This file’s URL web Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication 1.1 Meta-theories 1.2 Conceptualizations of Computing 1.3 Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions 1.4 Innovation Diffusion / Media Choice and Adoption / Critical Mass 1.4. 1 Critical Mass Theory 1.5 Information / Media Richness 1.6 Social / Psychological Factors 1.7 Social Presence Model 1.8 Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Approach 1.9 Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model 1.10 Social Information / Influence/Context Model 1.11 Language Aspects / Rhetorical 1.12 Media Characteristics / Media Evolution 2 Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication 2.1 Studies 2.1. 1 Comparing CMC with FTF 2.1. 2 Socioemotional Content in CMC 2.2 Computer-Mediated Scholarship / Education 2.3 CMC Infrastructure 2.3.
1 Forums and Tools 2.3. 2 Networks 3 Organizational Communication 3.1 Theory 3.1. 1 Structure / Functions of Organizations 3.1. 2 Human Relations 3.1. 3 Communication as Process of Organization 3.1. 4 Adaptive Structuration Theory 3.1.
5 Organizations as Cultures 3.1. 6 Network Analysis 3.2 Studies of Organizations 3.3 Technology / Communication in Organizations 3.4 Organizational CMC 3.5 CSCW 3.5. 1 GDSS
1 Explaining Computer-Mediated Communication 1.1 Meta-theories Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews.
Mainpoint: ‘Even a general awareness of the diversity of these contexts, much less the numerous studies associated with the various contexts, should obviate the easy and ill-formed introduction found in many CMC studies, that ‘there is little theoretical or empirical research in this area. ‘ ‘ Rice (1989 a) asserts that we need to integrate CMC research around four themes: stakeholders, goals, domains, and tools.
Main point: [p. 436] Integrate CMC research across disciplines / tech /research processes via stakeholders, goals, analytical domain, and tools. 1.2 Conceptualizations of Computing Mowshowitz (1981) describes five positions underlying conceptualizations of computing: technic ism, progressive individualism, elitism, pluralism, radical criticism.
Hirsch heim (1985) describes underlying epistemological and ontological stances in office automation research.
Turtle (1982) talks about how we project our ideas onto computers.
1.3 Theories, Models, Typologies and Propositions Burge (1992) presents a detailed bibliography for current literature in distance education and CMC.
Rice (1992) recursively summarizes material from CMC reviews.
Hacker and Monge (1988) describes theory of communication / information models and designs of CMC systems.
Johnston (1989) comments on Rice’s article on issues and concepts in research on CMC.
McCreary (1990) describes three behavior models for CMC.
Rice and Born (1985) describes journals about CMC.
Culnan and Markus (1987) describes media use factors.
Main point: CMC is low in social presence (no no verbal); therefore, it is task-oriented and impersonal. Bowers (1992) claims artifacts have politics by analyzing formalisms of design or implementation.
Main point: ‘If we are to take computer technology seriously, we will have to abandon innocent humanism in favor of a cyder politics. ‘ Cathcart and Gumpert (1983) talk about mediated interpersonal communication.
Feenberg (1986) presents an operating manual for computer conferencing.
Ghana (1988) describes flow theory in CMC.
Kuehn (1990) asserts that play theory explains CMC as ‘communication play’ when communicators can alter interaction and achieve goals.
1.4 Innovation Diffusion / Media Choice and Adoption / Critical Mass Rogers (1983) describes the diffusion of innovations.
Rogers (1986) describes impacts of innovations.
Grantham and Vase (1985) summarizes factors affecting diffusion / adoption of the technology.
Leonard-Barton (1988) describes role of implementation process in innovation diffusion.
Markus (1987) describes diffusion and adoption of interactive media systems in terms of critical mass.
Markus (1990) describes critical mass theory for interactive media, which directs attention away from the individual to the community level of analysis.
Miles (1992) reviews issues of applying CMC to publishing and interpersonal communication on national scales (Britain, France).
Thompson (1975) describes idea of ‘electronic hallway’ as facilitating group formation and operation.
Turoff (1989) Korzenny (1978) presents a theory for electronic closeness in organizations.
Alexander, Penley, and Jernigan (1991) explores the effects of differences in how managers choose media.
Ebadi and Utterback (1984) describes how communication affects technology use.
1.4. 1 Critical Mass Theory threshold model that explains how use develops in a community. Oliver, Mar well, and Teixeira (1985) explains critical mass theory.
Valente (1991) describes thresholds for critical mass in innovation diffusion.
1.5 Information / Media Richness Reduce ambiguity through media selection. Daft and Macintosh (1981) describes information richness theory in organizations.
Daft and Lengel (1984) applies media richness theory to organizations.
