molecules are big in size, more than one type of adhering site is present and drugs bind independently on each adhering site with its ain association invariable and hence eqn 6 becomes ; –

R =

Where, 1, 2: – different binding sites

Kelvin: – binding invariables

N: – figure of adhering sites

As per the equations we assume that each drug binds to the protein at an independent binding site and the affinity of a drug for one binding site does non act upon adhering to other sites.

In world a drug protein adhering sometimes exhibits a phenomenon called cooperativity. For these drugs the binding of first drug molecule at one site on the protein molecule influences consecutive binding of other drug molecules.

Ex-husband: -Binding of O to haemoglobin ( Brahmankar and jaiswal 1995 )



R = — — — — — — — 1

As per the equation quoted supra, as free drug concentration increases figure of moles of drug edge per mole of protein becomes saturated and tableland. Therefore drug protein adhering resembles a Langmuir surface assimilation isotherm which is besides similar to surface assimilation of a drug to an adsorptive absorbent going saturated as drug concentration additions.

Reciprocal of equation written above gives

1 = — — — — — — — — — — — — — -2

1 = — — — — — — — — — — — — — -3

A graph of 1/r versus 1/ is called as dual mutual secret plan. The Y intercept is 1/n and incline is 1/nKa.From this graph, the figure of adhering sites may be determined from Y intercept and the association invariable may be determined from the incline if the value for N is known.

If the graph of 1/r versus 1/ does n’t give a consecutive line so the drug protein adhering procedure is likely more complex.eqn 1 assumes one type of adhering site and no interaction among the binding sites.


Reciprocal secret plans can non be used if the exact sum and nature of protein in the experimental system is unknown the per centum of drug edge is frequently to used to depict the extent of drug protein binding in the plasma the fraction of drug edge, I? , can be determined by experimentation and is equal to the ratio of the concentration of bound drug, D I? , and the entire drug concentration of, Dr, in the plasma as follows.

I? =

The value of the association invariables can be determined even though the nature of the plasma proteins adhering the drug is unknown by rearranging the equation above as

R = =


D I? : -bound drug concentration

Calciferol: – free drug concentration

Platinum: – entire protein concentration

Rearrangement of the above equation yields the look

D I? = nKaPT-KaD I?

Concentrations of both free and bound drug may be found by experimentation and a graph obtained by plotting D I?/D versus D I? will give a consecutive line from which the incline is the association changeless Ka.

The above equation shows that the ratio of edge Cp to liberate Cp is influenced by the affinity invariable, the protein concentration Pt which may alter during disease provinces and with the drug concentration in the organic structure.

The values for N and Ka give a general estimation of the affinity and adhering capacity of the drug as plasma contains a complex mixture of proteins. The drug protein binding in plasma may be influenced by viing substances such as ions, free fatty acids, drug metabolites and other drugs. Measurements of drug protein adhering should be obtained over a broad scope of concentration scope, because at low drug concentrations a high affinity low capacity adhering site might be missed or at a higher drug concentration impregnation of the protein adhering sites may happen

Clinical significance of drug-protein binding.

Most drugs bind to plasma proteins to some extent. When the clinical significance of the fraction of drug edge is considered it is of import to cognize whether the survey was performed utilizing pharmacological or curative plasma drug concentrations. The fraction of drug edge can alter with plasma drug concentration and dosage of drug administered.

When a extremely protein bound drug is displaced from adhering by a 2nd drug or agent, a crisp addition in the free drug concentration in the plasma may happen taking to toxicity. Displacement occurs when a 2nd drug is taken that competes for the same binding site in the protein as initial drug. This will take to increased evident volume of distribution and an increased half life, but clearance will stay unaffected. If administered by multiple doses, the mean steady province remain unaffected ; nevertheless the mean steady province free drug degree will be increased due to displacement. The curative consequence will therefore addition. ( Leon shargel, Susanna wu-pong, 2005 ) .


Drug-drug interaction refers to an change of the consequence of one drug caused by the presence of a 2nd drug. Drug-nutrient interactions likewise refer to the change of the consequence of a drug or food caused by the presence of a 2nd agent. Drug interactions can be good or damaging. One illustration would be administrating a drug merchandise like carbidopa/levodopa ( SinemetA® ) . Levodopa is converted to dopamine in the cardinal nervous system ( CNS ) , thereby exercising an consequence against symptoms of Parkinson ‘s disease. Carbidopa acts as a chemical steerer, which binds to the enzyme that converts L-dopa to dopamine outside the CNS. This increases Dopastat degrees in the CNS while restricting side effects of increased Dopastat in peripheral tissues.

