My assignment is to create a 6 week training program to improve physical fitness. The aspect of my personal fitness I am about to improve is going to be strength. Personal details Name: Date of Birth: Height: Weight: BMI: School sports: Outside school sports: Somatotype: I have noticed I do have a lot of strength but I would like to have more strength and also build up my triceps and biceps. I have not yet tried any form of weight lifting because I think that if you start to early there could be a few side effects. Plus I would rather weight until I have grown fully. Chosen sport I am going to train for power lifting because this will then help to improve my upper body strength and to also see by the end if I can bench press my own body weight.

Now in the following six week I will be challenging my self and increase the amount of weight lifted progressively and the amount of reps done. Training programme research What Is Olympic-Style Weightlifting All About? The sport of Olympic-style “Weightlifting” is one of the world’s most misunderstood and under-appreciated sports. Part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 (with a women’s event having been added in 2000), Weightlifting is the only Olympic sport in which heavy weights are used. The International Weightlifting Federation (IWF) and International Olympic Committee (IOC) recognize only two weightlifting events, which must be done in all competitions in the following order: a) the two hands snatch (snatch), and b) the two hands clean and jerk (C&J). The overall winner of any weightlifting competition is the athlete who lifts the highest amount of weight in the snatch and C&J (i. e., the heaviest weights successfully lifted in each event are combined).

This combined score is called the “Total”. While awards are given at major competitions for each event as well as the Total, recognition in the sport of weightlifting goes to the athlete who lifts the greatest total weight in competition. When a weightlifting aficionado speaks of the “World Champion” in weightlifting, he or she is generally speaking about the winner in the Total. What is the best order in which one should do weight lifting exercises? Research suggests that for best results the order of exercises in a strength training programme should preferably be as follows: 1. Hips and Lower Back 2.

Legs (quadriceps, hamstrings, calves) 3. Torso (shoulders, chest, back) 4. Arms (forearms, triceps, biceps) 5. Abdominal 6. Neck It is especially important to save the abdominal exercises for last, because you need those muscles to stabilise your body while working the other muscle groups. If you do the abdominal work at the beginning, your postural muscles may become fatigued and decrease your performance while doing the rest of your workout.

It may also increase your risk of injury. Why is it essential to do weightlifting? Better performances can be the product of a number of factors. This product is primarily the outcome of efficient technique, the progression of speed and the maturing competitive attitude on a sound basis of general endurance, all round strength and general mobility.

The development of all round strength is best achieved via circuit training and then progressing this through strength training. Weight training is the most widely used and popular method of increasing strength. How do we increase our strength? A muscle will only strengthen when forced to operate beyond its customary intensity (overload). Overload can be progressed by increasing the: . resistance e.g. adding 10 kg to the barbell. number of repetitions with a particular weight. number of sets of the exercise. intensity, i.e. reducing the recovery periods What are good weight training / mass building exercises? The exercise must be specific to the type of strength required, and is therefore related to the particular demands of the event (specificity).

The coach should have knowledge of the predominant types of muscular activity associated with the particular event, the movement pattern involved and the type of strength required. Exercises should be identified that will produce the desired development. Although specificity is important, it is necessary in every schedule to include exercises of a general nature. Weight I will be using. I will be using free weight because there are a lot of other factor involved in doing this and other skill that have to be mastered such as balance, control etc.

Reasons to weight lift. Weight training improves your muscular endurance. Tone your muscles, look good and raises your basal metabolism. Weight training energizes you and keeps you busy.

Weight training has a positive affect on almost all of your 650 and more muscles. Improves your muscular endurance. Training makes you more stronger and physically fitter which improves your confidence and make you better at other sports. Decreases chance of back injuries in the future.

Decrease resting blood pressure. Weight training improves the functioning of your immune system. Improves functional of bodily system and organs. Lower heart rate therefore having a more healthy heart. Aerobic / cardiovascular exercise should always be carried out within the weight training schedule.

Endurance The reason for endurance training is to develop the energy production system to meet the demands of the event. Energy production system-In the human body, food energy is used to make adenosine triphosphate (ATP) the chemical compound that supplies energy for muscular contraction. Since ATP is in very low concentrations in the muscle, and since it decreases only to a small extent, even in the most intense voluntary contraction, tightly controlled energy pathways exist for the continual regeneration of ATP as muscular contraction continues. For continuous exercise, ATP must be re-synthesised at the same rate as it is utilised.

The types of endurance are Aerobic endurance, anaerobic endurance. Aerobic Endurance Aerobic means ‘with oxygen’. During aerobic work the body is working at a level that the demands for oxygen and fuel can be meet by the body’s intake. The only waste products formed are carbon dioxide and water.