Main point: [p. 194] ‘organizational success is based on the organization’s ability to process information of appropriate richness to reduce uncertainty and clarify ambiguity. ‘ Daft and Lengel (1986) describes theory of media richness used in organizations.
Daft, Lengel, and Trevino (1987) uses media richness model applied to message equivocality and media selection.
Trevino, Daft, and Lengel (1990) describes the use of to understand managers’ media choices in terms of message equivocality, contextual determinants, and media symbolism.
Trevino, Lengel, Boden steiner, Gerloff, and Muir (1990) [p.
176] ‘This article proposes a new thesis about the role of individual differences in managers’ media choice behavior. ‘ Main point: Media preferences operate when equivocality is low; in high equivocality situations, there is an imperative to use rich media. Trevino, Lengel, and Daft (1987) describes media richness theory in organizations.
Rice and Shook (1990 a) explores job categories and organizational levels and communication channels, including email.
Lengel and Daft (1988) gives guidelines for managers selecting media.
Duncan (1972) explains characteristics of an organization versus perceived environmental uncertainty 1.
6 Social / Psychological Factors Kiesler, Siegel, and McGuire (1984) describes social and psychological affects of CMC.
Boshier (1990) discusses social / psychological factors in electronic networking, focusing on email role in adult education, identifying research and theory.
Main point: Electronic networks can help adult education and lifelong learning because they help increase interaction, provide for equal opportunity, and create a non coercive, nonhierarchical, reciprocal environment. Cathcart and Gumpert (1985) communicating through computer creates interpersonal communication dyad (user & computer).
Kling and Gerson (1977) explores social context features of CMC affecting communities of users.
McGuire (1983) describes contextualism as a counterpoint to empiricism.
Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory for analyzing mediated communication.
Main point: [p. 65] ‘We hypothesize that communications media vary in their degree of Social Presence, and that these variations are important in determining the way individuals interact. ‘ 1.7 Social Presence Model Short, Williams, and Christie (1976) describes social presence theory for analyzing mediated communication.
Bales (1950) Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication to test social presence hypothesis about persuasion.
Johansen (1977) uses social presence model to examine social aspects of teleconferencing.
1.8 Reduced Social Cues (RSC) Approach Basic Thesis: CMC features (reduced social / context cues) lead to psychological states (reduced impact of social norms and constraints) which undermine social, normative influences leading to deregulated behavior. Kiesler (1986) describes how the social effects of computers may be greater and more important than you imagine.
Main point: [p. 46] Computers have social effects, cut down hierarchies, cut across norms and organization boundaries. McGuire, Kiesler, and Siegel (1987) explores influence of group communication and group decision processes on group decisions.
Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986) Sproull and Kiesler (1986) analyzes e-mail use and characteristics in an organization.
Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986) Rutter (1987) describes ‘cue less model’ for communicating by telephone.
Morley and Stephenson (1977) discuss bargaining, test out.
DeSanctis and Gallupe (1987) apply to study of GDSS.
1.9 Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model Spears and Lea (1992) explores the social / psychological dimensions of CMC: email and CC vs.
FTF via Social Identity Theory and De-individuation Processes (SIDE) Model. Spears, Lea, and Lee (1990) Diener (1980) discusses de-individuation in groups.
Festinger, Pepitone, and Newcomb (1952) describes de-individuation ina group.
Lea and Spears (1991 a) Lea and Spears (1991 b) 1.
10 Social Information / Influence/Context Model Media perceptions and use are socially constructed. Fulk, Schmitz, and Steinfield (1990) proposes a model for technology use which is based on social context effects: social influence model of media use.
Main point: [p. 121] Basic assumption of social influence model of media use: media perceptions are subjective / social constructed. Fulk, Schmitz, and Schwartz (1992) develop CMC context themes and propose a perspective on social context and context-behavior relations.
Fulk, Steinfield, Schmitz, and Power (1987) explores social information processing as a model for media use.
Bem (1972) describes attribution theory.
Chesebro (1985) describes CMC used in interpersonal contexts by studying a BBS.
Feenberg and Bellman (1990) social factors model posits that distinctive organizational features guide the design of CC systems.
Feenberg (1989) asserts that types and use of CMC systems must be based on the sociology of the group.
Feenberg (1992) traces the success of the French Tele tel (Mini tel) videotex system in France.
Gattiker (1992 c) suggest directions for future research in technology-mediated communication.
Georgoudi and Ros now (1985) describes contextualism from the perspective of the nature of context (as opposed from mechanistic assumptions).
Main point: Contextualism is marked by recognizing communication as a process embedded in a constantly changing, cultural, cognitive, and social context. Hellerstein (1986) presents study of social uses of CMC at UMass-Amherst;
CMC mediates and facilitates social life. Schmitz and Fulk (1991) describes media richness, social influence theory applied to organizations.
