Afro-Caribbean family life has sometimes been identified as having a higher than average proportion of single-parent families and a higher than average proportion of working mothers. It is argued that this leads to an absence of male role models in family life. These aspects of family life have an effect on the educational performance of Afro-Caribbean students. ?Asian family life is quite different, it is seen to be a much larger and more closely linked into the community so that not only are material resources shared and a higher value placed on education, but also the community reinforces an emphasis on educational success. The Swann report linked the Asian family with high levels of educational performance.

Minority ethnic pupils become discouraged and demoralised in ways which lead them to under perform. Sociologists including, Gillborn, Wright and Troyna, claim they discovered evidence of racism in schools and believe that this is a significant factor in accounting for the educational outcomes of different ethnic groups. Educational and sociological research has long noted that students of African or Caribbean descent tend to experience poor academic outcomes relative to white majority students. The gap between black and white pupils is not static, nor is it present at the beginning of schooling. The gap widens between white and minority students by as much as two grade levels by sixth grade.

A major factor in how well black boys perform at school is their expectations, and the expectations of the teachers, and also the pupils parents. It can be said that black boys at school have a low attainment and have negative views of the education system. They feel that they are not being taught subjects or topics which interest tem or involve their heritage and history. As they persist with these negative attitudes it reflects on their performance and also the tolerance the teachers have towards them.

The factor of discipline is also important, this mainly stems from the family. Most Black Afro-Caribbean boys come from single family backgrounds, and therefore have personal issues and behavioural p[robles as a result. Boys from single parent families tend not to do well at school as they want to get a job as soon as possible to contribute to the families income and see further education not within their reach.

Exclusion rates among black pupils are higher than any other group, they are four times more likely to be suspended or excluded. more attention needs to be paid to why black pupils are being excluded on a higher rate than their white counterparts doing the same thing but being treated differently. What can be done? The way in which the assessment system is used and the curriculum affects the performance and achievement of pupils from under represented groups. It neglects issues which put those pupils at a disadvantage.

The lack of parents of pupils of colour present in school events and school board meetings. Not represented on committies and on the school board. Therefore feel they have no voice in the school. Teachers need to relate to parents of different cultural backgrounds. The teachers also need to make an effort to support all parents participation in their children’s education. There is an affect on students of colour if most of the teachers sees are white. There needs to be a greater participation of black boys in classes. Teachers should interact with them, ask probing questions engaging them in the work an dencouraging them.

Pupils should not be discouraged to speak or write in their native language and looes touch with their culture. Finally does the curiculim represent all cultures and backgrounds, does it teach in a way that is culturally bias. The performance in education and the relationship is has with ethnicity is a combination of two things, the background of the pupil, which includes their family and culture. And what the school offers tem, extra tutition or activities for example.

Stereotype Black students feel they are unfairly treated by teachers, teachers often operate with racial stereotypes which are demeaning. This outlook on the part of teachers affects their attitudes to black pupils. Teachers do not listen to them.