These are removed as sweat and by breathing out. Aerobic endurance can sub-divided as follows: Short aerobic – 2 minutes to 8 minutes (lactic / aerobic ) Medium aerobic – 8 minutes to 30 minutes (mainly aerobic) Long aerobic – 30 minutes + (aerobic) Aerobic endurance is developed through the use of continuous and interval running. Continuous duration runs to improve maximum oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) Interval training to improve the heart as a muscular pump. Testing if we have improved in the specific part.

VO 2 MAX Introduction Fitness can be measured by the volume of oxygen you can consume while exercising at your maximum capacity. VO 2 max is the maximum amount of oxygen in milliliters, one can use in one minute per kilogram of body weight. Those who are more fit have higher VO 2 max values and can exercise more intensely than those who are not as well conditioned. Numerous studies show that you can increase your VO 2 max by working out at an intensity that raises your heart rate to between 65 and 85 per cent of its maximum for at least 20 minutes three to five times a week. Factors affecting VO 2 max The physical limitations that restrict the rate at which energy can be released aerobically are dependent upon: the chemical ability of the muscular cellular tissue system to use oxygen in breaking down fuels the combined ability of cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to transport the oxygen to the muscular tissue system Improving your VO 2 max The following are samples of A strands (a work physiologists) workouts for improving oxygen uptake: (1) – Run at maximum speed for 5 minutes. Note the distance covered in that time.

Let us assume that the distance achieved is 1900 metres. Rest for five minutes, and then run the distance (1900 m) 20% slower, in other words in six minutes, with 30 seconds rest, repeated many times. This is equal to your 10 K pace (2) – Run at maximum speed for four minutes. Rest for four minutes. In this case we will assume the you run a distance of 1500 m. Now run the same distance 15% slower, in other words in 4 minutes 36 seconds, with 45 seconds rest, repeated several times.

This approximates to a time between the athlete’s 5 K and 10 K time (3) – Run at maximum effort for three minute. The distance covered is, say 1000 m. Successive runs at that distance are taken 10% slower or at 3 minutes 18 seconds, with 60 seconds rest, repeated several times. This approximates to your 5 K time (4) – Run at maximum effort for five minutes. The distance covered is 1900 m. Rest five minutes.

The distance is now covered 5% slower with one and a half minutes rest. This is approximately 3 K pace for you, i. e., five minutes 15 seconds/1900 m (5) – Run at maximum effort for three minutes. The distance covered is 1100 m. When recovered, he runs the same distance 5 per cent slower, i. e., three minutes nine seconds/1100 m, with one minute rest, repeated several times.

This is at 3 K pace When and how often It is suggested that in the winter sessions (1) and (2) are done weekly, and in the track season sessions (3), (4) and (5) are done weekly by runners from 800 m to the half-marathon. Although it would be convenient to use the original distance marks made by the duration efforts, this doesn’t take into account the athlete’s condition before each session, so the maximum effort runs must be done on each occasion when they may be either more or less than the previous distance run. The maximum duration efforts are in themselves quality sessions. If the pulse rate has not recovered to 120 beats per minute in the rest times given, the recovery period should be extended before the repetitions are started.

The recovery times between the reps should be strictly adhered to. These workouts make a refreshing change from repetition running. When all four sessions are completed within a month, experience shows substantial improvements in performance. VO 2 max Tests An estimate of your VO 2 max can be determined using the following tests: Cooper Test Balk e Test Multistage Fitness Test (also known as the Beep Test). Rockport Fitness walking test Analyses of VO 2 max scores Male (values in ml / kg /min) Age Very Poor Poor Fair Good Excellent Superior 13-19 55.9 20-29 52.4 30-39 49.4 40-49 48.0 50-59 45.3 60+ 44.2 Aerobic threshold The aerobic threshold, point at which anaerobic energy pathways start to operate, is considered to be around 75% of maximum heart rate. This is approximately 20 beats lower than the anaerobic threshold.

Anaerobic endurance Anaerobic means ‘without oxygen’. During anaerobic work, involving maximum effort, the body is working so hard that the demands for oxygen and fuel exceed the rate of supply and the muscles have to rely on the stored reserves of fuel. In this case waste products accumulate, the chief one being lactic acid. The muscles, being starved of oxygen, take the body into a state known as oxygen debt. The body’s stored fuel soon runs out and activity ceases – painfully.

Activity will not be resumed until the lactic acid is removed and the oxygen debt repaid. Fortunately the body can resume limited activity after even only a small proportion of the oxygen debt has been repaid. Since lactic acid is produced the correct term for this pathway is lactic anaerobic energy pathway. The alactic anaerobic pathway is the one in which the body is working anaerobically but without the production of lactic acid. This pathway can exist only so long as the fuel actually stored in the muscle lasts, approximately 4 seconds at maximum effort.

