Abstract: The People – The Greeks
On the territory of the Balkan Peninsula before the advent of the Hellenes dwelt the Pelasgians, the people who spoke a language akin to the Hellenic, but has more high culture , more developed ideas about the gods. The Pelasgians were no pyramids or Grand temples such as the Egyptian , Mesopotamian or Canaanite: but they already existed oracles (shrines) in which they inquired about the will of the gods. Pelasgians were the first: who is on the land of Greece had a major influence on the religious ideas of the peoples, later accepted the common name of Greeks.
With the collapse of Egyptian rule under the onslaught of the nomads and “Nations” on the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea political independence from Egypt find a city inhabited by Phoenicians. Beginning in the late 2nd Millennium BC the Grand Phoenician colonization along Mediterranean coast of Africa and Iberia (Spain) also affected the Islands and peninsulas occupied by the Greeks. According to Hellenic tradition, 2 thousand BC, a native of Phoenicia, Cadmus settled in Central Greece, becoming the founder Cadmai – the future of Thebes, the great Hellenic city. From the teeth sown by Cadmus the dragon left the armed heroes of Sparta. They were considered the forefathers of the Theban aristocratic birth, who has mastered the art of writing and the ore thing. The legend of Cadme found confirmation in the Phoenician origin of the Greek alphabet, in the Eastern monuments discovered during excavations Katmai, in the cult of a number of Hellenistic gods and heroes, behind which lurk in Phoenician prototypes. So for the feats of the Hellenic hero-God Hercules found the acts of the Phoenician deity Melkart, the hero of the colonial times, reached in 12 BC, the Strait that separates the Mediterranean sea from the ocean. The Phoenicians called this the Strait of the Pillars of Melkart, the Greeks replaced Melkart Hercules.
Egyptian, Canaanite-Phoenician, Asia minor influence on the Hellenic religion: no matter how big they are, could not, however, suppress native religious framework that the Hellenic settlers brought from their homeland and to which only strengthened from contact with the Pelasgians, the Hittites, the Thracians and other peoples of Indo-European origin. It is not accidental that at the head of the Hellenic Pantheon is Zeus, the God possessing the attributes of God-gruzovika the Indo-Aryans, Iranians, Slavs, Celts, Germans and other Indo-European peoples, and mnogovershinnoe Olympus, though, and took some of the Eastern deities-aliens(Apollo and Aphrodite)vividly recalls the mountain of the gods in other Indo-European religions.
For Greek, as for any other inhabitant of the Mediterranean, he himself, his home, his settlement or city, mountains, valleys, streams, the sea,the sky, the entire space was filled with certain signs, sometimes rosy: sometimes frightening. Own involuntary gesture , shake of the century , sneezing, squeaking mouse, flight of swallows, an owl, meteor, rainbow, jumped from the surface of the river fish , thunder, meeting with random passers-by had a deep significance. It would seem quite ordinary phenomena could force Greeks to abandon the decision, such as weddings or battles, i.e. to make the inexplicable, the eyes of an outsider, the actions.
Meanwhile, the man of ancient times was sure that each of these accidents were a sign , sent him the good gods to warn of impending danger. He treated these signs seriously and tried to understand their meaning, and if I could not understand myself – turned to “experts” who made the explanation of the divine signs of his profession. under the influence of the East, the Greeks developed ideas about the gods whom they were called Olympians because their environment was considered to be mount Olympus, However, it was not one mountain, so you can in General to see how Eastern Olympos the gods moved on the classic Olympus, located on the border between Greeks and barbarians.
The gods were associated with certain plants or birds, reptiles, animals. Eagle, considered the messenger of Zeus and constantly being at his feet on mount Olympus obviously took this position, because originally he was worshipped as a solar deity, Lord of heaven. Athens sacred animals were the snake and the owl, many people revered as carriers of wisdom. Tragically ended the pursuit by Apollo, the beautiful nymph Daphne (the gods turned her into a Laurel) is a remnant of the original worship of the Laurel tree, which later became to play a significant role in the cult of Apollo. Similarly associated with Zeus, the king of forests of oak, with Dionysus, the vine and ivy, and with Persephone – poplar. All of this – traces of more ancient religious beliefs. The most valuable information about dolenjski religion, about the time when supernatural forces were conceived not in human form and in the form of stones, plants, animals. In religion and myths of the Greeks reflect the changes you made in the lives of the inhabitants of the Mediterranean the great migration 12-11 centuries BCE, the collapse of the Mycenaean kingdoms, which lasted from 17th to 12th century BC, the Cult of the great Mother Goddess gives way to the cult of the Patriarchal ruler – the father of the gods. They were originally not Zeus, and Poseidon. In whose image are also visible features drevnekitaiskogo God-bull.
Replacement Poseidon Zeus is reflected in the myth of redistribution of power between the gods.
Zeus, the son of God, Krone, Kroner, was born of Uranus the Sky and Gaia Earth, Deceit and cunning Crowns cast Uranium. Fearing that children would take his power. Kron ordered his wife Rhea to bring him newly born babies and swallowed their last son, Zeus, Rhea regretted. She brought father spelunky stone, Kron and swallowed it. Rhea hid Zeus on the island of Crete, in one of the mountain caves. The bees fed him honey , and goat milk . If baby Zeus was crying, the young men guarding the cave began a military dance and the blows of weapons on shields drowned out the cry of a child to CZK didn’t recognize his existence. They say that on Crete and even now young men dancing the war dance in honor of Zeus.