Matheson (1991) examines the extent to which social perceptions inCMC are influenced by social information availability and based on internalized social expectations.
Salancik and Pfeffer (1978) describes social information processing theory.
Smilowitz, Compton, and Flint (1988) CMC changes the way people interact, accomplish comm.
tasks. Lea (1992) introduces book on contextual influences on CMC.
Martin, O’Shea, Fung, and Spears (1992) surveys ‘flaming’ phenomenon in CMC.
Bandura (1986) describes social learning theory.
Montes (1992) questions social presence theory, suggests interaction to be creator of context.
Perry (1988) discusses use of contextualist approach to media effects.
Thomas and Griffin (19 XX) reviews literature on social information processing model. Tush man and Nadler (1978) puts forth an information processing model for organizations.
1.11 Language Aspects / Rhetorical Baron (1984) describes CMC as a force in language culture.
Ferrara, Brunner, and Whittemore (1991) describes interactive written discourse (ID, the written language occurring in simultaneous terminal-to-terminal typed dialogues.
Finnegan (1988) describes how literacy and are affected by communication technology.
Lakoff (1982) Oral is becoming more valued than literacy, writing imitates oral.
Murray (1991) describes the composing process for computer conversation.
Ochs (1989) explores language use and culture.
Ong (1977) Technology changed culture and thought.
Ong (1982) Thought and expressed changed in the shift from to literacy.
Shank (1993) argues network communication is not oral or written but semiotic.
December (1993 a) compares net discourse in USENET newsgroup with characteristics of as defined by Walter J.
Ong. Main point: The discourse on the Internet brings back pre-literate characteristics; it is a tertiary form of (the first two being, pre-literature culture and widespread radio and tv broadcasting). Shaver (1990) describes measures of reliability and validity of attitude measures of writing with a computer.
Spitzer (1986) describes writing style in computer conferences.
Tanned (1982) Oral / literate continuum = focus: involvement & context vs.
content. Thompson (1988) describes how interactive networking can be used for speech, writing, and composition.
Black, Levin, Mehan, and Quinn (1983) describes real and non-real time discourse.
December (1994) discusses and analyzes the strategies communicators can use to exchange information on global computer networks.
Mainpoint: The communicator’s task in creating and structuring information has always included considerations of purpose and audience. In communicating over networks, however, the communicator’s task includes considerations of the nature of the medium distribution, access, information-sharing practices, and social context. 1.12 Media Characteristics / Media Evolution Fowler and Wackerbarth (1980) studies audio teleconferencing in comparison with FTF conferencing.
Innis (1972) explores roles of media as used by different civilizations.
Main point: Media use and forms (bias and emphasis) contribute to civilization and political structures of societies. Harnad (1991) asserts that the fourth cognitive revolution is electronic communication.
Havelock (1986) traces how writing transformed Greek culture fro morality to literacy.
Levinson (1986) describes McLuhan’s ideas with regard to computer conferencing.
Levinson (1990) sees CMC as an ongoing evolution of media: speech, writing, printing, telecommunications.
McLuhan and Powers (1989) describes the idea of the global village transforming life and media.
McLuhan (1964) explores the extensions of people through media.
Mainpoint: Media’s characteristics create and operate in a social and historical context; electric technologies create an emphasis on effect and total involvement. McLuhan (1965) Technology revises the linear ism of print.
Main point:’ The Gutenberg Galaxy is intended to trace the ways in which the forms of experience and of mental outlook and expression have been modified, first by the phonetic alphabet and then by printing. ‘ McLuhan and Fiore (1967) asserts that media extends consciousness.
Main point: [p. 26] ‘All media work us over completely. They are so pervasive in their personal, political, economic, aesthetic, psychological, moral, ethical, and social consequences that they leave no part of us untouched, unaffected, unaltered. The medium is the massage. Any understanding of social and cultural change is impossible without a knowledge of the way media work as environments. ‘ Rice and Associates (1984) summarizes research dealing with computers and communication.
Scheme nt and Lie vrouw (1987) describes assumptions of information society research.
Smith (1980) traces development and transformation of newspaper markets and audiences.
Stewart (1992) describes a study of voice mail (VM) revealing innovation reasons.
Main point: Need to have user involvement in development, prototype, selection, planning, and implementation of an innovation. Thomas and Miles (1989) describes the development of in the United Kingdom.
Vallee (1982) presents perspectives on the network revolution.
Williams and Rice (1983) talk about personal relationships in CMC.