Anaerobic endurance can sub-divided as follows: . Short anaerobic – less than 25 seconds (mainly alactic). Medium anaerobic – 25 seconds to 60 seconds (mainly lactic). Long anaerobic – 60 seconds to 120 seconds (lactic +aerobic) Using repetition methods of relatively high intensity work with limited recovery can develop anaerobic endurance.

Anaerobic threshold The anaerobic threshold, the point at which lactic acid starts to accumulates in the muscles, is considered to be somewhere between 85% and 90% of your maximum heart rate. This is approximately 20 beats high than the aerobic threshold. Your anaerobic threshold can be determined with anaerobic threshold testing. Factors effecting performances Motivation- this is a very important factor there are 2 types of motivation; Intrinsic – this is self motivation wanting to do well your self. Extrinsic – this motivation arriving from someone else. Weather – this effects the performance because if it is cold and wet then you may not perform as well because your motivation levels are low or even if it is scorching hot you might not perform as well.

Time of year- if you are not up to taking part and you have to this may effect your performance. Factors affecting participation Opportunity- This depends on firstly the area you live in if there are the facilities there or even transportation to take you to the right facilities. Cost could also affect this because some sports are more expensive than others e.g. Horse riding would be more expensive than playing football. Age- different age group play different sport, younger generation seem to play the more fast and hard hitting sports but the older generation seem to play slow sport this obviously could be reversed if say some younger likes player bowls. Gender- this is a important factor because females are stereotyped to play certain sport such as netball and males football but defiantly this could be the reverse.

Principles of training There are 5 main points to a training schedule they are abbreviated by the word S.P.O.R.T. Specificity Progression Overload Reversibility Tedium Specificity means that we should concentrate on training for the sport that we take part in and we should stress the muscles that we use in the sport we play. For example If you played cricket and you was a bowler, you would work on your arms and your run up. Progression means that you should increase your training gradually as you go on through your training programme. This will allow the muscles we use take more stress on them and you will become more fitter rather than just doing the same training all the time. But if you progress to quick you could risk chance of injury or exhaustion and if you work to slow you would suffer boredom.

Overload means that you should always work hard than normal so our body will be able to adapt to a harder training session making us stronger and fitter. For example If you was a weight lifter you would always try lifting a heavier weight every time making you able to carry more. Reversibility means that if over a certain period time we become in active we will lose all the fitness that we have gained, this only takes up to four weeks to happen so this is why you should make sure you don’t ever become inactive over wise your work will go to waste. Tedium means boredom if you do not vary your training you will get bored and love your enthusiasm and will not want to work as hard. This is avoided by using all different methods when you are training. The type of training you should do, should help you exercise the muscles that you use for the sport that you take part in.

Two important points you must consider during training is what muscle you are exercising and how long you work for. You should consider the progression aspect of training to increase your training level but not too fast or too slow because you could cause serious injury. You must make your work increasingly harder so you can progress and in the future you will be able to do more work. For example you could sprint for short periods of time then longer periods of time or longer distances. Plateauing is where the bodies fitness level stays the same because the training has not got harder, it need to get harder for you to progress. The affect of reversibility is that if you become inactive for a certain period of time you will become un fit.

The main intention of having a training programme is to keep you healthy. A possible problem that could interfere with your training programme is an injury. The most important principle of training is firstly you must take part in a warm up and cool down during every training session to reduce risk of injury. Secondly you should make sure you train at least 3 times a week other you could come into contact with reversibility. Principle of training Individual target set Specific aim of the programme Increase upper body strength Overload targets, including freq, intensity and duration I could lift weights and when I have lifted a certain mass increase the mass.

Progression targets To have more upper body strength This is how my training is to be organised I will have a 5 sessions from Monday-Friday and have the weekend off Monday-Legs Tuesday-shoulder Wednesday-abs Thursday-biceps and triceps Friday-chest Every day will consist of 25 sets and improvement and sustainability will be noted A warm up will take place before every session. Stretching is not warming up! It is, however, a very important part of warming up. Warming up is quite literally the process of “warming up” (i. e., raising your core body temperature). A proper warm-up should raise your body temperature by one or two degrees Celsius (1.4 to 2.8 degrees Fahrenheit) and is divided into three phases: general warm-up stretching sport-specific activity It is very important that you perform the general warm-up before you stretch. It is not a good idea to attempt to stretch before your muscles are warm (something which the general warm-up accomplishes).