In combination, the paired drugs produce linear effects. Patients with legion disease provinces may necessitate intervention with interacting drugs. Where these interactions can non be avoided, the fact is taken into history when planning therapy. Many times dosing is non altered at all, but usual monitoring is increased.

The hazard of holding drug interactions will be increased as the figure of medicines taken by an single additions. This besides implies a greater hazard for the aged and the inveterate sick as they will be utilizing more medicines than the general population. Risks besides increase when a patient ‘s regimen originates from multiple prescribers. Filling all prescriptions in a individual pharmaceutics may diminish the hazard of undetected interactions. ( Beverly J. McCabe, Eric H. Frankel,2004 )

Types of Drug Interactions

Drug interactions are frequently classified as


pharmacokinetic interactions.


This can be defined depending merely on the pharmacological medicine of the given drug.


Interactions Resulting from Alterations in Gastrointestinal Absorption.

The rate and extent of drug soaking up after unwritten disposal may be grossly altered by other agents. Absorption of a drug is a map of the drug ‘s ability to spread from the lms of the GI piece of land into the systemic circulation.Changes in enteric pH may deeply impact drug diffusion every bit good as disintegration of the dose signifier. For illustration, the soaking up of ketoconazole is reduced by the co-administration of alkalizers or H2-blockers.

Interactions Resulting from Alterations in Metabolizing Enzymes

The liver is the major, though non sole, site for drug metamorphosis. Other sites include the kidney and the liner of the GI piece of land. The two chief types of hepatic drug metamorphosis are stage I and phase II reactions. Phase I oxidative reactions are the initial measure in drug biotransformation, and are mediated by the cytochrome P-450 ( CYP ) system. This complex ace household of enzymes has been subclassified into legion enzymatic subfamilies. The most common CYP subfamilies include CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4. These enzymes may be induced or inhibited by other agents, thereby taking to an addition or lessening in the metamorphosis of the primary drug. Phase II reactions occur following Phase I reactions. In this procedure, drug metabolites are converted into more water-soluble compounds that can be more easy eliminated by the kidneys.

Enzyme initiation may ensue in increased CYP enzyme synthesis, faster drug metamorphosis, subtherapeutic drug concentrations and the hazard for uneffective drug therapy. The celerity of the enzyme initiation is dependent upon the half life of the inducing drug every bit good as the rate of synthesis of new enzymes. Examples of drugs that cause enzyme initiation are the barbiturates, some antiepileptics.

Enzyme suppression may ensue from noncompetitive or competitory suppression of CYP enzymes by a 2nd drug, an consequence that may happen quickly. Examples of hepatic enzyme inhibitors include Tagamet, fluconazole and Erythrocin. The consequence of noncompetitive enzyme suppression by add-on of a 2nd agent is slower metamorphosis of the first drug, higher plasma drug concentrations, and a hazard for toxicity. In the instance of competitory suppression, the metamorphosis of both drugs can be reduced, ensuing in higher than expected concentrations of each drug.

Interactions Resulting from Alterations in Protein Binding

Drugs may be in plasma either reversibly edge to plasma proteins or in the free ( unbound ) province. The primary drug-binding plasma proteins are albumin and I±1-acid glycoprotein. It is free drug that exerts the pharmacological consequence. Drugs may vie with each other for plasma protein adhering sites, and when this occurs, one drug may displace another that was antecedently bound to the protein. Displacement of a drug from its binding sites will therefore addition that agent ‘s unbound concentrations, possibly ensuing in toxicity.

Interactions Resulting from Changes in Renal Excretion

The bulk of renally eliminated drugs are excreted via inactive glomerular filtration. Some drugs are eliminated via active cannular secernment, such as penicillins, Mefoxins, and most water pills. The active secernment may be inhibited by secondary agents, such as Tagamet, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and probenecid, with ensuing lifts in the serum drug concentrations and decreased urinary drug concentrations. In some instances, the interaction is desirable, while others may take to inauspicious curative results. ( Beverly J. McCabe, Eric H. Frankel,2004 ) .

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