2 Studies and Applications of Computer-Mediated Communication 2.1 Studies Kom sky (1991) [p.
310] ‘examines factors that differentiate among frequent and occasional users of electronic mail, for the purpose of developing a profile of users to help organizations develop strategies for increasing system usage. ‘ Hiltz and Turoff (1978) surveys effects of CMC on people.
Hiltz and Turoff (1993) surveys effects of CMC on people, revised edition of 1978 edition.
Chesebro and Bonsall (1989) describes computerized communication as widespread, altering human communication patterns and culture.
Dennis, Nunamaker, and Vogel (1990) compares laboratory and field research in the study of electronic meetings.
Steinfield (1986 a) Adkins (1991) shows that recipients of email messages did not perceive the sender as self-absorbed (egocentric-like).
Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1988) reports questionnaire study of COM system showing how COM system showed spontaneity, aggression;
judged efficient as a tool for sending and receiving simple messages. Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1991) reports study which shows FTF communication induced more conformity and opinion change than CMC.
Anderson and Jay (1985) uses network analysis to examine the adoption of a computerized information system by physicians.
Beals (1990) studied transcripts of computer conferences on Beginning Teacher Computer Network (BTC N).
Bresler (1990) found significant differences between males and females in a high school electronic communication.
Finholt, Sproull, and Kiesler (1990) examines use of electronic mail in student work groups, where groups had similar tasks but used email to different degrees.
The paper speculates on the larger organizational implications. Gero la and Gomery (1984) studied engineer’s use of networks, found no improvement in work.
Grint (1989) explores issues in CMC participation: fear of public ridicule, status, gender, technical expertise.
Gallupe and McKee n (1990) investigates use of decision support systems for face-to-face versus remote meetings.
Hartman, Neu wirth, and Kiesler (1991) describes patterns of social interaction and network technology effects on learning to write.
Hiemstra (1982) describes teleconferencing and organizational culture.
Main point: ‘The findings suggest that future studies of CMCS’s in particular, and perhaps computer-based information systems in general, should not assume that usage alone or subjective satisfaction alone are adequate measures of successful implementation. ‘ Hiltz and Johnson (1990) Measures user satisfaction with CMCs.
Hiltz and Turoff (1981) explores behavior of users in CMC systems.
Hiltz and Turoff (1985) describes how to structure CMC systems to avoid information overload.
Hiltz, Turoff, and Johson (1981) describes the effects of task and individual attributes on consensus in computer conferences.
Hiltz (1989) measures acceptance of CMC systems.
Johansen, Vallee, and Spangler (1979) presents how electronic meetings can extend communication.
Kerr and Hiltz. (1982) analyzes CMC systems’ acceptance and affects.
Kiesler, Obrosky, and Prat to (1987) describes the effects (attentional, social contact, belief) of computer use.
Kiesler and Sproull (1987 a) describes social effects of computer use: more interaction, broader social Kiesler and Sproull (1987 b) describes computing as a combination of social+cultural+tech and its effects indirect, unpredictable.
Kiesler and Sproull (1987 c) Kiesler, Zu brow, Moses, and Geller (1985) findings show that CMC,’ rather than provoking emotionality per se, elicits asocial or unregulated behavior.
Lea (1991) presents results that ‘suggest that the group of users construed CMC mainly in terms of its attributes as a medium for conversation and social interaction.
Leach (1988) Mabrito (1991) describes email for peer response and compares high-and low- writers.
Mason (1989) presents findings showing CMC is marginally beneficial for some students but very valuable for others in getting information and maintaining contact.
Matheson (1992) examines the social psychological impacts of CMC on women.
Matheson and Z anna (1988) describes impact of CMC on self-awareness.
McCreary (1989) describes how users experienced positive contribution of CMC, but not unequivocal.
Rafael i (1986) explores, through surveys and content analysis, BBS use.
Rice (1982) describes a longitudinal study of group roles and system structure for a computer conferencing system.
Rice (1988) uses network approach to get her data from communication system networks.
Rice and Borgman (1983) discusses issues in collecting data from CMC systems.
Rice and Case (1983) describes use and utility of computer-based messaging in a university.
Ried l (1989) discusses patterns in computer-mediated discussions.
Riel and Levin (1990) describes success and failures in forming electronic communities, suggests a set of guidelines for creating online communities.
Rojo (1991) describes patterns of CMC usage and explores ways to describe users;
explores dynamics of online communication. Saf yeni, Lee, and MacGregor (1988) Sharp (1991) discusses perception of CMC partners.
S meltzer (1992) evaluated electronic messages for structure, length, complexity, and readability.
Smolensk y, Carmody, and Holcomb (1990) shows how task type, group structure, and extroversion affected uninhibited speech in CMC.