Warming up can do more than just loosen stiff muscles; when done properly, it can actually improve performance. On the other hand, an improper warm-up, or no warm-up at all, can greatly increase your risk of injury from engaging in athletic activities. It is important to note that active stretches and isometric stretches should not be part of your warm-up because they are often counterproductive. The goals of the warm-up are (according to Kurz): “an increased awareness, improved coordination, improved elasticity and contractibility of muscles, and a greater efficiency of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems”.

Active stretches and isometric stretches do not help achieve these goals because they are likely to cause the stretched muscles to be too tired to properly perform the athletic activity for which you are preparing your body. The general warm-up should begin with joint-rotations, starting either from your toes and working your way up, or from your fingers and working your way down. This facilitates joint motion by lubricating the entire joint with synovial fluid. Such lubrication permits your joints to function more easily when called upon to participate in your athletic activity. You should perform slow circular movements, both clockwise and counter-clockwise, until the joint seems to move smoothly. You should rotate the following (in the order given, or in the reverse order): fingers and knuckles wrists elbows shoulders neck trunk / waist hips legs knees ankles toes After you have performed the joint rotations, you should engage in at least five minutes of aerobic activity such as jogging, jumping rope, or any other activity that will cause a similar increase in your cardiovascular output (i. e., get your blood pumping).

The purpose of this is to raise your core body temperature and get your blood flowing. Increased blood flow in the muscles improves muscle performance and flexibility and reduces the likelihood of injury. Also after every session a cool down will take place. Stretching is not a legitimate means of cooling down. It is only part of the process. After you have completed your workout, the best way to reduce muscle fatigue and soreness (caused by the production of lactic acid from your maximal or near-maximal muscle exertion) is to perform a light warm-down.

This warm-down is similar to the second half of your warm-up (but in the reverse order). The warm-down consists of the following phases: sport-specific activity dynamic stretching static stretching Ideally, you should start your warm-down with about 10-20 minutes of sport-specific activity (perhaps only a little more intense than in your warm-up). In reality however, you may not always have 10-20 minutes to spare at the end of your workout. You should, however, attempt to perform at least 5 minutes of sport-specific activity in this case. The sport-specific activity should immediately be followed by stretching: First perform some light dynamic stretches until your heart rate slows down to its normal rate, then perform some static stretches. Sport-specific activity, followed by stretching, can reduce cramping, tightening, and soreness in fatigued muscles and will make you feel better.

According to HF LTA, “light warm-down exercise immediately following maximal exertion is a better way of clearing lactic acid from the blood than complete rest”. Furthermore, if you are still sore the next day, a light warm-up or warm-down is a good way to reduce lingering muscle tightness and soreness even when not performed immediately after a workout. On a chest day I will do the following: – Flat bench press 10 x [email protected] 60 kg Incline bench press 5 x [email protected] 38.5 kg Decline bench press 5 x [email protected] 34 kg Dumbbell flies 5 x [email protected] kg per dumbbell On a legs day I will do the following: – Leg squats 10 x [email protected] 54 kg Leg curls 5 x [email protected] 30 kg Leg extensions 5 x [email protected] 30 kg Calf raises 5 x 10 @ 46 kg On bicep / triceps days I do: – Curls 10 x [email protected] kg Triceps extension 10 x [email protected] 23 kg Reverse curls 5 x [email protected] 20 kg On an abdominal day I will do: – Knee raises 2 x 15 Crunches 2 x 15 Trunk twists 2 x 20 Sit ups 2 x 15 On a shoulder day I will do: – Barbell behind neck shoulder press 10 x [email protected] 36 kg Side dumbbell lateral raise 5 x [email protected] 13 kg per dumbbell Upright barbell rows 5 x [email protected] 26 kg Dumbbell shoulder shrugs 5 x [email protected] 13 kg per dumbbell I also will be going bike riding. Training program week 1 Activity Number of sets / reps Leg squats 9/10 Leg curls 6/10 Leg extension 6/10 Calf raise 6/10 Activity Number of sets / reps Curls 10/10 Triceps extension 8/10 Reverse curls 7/10 activity Number of sets / reps Knee raises 4/15 Crunches 5/15 Trunk twists 3/20 Sit ups 7/15 Results I found out that over the six week period I did perform better each week and made many improvement in my over fitness levels. I worked very hard over the period and in the end found out that I had improved at a very good level.

Some times I did not perform to my highest levels as their was different factors effecting me at the time. Evaluation Overall I think my training programme was very successful and went on smoothly. I now noticed that I am now better and now more confident with what I do. I used to struggle but now I am able to follow out sessions with no problems and also feel stronger and feel my upper body strength has improved.