When this great and unimaginable feat was overcome, the world shuddered and wept at its magnificence and it power. On August 2, 1939 Albert Einstein wrote a letter to the President of the United States of America warning him of the advancements that him and his fellow scientists were coming upon. In his letter he described the possibilities of what they were about to create. He described all of his thoughts to the president, about what great things their dream could be used for, and what horrible things it could bring in its development. The first three physicists to create a nuclear chain reaction were Enrico Fermi, Italian-American; Leo Szilard, Hungarian; and Fr ” ed’eric Joliot-Curie, French.
Enrico Fermi was born in Rome on September 21, 1901. He contributed in the creation of the first controlled nuclear reaction. For his efforts he was awarded the 1938 Peace Prize. Being a skilled and intelligent man in his field of nuclear science, he was one of the many scientists selected to work on Loa Alamos, New Mexico on the American project to construct the first atomic bomb.
Leo Szilard, born February 11, 1898 in Budapest. He encouraged and aided Albert Einstein to write the letter to FDR about the potential military use of atomic energy. Szilard also contributed to the creation of the first controlled nuclear reaction in 1939. Fr ” ed’eric Joliot-Curie, born in Paris France, March 19, 1900. He ended up sharing the 1935 Peace prize with Irene Joliot-Curie, his wife.
They were given this prestigious award for their work in the field of chemistry. During World War 2, Fr ” ed’eric Joliot-Curie became part of the Communist party. In 1951 he was awarded the Stalin Peace Prize for his work in the field of chemistry. He Later died in 1958, only a few years later.
There had been a secret rush in America to create a nuclear bomb. The base of this project was Los Alamos, New Mexico. The government had come in and taken over the small town, invading it with research centers and different government projects. From 1939 to 1962 it was used by the US Government as a base for atomic technology research, especially during Wold War 2. There were many facts learned about nuclear explosions during the tests in Loa Alamos. Nuclear explosion, in simple terms, are thousands of tons of TNT be detonated and the same time, creating a massive explosion.
One kiloton is the equivalent to 1,000 tons of TNT and 1 megaton is the equivalent to 1, 00,000 tons of TNT, only nuclear explosions are much destructive. In the explosion there must be enough Plutonium or Uranium to reach critical mass. Critical mass is the mass of fissile material that is great enough so that is can keep the chain reaction going to reach explosion point, with out dying out from lack of material. Fissile material is a substance capable of sustaining a fusion chain reaction. The larger amount of fissile material, the greater the explosion because it is able to accelerate faster and create a greater explosion. Loa Alamos, under the Atomic Energy Commission from 1947 to 1962, was put under government control until after which it was given back to the state to be put under state government advisement.
After 1962 it was still used by the government to develop new weapons, weapons such as the Hydrogen bomb. The biggest name in Loa Alamos was Robert Oppenheimer, a well-known and very talented nuclear scientist. The first atomic explosion was conducted in a test, in Alamogordo, New Mexico. The bomb was placed in a remote area and detonated July 16, 1945. After testing the bomb, the group of scientist who created the bomb petitioned its use in war.
They sent a signed petition to the President of the United States of America on July 17, 1945, proclaiming that they did not want this technology to be put to use during the time of war. The pilot that dropped the atomic bomb was Colonel Paul Tibbetts of the 509th bomber squadron. He was flying the Enola Gay, which was named after his mother. The Plane was a B-59-45-MD Super fortress.
It was 2: 45 a.m. when the plane Enola Gay took off, shortly afterwards it was reaching it ground speed of 330 M.P.H. The Flight was going to take over six and half-hours until the crew reached Hiroshima on the Honshu Island on Japan. Even though the Crew knew its destination Hiroshima, their target, the iota T-bridge, and that they knew they were dropping a bomb, they didn’t know that it was an atomic bomb and would take out almost the entire city. The name of the bomb was “Little Boy” and it weighted 10,000 lbs. 137.5 of that weight was pure Uranium. When the bomb detonated, the Uranium split into two and it started a fission chain reaction.
The fireball created by the bomb was equal to six and a half tons of TNT. The heat in the hypocenter reached upwards of 3000 degrees. Within a mile of the blast fences, railroad ties and trees ignited in fire from the extreme heat. In the hypocenter iron melted into liquid and granite melted as far as 900 feet from the hypocenter. Seen from five and a half miles away, the explosion was 10 times brighter then the sun. The heat was so intense that people were burned into the face of granite walls.
The bomb missed its target by 800 ft and hit a near by hospital. Over 75% of the population left alive were left homeless. A clinic was set up to help treat the effects of radiation on the human bodies. The Population of Hiroshima was 343,690 in 1940, the blast ended the lives of somewhere between 60,000-70,000 people in Hiroshima alone. On August 6, 1945 the first atomic bomb was dropped on a city in defense during a time of war.