Steinfield (1986 b) concludes that email use is best predicted by infrastructure, positive orientation, and need.
Thorn and Connolly (1987) explains why people contribute to a public database.
Trevino and Webster (1992) discusses flow in CMC, focusing on email and voice mail.
Turoff and Hiltz (1988) Vallee, Johansen, ober t Randolph, and Hastings (1974) describes social effects of group communication via computers.
Vallee (1984) describes computer messaging systems.
We edman (1991) Wilkins (1991) Williams (1977) describes different models for communication, including rational choice / media use models.
Zimmerman (1987) analyzed disturbed adolescents’ communication patterns;
CMC was positively expressive of feelings and interpersonal issues and diminished gender differences. Markoff (1993) describes Internet Talk Radio, a broadcast show on the Internet, available in the U.
S., Europe, and Japan. Main point: The Internet is large and growing fast and using new media: a broadcast sound show has started. Coombs (1993) reflection on experiences using CMC in teaching.
Archee (1993) reports on using computer conferencing to teach small group communication and writing / rhetoric.
Day (1993) describes computer-mediated software design (CASE).
Loper fido (1993) studies how the introduction of an email system affects ways in which employees in an organization communicate.
Herring (1993) explores computer discussion lists for occurrence of gender differences in participation.
Main point: While CMC promises equal participation, domination by males was observed in discussion lists. Olan iran (1993) ‘investigates how perceived computer mediated communication (CMC) system attributes and individual characteristics (e.
g., gender) affect users’ perception of five communication outcome variables (user satisfaction, decision confidence, immediacy, effectiveness, and ease of use of the system) across three CMC systems. ‘ Phillips and Eisenberg (1993) studies email use in a research institution.
Shedletsky (1993) explores the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to augment seminar participation and active thinking in a college seminar.
2.1. 1 Comparing CMC with FTF Adrianson and Hjelmquist (1993) compares face-to-face and CMC with regard to memory of texts.
Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and Sethna (199 X) talks about status effects inCMC versus FTF decision-making groups. Short (1974) compared FTF, sound only, and CCTV communication to test social presence hypothesis about persuasion.
2.1. 2 Socioemotional Content in CMC Socioemotional content in CMC McCormick and McCormick (1992) explores content of undergraduate electronic mail.
Rice and Love (1987) indicates that CMC systems can content and network roles don’t differ in percentage content.
Walther and Burgo on (1992) describes relational communication inCMC.
Walther (1992) asserts that CMC is expressive / relational : by accumulated verbal, textual cues.
Hellerstein (1985) describes social use of CMC in a university.
Phillips (1983) finds there is emotion (love / hate, spontaneity, creativity) in CCs.
2.2 Computer-Mediated Scholarship / Education Amiran and Unsworth (1991) explains development of Postmodern Culture: design decisions, considerations for integrity and needs of audience.
December (1993 b) explores current use of CMC for scholarship, suggest three possible approaches: systems, tools, and ad how.
Main point: The directions for CMS include: 1) recognizing CMC and NIR tools as a progression in media evolution; 2) identifying needs and level of commitment to CMS; 3) matching these needs and commitment to technology using a systems-oriented, tools-oriented, or ad-how approach; and 4) supporting research in CMC and related user-interface issues. Harasim (1989) asserts that the CMC domain is unique (, geo independence, many: many) and needs new mindsets for use.
Harasim (1990 a) introduces online education.
Harasim (1990 b) asserts that current CMC systems help communicate and generate ideas;
but we need tools for linking ideas. Harrison and Stephen (1992) describes how Conserve provides a model for ways of on-line scholarship.
Harrison, Stephen, and Winter (1991) maintains that an electronic journal has to fit its disciplines practices and needs.
Hiltz (1992) describes the Virtual Classroom (TM), a CMCS for collaborative learning.
Kaye (1989) asserts that CMC is a new educational paradigm- and presents a resource approach to its use in distance education.
King (1991) describes the impact of networking on the delivery of scholarly information.
Lynch (1992) presents ideas about the crisis in scholarly communication and networked information.
Main point: [p. 111] ‘My personal view is that our primary objective must be to make the transition to a networked information environment. ‘ Mason and Kaye (1989) describes how CMC can be used in distance education.
Mason and Kaye (1990) describes a paradigm for distance education.
Michelson and Rothenberg (1992) trends in info technology and scholarly practices demand new services from the archival community.
Okerson (1991) explores the electronic journal.
Okerson (1992) describes publishing on the network.
Rawlins (1992) there are opportunities for electronic publishing to lower costs and speed up distribution.
Reich (1992) describes a discipline-specific literature base.