When Zeus grew up he forced his father to regurgitate the swallowed children, and he was bound and thrown into the gloomy abyss of Tartarus , where never penetrates into the beam of the sun. After the victory of Zeus in a chariot drawn by four horses , went to Olympus with the other gods . Dominion over the world he shared with his brothers that helped him defeat Krona , Hades received over the realm of the dead , Poseidon became the sea Lord. Zeus with those port rules heaven and Earth. The Zeus is endowed with strength beyond the combined power of all gods. According to the description of Homer, if they grab hold of the Golden chain, let down Zeus from the sky , you won’t be able to pull him to the ground, then he will be able to raise them with the earth .
Sister of Poseidon, Zeus and Demeter are not named among the participants of the division of the world between the gods , since she is mother earth and the first wife of Poseidon, and then Zeus , the great sovereign of nature . The transformation in Zeus master of Olympus pushed the Demeter , and some of its functions moved to the new wife of the ruler of the gods Hera with her daughters and a stepdaughter.
Being unmarried, Demeter gave all his affection daughter Persephone, annually dying and reviving goddess of vegetation.
Wife of Zeus, Hera, original goddess protector of the city of Argos, called the “ox-eyed” what easily arouse associations with the sacred cow. Once upon a time Hera was a patron of the harsh rites of passage from adolescence to adult age. These tests are found reflected in the labors of Hercules , the very name of which means “glorifying” Hera. As the meaning of the initiation is lost by the Greeks, Hera is transformed into a tireless Stalker of Hercules, the son of her husband Zeus from earthly rival.
A stern look of the huntress and warrior, as well as the goddess of death had Artemis . Most likely it was originally keltirishsa the world, which was known goddess ARTIO, but the Greeks got it from the Pelasgians in the second Millennium BC, when its name first appears in Mycenaean texts. The image of Artemis salient features of the ancient lady of the beasts, the veneration of which was indicated in the habitat of Indo-Europeans on the Danube, in Asia minor in the Eurasian steppes. Her sacred animals were the bear.
Artemis confronts Athena was worshiped during the 2nd Millennium BC as Athanasios . Athena is the goddess spinner, patroness of the city life and peaceful labour. She attributed the creation of cultural cultivation , the domestication of wild animals, the appeal to the crafts and sailing. And at the same time, she was a Protectress of the Polis and was portrayed in a combat helmet and a spear.
Twin brother of Artemis was called arrogant Apollo , which received great sanctuary at Delphi, at the foot of Parnassus, where he defeated a monstrous dragon. With Artemis, his mother’s cruelty, at first problemseasy at every step. Even later on, turning your bow into a lyre, and became a patron of the arts, Apollo could not do without the blood and ripped skin with his rival in the music of the Satyr Marsyas.
With Apollo competed Dionysus, whose mother was considered Priyanka Semele ( Earth) according to the myth , after the death of his mother, ruined by a jealous Hero , Dionysus was brought by Zeus and placed in the care of the nymphs of Nyssa in , somewhere in the East, and matured, made a journey around the world when they reached India. Dionysus was the patron of wine, and
his homecoming is comprehended as the spread of viticulture and winemaking .
The peoples of the Eastern Mediterranean and revered Hermes, previously entered into the Hellenic Pantheon and the myths of the Greeks transformed in God. He was Zeus’s errand, and was known as a patron of trade and thieves. Originally it was understood as a lively and fleet-footed God , the conductor of souls to the Kingdom of the dead. The symbol was considered a pile of stones , later servatives in a stone pillar with a sculpted head of Hermes.
To the realm of death initially was close and Hephaestus, God of underground fire, and later meaningful as the divine patron of the crafts. According to the myth, Hephaestus the son of Zeus and Hera, was born on mount Olympus, but was disgusted by the mother and was dropped it in the sea, then the fish fed and raised by sea nymphs the Nereids, learned the trade of a blacksmith, and head-returned to the sacred mountain to cater for its inhabitants.
Hephaestus was appointed wives the most captivating of the goddesses of Aphrodite, the patroness of sensitive of love and love charm. According to the most popular version of the myth, Aphrodite was daughter of Zeus , and was born of the seed of the sky God Uranus, caught in sea water, and thus treated the gods of the older generation. Eastern origin of the image of the goddess no doubt.
Among the Olympians entered, and Ares, most likely an ancient deity of war, whose image is dominated by senseless cruelty, opposing the humanity of vitalnosti Athens, the leading fair men.
As we already know Hades got the underworld . In the image of Hades reflected not only the knowledge of the Greeks and other peoples of death , but also cosmogony. The house of Hades was thought of surrounded by iron gates and, therefore, his owner portrayed with a large key. Not trusting the walls, Hades made for the protection of longing for the light of the prisoners with a shower of the monstrous dog Cerberus with three heads and a torso covered with snakes. Wife of Hades was considered they kidnapped the daughter of Demeter Persephone is the goddess of grain, conducted in her husband’s house only three winter months.
Along with the belief in the existence of the great gods , who took three peace Greeks have retained representation, and spirits and demons, male and female, with a pleasant and repulsive forms, divided into brothers and sisters, and the gods of nature, which with the release of the higher gods become lower. The view of the Greeks about them goes back to deepest antiquity of the Indo-European talking about this similar names who live far away from each other Indo-European peoples meant the same things and phenomena. But different names of a lesser God, performing the same function, not bothering to see them as true brothers and sisters.
Particularly well developed was the Greeks ideas about the nymphs, embodying all moving and growing in nature, all giving life to plants, fish and animals.
The idea of the Olympic gods finally emerged to 6-5 century BC. But the Olympians are unable to completely displace local gods. Each pole had its own little Olympus, where was worshipped the same Olympian gods, but only with local epithets, and local heroes with his cult, with its mythology.