The bomb struck its ending point at exactly 8: 15: 32 in the morning, Japanese time. This time was taken from a dead mans watch. The blast had stopped the watch because it melted the gears and the hands into the face of the watch. The radiation and destructive power reached a 10 sq. kl. (45 sq. mi.) area, and continued to reach further because of its fallout, it leveled almost everything in sight. Fallout it the radiation the gets into the air and moves with the currents of the winds, this way allowing the bomb to reach even further destinations.
There is still evidence of the bomb today. Some plant life is still unable to live because of the radiation and farmers can not grow some crops. Sixty eight percent of the buildings in and surrounding Hiroshima were totally destroyed and twenty-four percent were badly damaged. The three-story brick structure where the bomb hit was formally known as the “Hiroshima Prefecture Industry Promotion Hall”. Now it is known as a shine for world peace, and where people go each year to pray for hope and guidance. The Second bomb, “Fat Man”, was dropped on a large industrial city in Japan, the city of Nagasaki.
It was dropped on August 9, 1945, just three days after “Little Boy”. After learning of what happened, many soldiers cheered, and Truman said, “This is the greatest thing in history”. The dropping of these two bombs was not the end of a war; it was only the mer beginning of a great unannounced war that would last for years. The Cold War began in 1945. This was a war of information, Spy vs. Spy and only the one with the most knowledge and power would win.
The war with Japan had ended 2 years earlier, America was just waiting and pushing Japan to surrender. The only reason the Japanese did not surrender earlier is they were in fear that their emperor, whom they saw as god, would be brought up on war charges, but they knew they could not win against America and her Allies, but they still tried and pushed on. A small feud had been brewing between Russia and America, and it was not looking good for either side. The United States did not only drop the bomb’s on Japan to stop the war with them and make them surrender, it also showed Russia what great power we posses and that we are not afraid of them. The “Big Three”, consisting of Franklin D. Roosevelt of the United States; Winston Churchill from England; and Joseph Stalin of Russia, met in February, from the 4th to the 11th in 1945. These three men were the presidents and rulers of the three largest superpowers in the world.
They met at the Yalta Conference, which many historians cite as the beginning of the Cold War. On April 12, Franklin D. Roosevelt died and Harry S. Truman was sworn into office. A Lot of pressure was put onto the new Presidents shoulders as he was sworn in. On July 17, 1945 he spent his time at the Potsdam Conference in the suburbs of Berlin, talking with Churchill and Stalin until August 2. After the first atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima, two days later Stalin declared was on Japan to push them to surrender. After Stalin moves his troops down on top of Japan, the rest of the allies pushed from the east and west, Japan’s emperor Hirohito, broadcasted his surrender to the world.
The war ends on August 15, 1945 with the final surrender. There were huge was debts to be paid to the world by Japan, but they didn’t have near enough money to pay it off. On December 6, 1945 the U.S. loans 3.75 billion dollars to the Socialist Labor Government of Great Britain. December 31, TIME magazine selected Harry Truman as the Man of the Year for his efforts in stopping the war. Then on January 5, 1946, Truman wrote a letter to Byrnes declaring that he is no longer going to recognize the communist government, “I am sick of babying the Soviets”. On March 10, 1946 Truman, in talking with Stalin, demands that he pull his units out of Iran, and Stalin does on May 6, 1946.
Stalin left his Azerbaijan Democratic Party with nothing in the towns of Iran. From April 25 to October 29 there were three individual meetings of the Paris Peace Conference. The first meeting began on April 25 and ended May 16 in disagreement between 21 countries. The second started June 15 and ended July 12 with no further development. The final meeting of the Paris Peace Conference was from July 29 to October 15.
In reviewing the Second was of the world, mostly the beginning of its end. I have learned very many things about its development and the men that took place in the war. I firmly believe that the decision to drop the two bombs on Japan was a good move on the United States part, but I do not believe that America did it to stop Japan. We were having problem’s Russia and needed a way to show the Soviets that we were not afraid of them. This also showed the Soviets that we had the power to crush them in an instance, and we were not afraid to use it. Nuclear weapons were never again used in the time of war, although sometimes it was a close call of who would fire first.
Their development has come a long way. At one time during the Cold War, it was believed that there were Gemini missiles all over Russia and America pointing at each other. The creation of the first atomic bomb scared the world into a fear that will never leave this world. Once you take the genie out of the bottle, you can’t put it back, the same saying stands true for nuclear technology. In Present day there are committees that stretch all over the world. They manage nuclear information, which country posses it, how much they posses, and what there ability to get more is.
Every country that posses nuclear technology must join this committee to keep the technology safe and out of harms way.