Strangelove (1993) observes that e journals are becoming more widespread;
trend toward simultaneous print and electronic versions of journals Turoff and Hiltz (1982) presents a progress report on electronic journals.
Bailey and Rooks (1991) discusses role of librarian in providing access to electronic resources.
Dillon (1993) describes result of project for library services on the Internet.
Duggan (1991) Paulsen (1993) six features must be considered in developing a DEprogram based on CC: freedom of time, space, pace, medium, access, and curriculum.
Piternick (1991) presents human factors likely to influence adoption of electronic journals.
Powell (1993) describes a simply-implemented UNIX system for supporting electronic journals.
Pulling er (1986) describes how computer conferencing supports scientific communication.
2.3 CMC Infrastructure 2.3. 1 Forums and Tools Bush (1945) describes me mex, a personal system for information.
December (1992) describes sources of information about: the Internetand services, information services / electronic publications, societies ns, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography.
Main point: There is a variety of information sources about the Internet and CMC. December (1993 c) describes sources of information about: the Internetand services, information services / electronic publications, societies and organizations, newsgroups, and a selected bibliography.
December (1993d) summarizes Internet NIR tools, CMC forms, and Services, giving a summary, action using described notation, pointer to a demonstration, and pointer to documentation.
Banks (1992) tells how easy it is to have portable PC communications over networks.
Bowman, Danzig, and Schwartz (1993) describes issues of supporting future information infrastructure: current tools (Archie, Gopher, etc) are not ready for larger data volume, user base, and data diversity.
CERN (1992) describes the project.
Foster, Brett, and Deutsch (1993) presents a report cataloging Networked Information Retrieval (NIR) tools.
Main point: There are a variety of tools available. Hahn (1993) summarizes use of UNIX with computer communication and Internet services.
Kap or (1991) explores legal issues of networks.
Kehoe (1992) describes basic Internet services and the background of the Internet.
Kerr (1986) presents a guide for moderating an online conference.
Krol (1992) describes the uses of Internet tools as well as Internet resources.
Meckler (1993) describes Electronic Journals, Newsletters, Books, and Discussion Lists on the Internet.
Negroponte (1991) Networks will free us from space and time constraints.
Rapaport (1991) presents comprehensive overview of CMC Systems from design and implementation perspective.
Rose (1993) describes Internet mail and network issues in general.
Schwartz, Emt age, Kahle, and Neuman (1992) presents a taxonomy of approaches to resource discovery giving insight into problems of organizing, browsing, and searching for information.
Smith (1993) describes tools for discover (archie, gopher, , was, , ) and how these are being used together.
Stephen and Harrison (1989) Sud weeks, Collins, and December (1993) Yan off (1993) describes telnet, ftp, and finger information services on various subjects on the Internet.
2.3. 2 Networks Cerf (1991) describes how networks are growing larger and faster.
Malamud (1992 a) describes the people and networks on the Internet the author encounters in three round-the-world trips.
Malamud (1992 b) This book looks at the question of interoperability in computer nets / how to turn components into a computing environment through tailoring.
Dern (1992) The Internet is now widespread, growing larger.
Dertouzos (1991) describes how fusing computing with communication infrastructure can transform society.
Gloss brenner (1990) Tells details of how to access and about PC online services.
Gore (1991) describes his vision for an information infrastructure.
Hancock (1990) Technical details of computer network communication.
Kahn (1992) describes how to build an information infrastructure through the NREN.
Kahn (1992) describes infrastructure for national information.
Lacquey (1990) describes global computer networks.
Lott or (1992) describes the growth of the Internet from 1981 to 1991.
Lucky (1991) We have a dream to join collectively, electronically, to create a global ‘town commons.
a virtual coffee shop. ‘ Lynch (1993) summarizes the evolution of the Internet.
Mabrito (1990) lists 49 resources for CMC research, showing findings, pedagogical approaches, and theory.
McClure, Bishop, Doty, and Rosenbaum (1991) presents an overview of the NREN research, policies, and technologies.
Quarter man (1990) describes how the meta network of computer networks will be as pervasive as the phone network (p.
3). Maule (1993) discusses structural and organizational issues of CMC infrastructure.
Dunning (1992) Gry cz (1992) describes economic models for networked information.
describes infrastructure for information society. Codex (1992) presents an introduction to computer communication and networks.
Sizzler, Smith, and Marine (1992) describes how to build a network information infrastructure.
3 Organizational Communication 3.1 Theory Morgan (1986) presents metaphors for organizations: machine, organism, brain, culture, political system, psychic prison, flux and transformation, instrument of domination.
Main point: You can view an organization in many different ways built on images, assumptions, and metaphors. Euske and Roberts (1987) examine implications for organizational communication contained in seven categories of organization theory: classical, human relational, behavioral decision theories, systems theory, resource dependency, population ecology, and institutional.
Main point: Organizations are dynamic processes that interact with their environments. Perro w (1979) discusses complex organizations.
Putnam and Pacanowsky (1983) describes interpretive approach to organizational communication.
3.1. 1 Structure / Functions of Organizations Organizations studied in terms of function and structure, focusing on power, authority, and legitimacy. Weber (1947) describes classical organizational theory.
Farace, Monge, and Russell (1977) describes a systems approach to communicating in organizations.
3.1. 2 Human RelationsTenents: productivity determined by social norms, non-economic rewards are important, workers react as group member versus individuals, leadership is important, communication as facilitator of decision making. Fulk and Boyd (1991) describes theories of communication in organizations.
Likert (1967) describes communication and human relation perspective of organization.
Peters (1992) describes how empowering people helps (human relations perspective).
Peters (1982) describes how empowering people helps (human relations perspective).
3.1. 3 Communication as Process of Organization Communication is organization. Weick (1979) describes how to look at and think about organizations.
Main point: An organization is because of its organizing process. Galbraith (1977) describes horizontal view of information processing in organizations.
Main point: Information exchange should take place in organizations to reduce uncertainty because of diversity, task variability, or interdependence. Daft and Weick (1984) describes a model for organizations as interpretation systems in four modes: enacting, discovering, undirected viewing, and conditioned viewing.
Main point: [p. 294] Organizations can develop workable information from scraps. Zuboff (1984) describes computer use and changing technology, in the workplace.
Manning (1992) describes organizational communication theory and field studies from an organizing (reducing equivocality through interlocking behaviors) perspective.
3.1. 4 Adaptive Structuration Theory There is a mutually causal relationship between context and action. Contractor and Eisenberg (1990) explores the interplay between social environment and application of communication technologies in organizations.
Poole and DeSanctis (1990) Describes adaptive theory ingroup decision support systems.
Poole, McPhee, and Seybold (1982) interaction is creator of context in communication, not medium 3.
1. 5 Organizations as Cultures Organizations create a shared reality, produced by interactions, practices, ways of understanding. Smircich (1983 a) discusses organizations as systems of shared meanings.
Main point: Organizations are systems of shared meanings created by symbolic processes. Smircich (1983 b) explores organizations as cultures.
Main point: People enact their organizational reality through shared meaning; studying this requires using empathy, involvement, and use of self as research instrument. Pacanowsky and O’Donnell-Trujillo (1982) describes organizations as organizational cultures;
explores how theory and research constrains questions, describes organizational perspectives questions and utilities. Main point: Communication is the way organizations create a web of interlocked actions. 3.1. 6 Network Analysis Rogers (1987) uses network analysis approach to look at relationships and electronic communication technologies.
Monge and Contractor (1987) describes how to identify and measure information flow between people, about a variety of topics, using a variety of media.
Monge and Eisenberg (1987) examines how emergent communication networks influence and are influenced by new media in organizations.
Rice (1990) discusses CMC as a process of convergence and interaction using the network convergence paradigm.
Rice and Aydin (1991) describes structural, relational and physical proximity among groups in CMC.
Rice and Barnett (1985) describes how to study group communication in a network environment using metric multidimensional scaling.
Techy (1981) uses metrics to measure networks.
Wellman (1988) describes network approach to analyzing social structures.
Wig and (1988) describes procedures and methods for analyzing communication networks in organizations.
3.2 Studies of Organizations Kent and McGrath (1969) explores task and group characteristics that influence performance.
Sanders and Baron (1977) describes social comparison theory applied to group shifts.
Harrison (1987) describes writing in organizational contexts.
Steiner (1972) describes theory of process loss and gains.
Tang (1991) 3.
3 Technology / Communication in Organizations Steinfield and Fulk (1987) describes the role of theory in research on information technologies in organizations.
Steinfield and Fulk (1990) Allen (1984) describes goal of volume: to ” provide foundation for theory development on information technology in organizations’ [p.
15]. describes the flow of technology in organizations. Beniger (1990) describes a theory of information technology as organization, and organization as information technology.
Conger (1992) studies relationship between task complexity, culture toward technology and coordination methods (meetings, phone, email, etc) by studying finance personnel.
Gattiker (1992 a) summarizes this volume on technology-mediated communication.
Gattiker (1992 b) introduces this book series on technology-mediated communication.
Hiemstra (1983) describes use of info tech in organizations.
Hull in and Roznowski (1985) describes how technology effects organizations.
Markus and Robey (1988) explores social effects in theory and research in information technology and organizations.
Markus (1983) describes interaction ist theory for humans confronting technology.
Nass and Mason (1990) considers broad base of technologies in the organization / technology interface.
Orlikowski (1992) explores concepts of technology in organizations.
Rogers (1988) describes how logical expectations for media use are not met.
Zmud, Lind, and Young (1990) Clement (1988) surveys office automation and control of information workers.
Main point: [p. 218] Information workers are subject to greater managerial control through information systems. Allen and Hauptman (1987) describes the influence of communication technologies on organizational structure for providing state-of-the-art information and coordination across technical specialties.
Allen and Hauptman (1990) demonstrate how organizational info processing can be modified to account for new communication options inR&D settings.
Feldman and March (1981) describes how management reflects need to appear competent and legitimate.
Keen (1988) Leiter (1988) describes how to match communication information systems with organizational structures.
Papa and Tracy (1988) discusses CMC communication network features.
3.4 Organizational CMC Steinfield (1992) describes directions for theory and research in CMC in organizations.
Danowski and Edison-Swift (1985) describes effects computer communication.
Hiltz, Johson, and Turoff (1986) surveys experiments in group decision making;
compares group problem-solving for FTF and CMC for qualitative and scientific rankings test. Huber (1990 a) we need to re-examine theory for small group interaction in computer-supported context.
Huber (1990 b) analyzes capabilities of new decision technologies and how these are relevant to existing organizational theories.
Johansen and DeGrasse (1979) describes effects of computer-based teleconferencing on working patterns.
Johansen, DeGrasse, and Wilson (1978) describes effects of group communication via computers on working patterns.
Nunamaker, Dennis, Valacich, Vogel, and George (1991) describes electronic meetings in support of group work.
Nunamaker, Applegate, and Konsynski (1987) presents experiences with group support systems for facilitating creativity.
Rice (1980) reviews CMC research conducted in the 1970’s.
Rice (1987) asserts that CMC provides organizations ways to enhance resourcefulness and responsiveness.
Rice (1989 b) explores use of CMC in organizations, finds more exchange.
Rice and Steinfield (1990) describes new forms of organizational communication by email and voice messaging.
Siegel, Dubrovsky, Kiesler, and McGuire (1986) Valacich, Dennis, and J.
F. Nunamaker (1991) Zachary (1986) Zmud (1979) describes individual differences approach to explaining human behavior when confronted with technology.
Crowston, Malone, and Lin (1988) presents a case study of organizational design for computer conferencing.
Finholt and Sproull (1990) re-examine theory of small groups when using computer support.
Murphy (1992) describes a case history illustrating how information-processing system fits organizational requirements.
3.5 CSCW Applegate (1991) sets theory foundation for group work in organizations.
Galegher and Kraut (1990) sets forth the research and design issues of cooperative work.
Greenberg (1991 a) defines groupware and CSCW and introduces volume on CSCW and groupware.
Acker (1992) describes a GDSS which facilitates collaborative fiction.
Garcia-Luna-Aceves, Craighill, and Lang (1988) explores MOSAIC, a model for CSCW providing a share view.
Greenberg (1991 b) presents annotated bibliography and description of information sources for CSCW and groupware.
Grief (1988) presents readings in CSCW Gute k (1990) describes how group must fit technology to task structure.
Hiltz, Turoff, and K. (1989) presents experiments in group decision making Hiltz (1984) describes the complex technological and social variables inCMC acceptance.
Johansen (1988) describes groupware for business teams.
Johnson-Lenz and Johnson-Lenz (1982) defines the term groupware.
Kraemer and L (1988) describe group decision support systems, evaluate experience, benefits, barriers.
Op per and Fers ko-Weiss (1992) describes how technology can enhance productivity for teams in organizations.
Rice and Shook (1990 b) describes how group must fit technology to task structure.
Rothschild and Whitt (1986) describes cooperative work.
Sproull and Kiesler (1991 b) describes how networked communication and information will transform organizational behavior.
Sproull and Kiesler (1991 a) asserts that CMC leads to more discussion, equality, emotions, creativity.
St efik, Foster, Borrow, Kahn, Landry, and Such man (1988) describes computer support for collaboration and problem-solving in meetings.
Stodolsky (1993) describes the USENET comp.
groupware newsgroup. Turoff (1991) Ellis, Gibbs, and Rein (1991) Pinsonneault and Kraemer (1989) describes empirical research into the impact of technological support for groups.
3.5. 1 GDSS Kraemer and Pinsonneault (1990) describes how group must fit technology to task structure.
Main point: There is a lack of research ingroup processes support. Smith and Vanecek (1988) describes computer conferencing and task-oriented decisions.
Watson, DeSanctis, and Poole (1988) describes how logical expectations are not met for media adoption.